When do organizations decide to ‘adopt’ a given social issue such that they come to acknowledge it in their patterns of action and communication? Traditional answers to this question have focused either on the characteristics of the issue itself, or on the traits of the focal organization. In many cases, however, a firm’s decision to adopt or ignore an issue is not a straightforward function of firm or issue characteristics. Instead, we view issue adoption as a socially constructed process (...) of information exchange between parties that are involved in the emergence and evolution of the issue, mediated by third-party organizations. We refer to this process as the infomediary process and these latter organizations as ‘infomediaries,’ after the information mediation and brokerage roles they play in the social processes linking socialissues to organizational impact. We present a concise theoretical model of how infomediaries establish credible linkages between focal organizations and socialissues. The thrust of the model is that the infomediation process, rather than the issue or firm characteristics, is what really drives firm-level issue adoption decisions. (shrink)
This essay comments on the past and the future of the SocialIssues in Management Division of the Academy of Management. The essay addresses the two major questions posed to the commentators on this special issue: First, does the past of the SIM Division provide any clues as to its future? Second, where is the SIM Division going or where should it be going? The author has been a member of SIM since 1971 and served as program chair (...) in 1975 and division chair in 1976 to 1977. SIM is certainly a field at the community and administrative levels, and you could argue that SIM is a discipline, though we are interdisciplinary. It is not as certain that we are unique or distinctive at the intellectual level because we are not always that different in kind or quality from what is being done elsewhere in AOM, and there are more and more scholars in other divisions now working on topics that we once worked on exclusively. However, it is equally unlikely that many of the other AOM divisions could meet a test of intellectual uniqueness. The essay emphasizes some ideas that might help improve the intellectual rigor of the SIM meetings, and the value of alliances with Society for Business Ethics and International Association for Business and Society. A division name change, even if desirable, is not a compelling issue. (shrink)
In 2013, the SocialIssues in Management Division of the Academy of Management awarded the best dissertation in the field of SIM research at the AOM’s annual conference in Orlando, Florida. This essay, written by the best dissertation committee chair, describes the procedures behind the dissertation award and the criteria used to identify the winner. Furthermore, it reflects on the finalists’ unique contributions and the takeaways for future best dissertation awards.
The Management Centre for Human Values along with the participants of the Post-Graduate Program for Executives and the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta arranged a seminar on Socially Conscious Leadership, or the Lattice 2010, on 19 December 2010. The seminar debate on the role of Corporate Social Responsibility in contemporary business makes for an interesting note that would befit the Journal of Human Values. This (...) is so because the invitees to the seminar, through their singular and idiosyncratic narration of experiences, have inevitably problematized the basic concepts of CSR itself. Concepts like ‘human values’, ‘ethics’, ‘social consciousness’ no longer exist as water-tight compartments of traditional or even autonomous sanctuaries of humane goodness. These concepts have been transformed from ‘value-adding’ propositions to ‘value-appropriating’ propositions, or in other words, socialissues have become business issues. A wide spectrum of views coming from Gen. Bajwa, representing the army; Prof. Chaudhuri and Prof. Bhatta, representing administrative academia; Sri Salvi and Sri Tyagi, endorsing real-life CSR; Mr Ahir and Mr Rayaprolu, representing the corporate; Ms Vatsa and Ms Swami, representing NGOs; and Prof. Sarkar, Prof. Mohanty and Prof. Chatterjee, representing the academicians; along with the presence of Ms M. Bhattacharya from ONGC—all of them have aided and abetted in establishing the contemporary position of CSR as a successful and competitive business proposition. The note addresses the issues developed from their individual experiences and opinions, and attempts to establish, but on an individual level, an intellectual point of departure for an academic discussion of CSR that would initiate further potent research and theorization in this regard. (shrink)
_Contemporary Moral and Social Issues_ is a uniquely entertaining introduction that brings ethical thought to life. It makes innovative use of engaging, topically oriented original short fiction, together with classic and influential readings and editorial discussion as a means of helping students think philosophically about ethical theory and practical ethical problems. Introduces students to ethical theory and a range of practical moral issues through a combination of key primary texts, clear editorial commentary, and engaging, original fiction Includes discussion (...) of topics such as world poverty, abortion, animals, the environment, and genetic engineering, containing “Facts and Factual Issues” for each topic to give students an up-to-date understanding of related factual issues. Uses immersive, original short works of fiction as a means to engage students to think philosophically about serious ethical issues. (shrink)
