57 found
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  1. In Loco Parentis Minimal Risk as an Ethical Threshold for Research Upon Children.Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer - 1993 - Hastings Center Report 23 (2):13-19.
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  2.  46
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research II: Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Charles Weijer - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):252-259.
    Placebo-controlled trials are held by many, including regulators at agencies like the United States Food and Drug Administration, to be the gold standard in the assessment of new medical interventions. Yet the use of placebo controls in clinical trials has been the focus of considerable controversy. In this two-part article, we challenge a number of common beliefs concerning the value of placebo controls. Part I critiques statistical and other scientific justifications for the use of placebo controls in clinical research. The (...)
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  3.  24
    Placebo-Controlled Trials and the Logic of Scientific Purpose.Benjamin Freedman - 1990 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 12 (6):5.
  4.  45
    A Moral Theory of Informed Consent.Benjamin Freedman - 1975 - Hastings Center Report 5 (4):32-39.
  5.  22
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
    The use of statistics in medical research has been compared to a religion: it has its high priests, supplicants, and orthodoxy. Although the comparison may be more unfair to religion than to research, a useful lesson can nonetheless be drawn: the practice of clinical research may benefit—as does the spirit—from critical self-examination. Arguably, no aspect of the conduct of clinical trials is currently more controversial—and thus in as dire need of critical examination—than the use of placebo controls. The ethical and (...)
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  6.  10
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
    The use of statistics in medical research has been compared to a religion: it has its high priests, supplicants, and orthodoxy. Although the comparison may be more unfair to religion than to research, a useful lesson can nonetheless be drawn: the practice of clinical research may benefit—as does the spirit—from critical self-examination. Arguably, no aspect of the conduct of clinical trials is currently more controversial—and thus in as dire need of critical examination—than the use of placebo controls. The ethical and (...)
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  7.  19
    Scientific Value and Validity as Ethical Requirements for Research: A Proposed Explication.Benjamin Freedman - 1987 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 9 (6):7.
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  8.  27
    Duty and Healing: Foundations of a Jewish Bioethic.Benjamin Freedman - 1999 - Routledge.
    Duty and Healing positions ethical issues commonly encountered in clinical situations within Jewish law. The concept of duty is significant in exploring bioethical issues, and this book presents an authentic and non-parochial Jewish approach to bioethics, while it includes critiques of both current secular and Jewish literatures. Among the issues the book explores are the role of family in medical decision-making, the question of informed consent as a personal religious duty, and the responsibilities of caretakers. The exploration of contemporary ethical (...)
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  9.  79
    A Meta-Ethics for Professional Morality.Benjamin Freedman - 1978 - Ethics 89 (1):1-19.
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  10.  27
    Where Are the Heroes of Bioethics?Benjamin Freedman - 1996 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 7 (4):297.
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  11. Clinical Ethics Theory and Practice.C. Barry Hoffmaster, Benjamin Freedman, Gwen Fraser & Westminster Institute for Ethics and Human Values - 1989
     
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  12.  43
    Demarcating Research and Treatment: A Systematic Approach for the Analysis of the Ethics of Clinical Research.Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer - unknown
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  13.  28
    Case Notes and Charting of Bioethical Case Consultations.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Eugene Bereza - 1993 - HEC Forum 5 (3):176-195.
    In summary, the usual elements of a typical health care ethics consultation note might reasonably accommodate the needs and expectations of relevant parties, and would therefore include: 1. identification of the relevant ethical issues, questions, or dilemmas; 2. reference to any relevant facts--medical, nursing, social, psychological, spiritual, legal, political, etc.; 3. a prioritized list of recommendations to improve coordinated care; 4. a clear and concise articulation of relevant arguments, wtih specific reference to the list of recommendations as well as to (...)
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  14.  9
    Health Professions, Codes, and the Right to Refuse to Treat HIV‐Infectious Patients.Benjamin Freedman - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (2):20-25.
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  15. A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients.Benjamin Freedman - 1992 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (3):231.
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  16.  47
    What Really Makes Professional Morality Different: Response to Martin.Benjamin Freedman - 1981 - Ethics 91 (4):626-630.
  17. Structuring the Review of Human Genetics Protocols.Kathleen Cranley Glass, Charles Weijer, Denis Cournoyer, Trudo Lemmens, Roberta M. Palmour, Stanley H. Shapiro & Benjamin Freedman - 1999 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 21.
     