This article focuses on the question of whether SocialIssues in Management is a “field” and, if so, what kind, emphasizing specifically the recent literature on corporate social responsibility and performance. Fields are defined in part by coherent bodies of knowledge that serve as guideposts for current research, and so the authors construct a simple model of CSR/csp scholarship, illustrating the relevant categories with representative publications. The authors conclude that SIM is a “low-paradigm” field but is not (...) recognized or accepted as a field by many scholars who write about CSR/csp from “outside” the field. This analysis points to the need for SIM scholars to continue to integrate useful ideas from other fields, and also to critique the work of scholars who address “failings” or “gaps” in SIM research without appropriately dealing with the existing SIM literature. The article concludes with some ideas for sustaining the institutional legitimacy of SIM and for challenging those who would “reinvent” a field with a long and fruitful history, including paying careful attention to journal review processes and the content of publications in prominent journals. (shrink)
This special dissertation forum, the first of its type to be published in this journal, reports the outcome and process for the 2010 annual Dissertation Award Competition for the SocialIssues in Management Division of the Academy of Management. The special forum comprises this introductory essay by the chair of the award committee and three dissertation abstracts by the award finalists. In addition, each finalist has provided a thoughtful essay reflecting on their experiences of the research process as (...) junior scholars. The dissertation abstracts, with reflection essays, are in alphabetical order by last name of award finalist. (shrink)
Nicholas Rescher examines the controversial social issue of the welfare state, and offers philosophical thoughts on the limits and liabilities of government and society. Questioning some of the principal assumptions of democratic theory and classical liberalism, Rescher theorizes that the current system is not a be-all end-all, but rather a necessity with limited scope that will ultimately fail to achieve its objectives. He further purports that the welfare state must be a transitional phase to a more affluent postindustrial society-a (...) satisfying life, rather than an adequate one. (shrink)
This essay comments on some accomplishments and future challenges concerning research and teaching in socialissues. The author chaired the All-Academy of Management Task Force on Ethics. The SIM Division’s role is to examine critically the suitability of the actions and policies of business managers, organizations, and the free market system itself. The scope of inquiry covers ethics, governance of organizations, and stakeholders. The emphasis in that inquiry is on the benefits and harms to people from businesses and (...) the market system. Three major issues deserve our examination: 1) the growing influence of the global corporation, 2) global climate change and the negative environmental impact of our lifestyles, and 3) the moral maturity or lack thereof of contemporary decision makers and citizens. Corporations have immense influence, reflected in the growing role of lobbying. Environmental degradation is one of the most serious problems that face people of our ever smaller planet, so it challenges us to examine our lifestyles and the carbon footprint of our actions. We are now able to research and teach the development of good moral habits and character. (shrink)
Facing an increasing number and variety of issues with social salience, firms must determine how to engage with issues that likely have a significant impact on them. Integrating issues management and salience theories, the authors find that firms engage with socially contested issues—where there is a high degree of societal disagreement—in a different manner from issues that have social consensus, or high agreement. Examining social issue resolutions filed by shareholders from 1997 to (...) 2009, the study finds that socially contested issues, as well as those issues with social consensus, are both likely to result in engagement by the firm. For socialissues with consensus, a firm is more likely to opt for a low level of shareholder engagement whereas resolutions regarding contested issues lead to engaging shareholders at a higher level. These findings shed new light on the IM and issue salience literature streams that have suggested firms will react differently to these types of issues, even while they remain largely untested. Finally, firms become less engaged with perennial issues over time. rather than more, providing new guidance to researchers, shareholder activists, and firms alike. To the authors’ knowledge, such fined-grained insight into expected levels of firm engagement with social issue salience has not been put forth previously. (shrink)
This questionnaire-based observational study was conducted in July 2020 with the aim of understanding the ethical and socialissues faced by health care providers registered with the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease pandemic. There were 200 questionnaire respondents, and we analyzed the responses of 189 members who had been involved in COVID-19 treatment in ICUs. The ethical and socialissues that HCPs recognized during the pandemic were difficulties (...) in the decision-making process with patients’ families, limitations of life-sustaining treatment, lack of palliative care, and inadequate mental support for patients’ families and HCPs. Regarding decision-making on issues of clinical ethics during the pandemic, more than half of the respondents thought they had failed to provide sufficient palliative care to patients and responded that they experienced moral distress. The free-text responses on moral distress revealed issues such as unusual treatment and care, restricted visits, challenging situations for HCPs, and psychological burden. Additionally, 38.1% of respondents experienced episodes of social prejudice or discrimination and 4.7% experienced a shortage of medical resources. Our study result shows that the moral distress of HCPs was caused by difficulties in patient-centered decision-making and insufficient medical care to patients and their families. These were caused mainly by a lack of communication due to the stronger implementation of infection control measures. We believe that it is important to address ethical and socialissues during a pandemic in order to provide appropriate medical care and prevent burnout among HCPs. (shrink)
The social dimension of sustainable development and its impact on supply chains have so far received less attention than the environmental dimension. The aim of the research is to explore the intersection between socialissues, corporate social responsibility actions and performance outcomes. A structured literature review of socialissues in supply chains is presented, analysing the research published so far in peer-reviewed publications. Linking CSR and supply chain management allows the exploration of strategies and (...) performance outcomes with a focus on socialissues. The corresponding responsible supply chain actions adopted by firms to address these issues are grouped into communication, compliance and supplier development strategies. Social and economic as well as buyer and supplier performance are identified as the key outcomes, but the interactions among these constructs would require further research. This paper contributes to the understanding of managing socialissues in supply chains by linking socialissues, responsible supply chain actions and performance outcomes. The paper consolidates related research by offering an overarching conceptual framework and points to future research directions and simultaneously provides insights into the management of socialissues in supply chains. (shrink)
Substantial urban growth fueled by a strong economy often results in heavy traffic thus making streets less hospitable. Traffic calming is one response to the pervasiveness of the automobile. The issues concern built environments and involve multiple actors reflecting different interests. The issues are rarely technical and involve combinations of behavior, social structure, and differential resources. Traffic calming takes many forms by attempting to serve many purposes. It is complex and confusing and is used by different people (...) with different agendas. Traffic calming is not about applying techniques. It is a mindset. We must change both our perceptions and our behaviors. Instead of focusing on end-of-pipe solutions and on things, we must shift attention to the processes that generate things. Trying to accommodate more and more traffic is not the answer. Transportation is a means, not an end. What we are looking at is more people calming than traffic calming. (shrink)
Ambient assisted living technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access (...) gap between high-income countries and low and middle-income countries. Legal aspects mainly refer to the adherence to existing legal frameworks and cover issues related to product safety, data protection, cybersecurity, intellectual property, and access to data by public, private, and government bodies. Successful privacy-friendly AAL applications are needed, as the pressure to bring Internet of Things devices and ones equipped with artificial intelligence quickly to market cannot overlook the fact that the environments in which AAL will operate are mostly private. The socialissues focus on the impact of AAL technologies before and after their adoption. Future AAL technologies need to consider all aspects of equality such as gender, race, age and social disadvantages and avoid increasing loneliness and isolation among, e.g. older and frail people. Finally, the current power asymmetries between the target and general populations should not be underestimated nor should the discrepant needs and motivations of the target group and those developing and deploying AAL systems. Whilst AAL technologies provide promising solutions for the health and social care challenges, they are not exempt from ethical, legal and socialissues. A set of ELSI guidelines is needed to integrate these factors at the research and development stage. (shrink)
The success of the Human Genome Project has prompted interest in advancing the nascent field of exposomics. The exposome, which is dynamic and variable and changes over time, consists of all the internal and external exposures an individual has over a lifetime beginning with the prenatal period and early childhood. Efforts are underway to decipher the human epigenome by identifying the effects of all deleterious environmental exposures according to duration of exposure and time period. In this article, we argue that (...) the deciphering of the human exposome should be accompanied by sustained efforts to address the ethical, social and legal implications (ELSI) of exposomics. This will require financial investments from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the European Union and other public and private funding agencies, analogous to support provided by NIH to address ELSI issues in genomics. (shrink)