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  18.  66
    On the Rights of the Voiceless.Benjamin Freedman - 1978 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):196-210.
  19.  6
    One Philosopher's Experience on an Ethics Committee.Benjamin Freedman - 1981 - Hastings Center Report 11 (2):20-22.
  20.  49
    A Reply to Giles R. Scofield, J.D.Francoise Baylis, Jeanne DesBrisay, Benjamin Freedman, Larry Lowenstein & Susan Sherwin - 1994 - HEC Forum 6 (6):371-376.
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  21.  22
    Multicenter Trials and Subject Eligibility: Should Local IRBs Play a Role?Benjamin Freedman - 1994 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 16 (1-2):1.
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  22.  14
    Respectful Service and Reverent Obedience: A Jewish View on Making Decisions for Incompetent Parents.Benjamin Freedman - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (4):31-37.
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  23.  19
    What Difference Does It Make to Be Treated in a Clinical Trial? A Pilot Study.Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks, James Robbins, Stanley Shapiro & Myriam Skrutkowska - unknown
    OBJECTIVE: Pilot study to characterize treatment differences between patients treated in clinical trials and those treated in a clinical setting. Previous studies have shown higher survival rates for participants in trials of cancer therapy. This difference is observed even after rates are adjusted for important covariates such as age and stage of disease. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Oncology outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety women 18 to 70 years of age with early-stage breast cancer who were (...)
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  24. Jonathan Glover, What Sort of People Should There Be? Reviewed By.Benjamin Freedman - 1986 - Philosophy in Review 6 (3):106-108.
     
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  25. Man Bites Dog: A Bioethicist's Deception.Benjamin Freedman - 1983 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 5 (5):8.
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  26. Principle and Purpose: Two Kinds of Legal Consistency.Benjamin Freedman - 1975 - Dissertation, City University of New York
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  27. Ruth Macklin, Man, Mind and Morality: The Ethics of Behavior Control Reviewed By.Benjamin Freedman - 1984 - Philosophy in Review 4 (1):26-29.
     
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  28. Ruth Macklin, Man, Mind and Morality: The Ethics of Behavior Control. [REVIEW]Benjamin Freedman - 1984 - Philosophy in Review 4:26-29.
     
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  29. The Entity‐Restriction of Rights: Notes on a Fashion in Ethics1.Benjamin Freedman - 1981 - Metaphilosophy 12 (2):159-168.
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  30.  7
    The Roles and Responsibilities of the Ethics Consultant: A Retrospective Analysis of Cases.Benjamin Freedman - 2000 - University Publishing.
  31. The Validity of Ignorant Consent to Medical Research.Benjamin Freedman - 1982 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 4 (2):1.
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  32. The Eyes of Beholders: Roles and the Distribution of Scarce Medical Resources.Benjamin Freedman - 1983 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (1).
    A common difficulty with the application of theories of justice to the allocation of medical resources is the assumption that one perspective is primary, whether that privileged perspective be that of the practitioner, on the one hand, or policy analyst on the other. By a discussion of three theories — those of Ramsey, Childress, and Joseph Fletcher — I attempt to show that these perspectives must be treated as related. As a result, values and ethics expressed in micro-allocation should be (...)
     
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  33.  8
    Structuring the Review of Human Genetics Protocols Part-III: Gene Therapy Studies.Kathleen Cranley Glass, Charles Weijer, Denis Cournoyer, Trudo Lemmens, Reberta M. Palmour, Stanley H. Shapiro & Benjamin Freedman - 1999 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 21 (2):1.
  34.  4
    A Response to Burtchaell: I: The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue.Benjamin Freedman - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (6):1.
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  35. Violating Confidentiality to Warn of a Risk of HIV Infection: Ethical Work in Progress.Benjamin Freedman - 1991 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).
    The old literature on whether medical confidentiality may be breached to warn a spouse of a risk of contracting syphilis from his/her partner — a deep and rich literature — has become relevant once again in the context of HIV infection and AIDS. This paper examines the reasoning and method employed in: the Catholic approach centered around the patient's (property) right to the secret; a (generic) model of justice, utilizing minimal principles of non-aggression and restitution; and an approach involving the (...)
     