This essay articulates two aspects of a changing SocialIssues in Management Division of the Academy of Management. First, the essay highlights the ways in which SIM’s central focus has shifted and changed over the years. Then, it briefly looks at the forces that are currently shaping SIM within AOM, particularly in spreading what used to be the central core of SIM throughout AOM, and discusses some of the implications of this shift. This devolution of content suggests the (...) need for further change that paradoxically does two things seemingly at odds with each other: brings SIM back to its normative roots and begins to articulate the type of distinctive orientation to business operating within society that might continue to differentiate SIM from other divisions within AOM in the future. (shrink)
This book discusses concepts of good design from social perspectives grounded in anthropology, sociology and philosophy, the goal being to provide readers with an awareness of socialissues to help them in their work as design professionals. Each chapter covers a specific area of good practice in design, explaining and applying a small set of related concepts to a series of case studies, and including a list of additional sources recommended for further study. The book does not (...) assume any specialized, technical background knowledge; it is not a how-to book that offers technical instruction. Yet, it focuses on the assessment of designs, addressing concepts qualitatively. Based on an established university course on Design and Society at the Centre for Society, Technology, and Values that the author offers for students from a variety of disciplines, the book represents a valuable resource for students in engineering, architecture and industrial design – helping prepare them for careers as design professionals – and for all readers in design-related professions interested in understanding a side of design that they may well never have considered systematically. Because of its broad scope and non-technical presentation style, the book may also appeal to general readers interested in socialissues in design and technology. (shrink)
Using survey data from a sample of residents of Clark County, Ohio, the author explores the relationship between support for animal rights and opinions on eleven socialissues pertaining to gun control, acceptance of violence, and rights for minority groups. Findings show that support for animal rights is significantly related to seven of the eleven variables, suggesting the existence of an important link between one's disposition toward human and nonhuman animals.
When the Karen Ann Quinlan case emerged in the mid-1970s and the New Jersey Supreme Court made mention of the role that ethics committees might play in such cases, no one could have predicted at the time what the consequences of that observation might be. It took a while for momentum to build, but we are now seeing the flowering of what is an important movement in the field of bioethics: the interplay of ethics committees and broader societal issues.
Digital phenotyping represents an avenue of consideration in patients' self-management. This scoping review aims to explore the trends in the body of literature on ethical, legal, and social challenges relevant to the implementation of digital phenotyping technologies in healthcare. The study followed the PRISMA-ScR methodology :467–473, 2018. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850). The review systematically identified relevant literature, characterised the discussed technology, explored its impacts and the proposed solutions to identified challenges. Overall, the literature, perhaps unsurprisingly, concentrates on technical rather than ethical, legal, (...) and social perspectives, which limits understanding of the more complex cultural and social factors in which digital phenotyping technologies are embedded. ELS issues mostly concern privacy, security, consent, lack of regulation, and issues of adoptability, and seldom expand to more complex ethical issues. Trust was chosen as an umbrella theme of a continuum of major ELS and technical issues. Sustained critical analysis of digital phenotyping showed to be sparse and geographically exclusive. There is a continuum and overlap between ELS issues, suggesting the need for a holistic, interdisciplinary approach to each of the challenges posed by the various technologies of digital phenotyping. (shrink)
A number of universities have long-established and highly-regarded research programs in adaptation of information technology for disabled persons. Some universities have also instituted successful programs to apply accessible IT in various areas of their campuses. But it is safe to claim that no 23-campus university system, with 450,000 students and 46,000 faculty and staff, has ever before attempted to make its entire IT presence---web, instructional materials, and procurement---fully accessible within five years. Since February 2007, the California State University system has (...) been doing exactly that, through its ground-breaking Accessible Technology Initiative. (shrink)