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  36. Review. [REVIEW]Benjamin Freedman - 1985 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (3).
     
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  37.  17
    Medical Ethics and Moral Philosophy.Benjamin Freedman - 1982 - Hastings Center Report 12 (6):44-44.
  38.  12
    Weiss V. Solomon: A Case Study in Institutional Responsibility for Clinical Research.Benjamin Freedman & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1990 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (4):395-403.
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  39. Withdrawing Data as a Substitute for Consent.Benjamin Freedman - 1983 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 5 (6):10.
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  40.  20
    Case Studies in Bioethics: The Last Bed in the ICU.R. B. Schiffer & Benjamin Freedman - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (6):21.
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  41.  12
    The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue--A Response to Burtchaell: I.Benjamin Freedman - 1987 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (6):1-4.
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  42.  15
    Assessing the Interpretation of Criteria for Clinical Trial Eligibility: A Survey of Oncology Investigators.Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Stanley Shapiro, Abraham Fuks, Myriam Skrutkowska & Maria Sigurjonsdottir - unknown
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eligibility criteria that exclude the elderly, persons with psychiatric disease, and persons with substance abuse problems from participation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are subjective and hence a source of variability in enrolment decisions and investigator uncertainty. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Cancer investigators from the United States and Canada. INTERVENTIONS: Investigators were presented with clinical vignettes from 3 patient categories--eligible, ineligible and uncertain--for each of 5 eligibility criteria--3 subjective and 2 objective--and were asked whether they would (...)
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  43.  8
    Canada: The Mandarin Bureaucracy.Michael D. Bayles & Benjamin Freedman - 1984 - Hastings Center Report 14 (6):17-18.
  44.  13
    Reporting the Study Populations of Clinical Trials. Clear Transmission or Static on the Line?Stanley H. Shapiro, Charles Weijer & Benjamin Freedman - unknown
    In contrast to attempts that have been made to measure the clarity of reporting of the methods of clinical trials in journal articles, we report here an attempt to measure the accuracy of methods reporting. We focus in this article on eligibility criteria as a test case for the reporting of clinical trial methods. We examined the reporting of eligibility criteria in the protocol, methods paper (if applicable), journal article, and Clinical Alert for articles appearing in print between January 1988 (...)
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  45.  12
    Weiss V. Solomon: A Case Study in Institutional Responsibility for Clinical Research.Benjamin Freedman & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1990 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (4):395-403.
  46.  8
    The Slippery-Slope Argument Reconstructed: Response to van der Burg.Benjamin Freedman - 1992 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (4):293-297.
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  47.  8
    Cohort-Specific Consent: An Honest Approach to Phase 1 Clinical Cancer Studies.Benjamin Freedman - 1990 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 12 (1):5.
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  48.  10
    Five Red Herrings and an Issue: Response to McCormick.Benjamin Freedman - 1978 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):222-225.
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  49.  12
    The Entity-Restriction of Rights: Notes on a Fashion in Ethics.Benjamin Freedman - 1981 - Metaphilosophy 12 (2):159–168.
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  50.  5
    Leviticus and DNA: A Very Old Look at a Very New Problem.Benjamin Freedman - 1980 - Journal of Religious Ethics 8 (1):105 - 113.
    This paper is an attempt to achieve a moral understanding of recombinant DNA technology through an examination of the Biblical ban on the cross-breeding of species, as that ban was understood by traditional Jewish commentators. By paying close attention to the concept of natural law which some of those commentators employed in this connection, a nuanced response to the modern moral problem can be developed, which is immune to the standard arguments employed against those who rely upon natural law.
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