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  1. The Prisoner's Dilemma Paradox: Rationality, Morality, and Reciprocity.Rory W. Collins - 2022 - Think 21 (61):45-55.
    This article examines the prisoner's dilemma paradox and argues that confessing is the rational choice, despite this probably entailing a less-than-ideal outcome.
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  2. Expected utility theory, Jeffrey’s decision theory, and the paradoxes.Philippe Mongin & Jean Baccelli - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1):695-713.
    In Richard Bradley’s book, Decision Theory with a Human Face, we have selected two themes for discussion. The first is the Bolker-Jeffrey theory of decision, which the book uses throughout as a tool to reorganize the whole field of decision theory, and in particular to evaluate the extent to which expected utility theories may be normatively too demanding. The second theme is the redefinition strategy that can be used to defend EU theories against the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes, a strategy (...)
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  3. Modeling the Ellsberg Paradox by Argument Strength.Niki Pfeifer & H. Pankka - 2017 - In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink & E. Davelaar (eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Cognitive Science Society Meeting. pp. 925-930.
    We present a formal measure of argument strength, which combines the ideas that conclusions of strong arguments are (i) highly probable and (ii) their uncertainty is relatively precise. Likewise, arguments are weak when their conclusion probability is low or when it is highly imprecise. We show how the proposed measure provides a new model of the Ellsberg paradox. Moreover, we further substantiate the psychological plausibility of our approach by an experiment (N = 60). The data show that the proposed measure (...)
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  4. Rational Cooperation, Irrational Retaliation.Joseph Mintoff - 1993 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74:362-380.
    David Gauthier argues that it can be rational to perform a non-maximizing cooperative act, since there are certain situations in which it is rational to adopt an intention to perform a non-maximizing cooperative act, and since if it is rational to adopt an intention to do something, then it is rational to do that thing. An important objection to this argument focuses on the move from the rationality of adopting intentions to the rationality of acting on them. Gregory Kavka argues (...)
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  5. Calibration Dilemmas in the Ethics of Distribution.Jacob M. Nebel & H. Orri Stefánsson - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-32.
    This paper presents a new kind of problem in the ethics of distribution. The problem takes the form of several “calibration dilemmas,” in which intuitively reasonable aversion to small-stakes inequalities requires leading theories of distribution to recommend intuitively unreasonable aversion to large-stakes inequalities. We first lay out a series of such dilemmas for prioritarian theories. We then consider a widely endorsed family of egalitarian views and show that they are subject to even more forceful calibration dilemmas than prioritarian theories. Finally, (...)
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  6. Decision and Foreknowledge.J. Dmitri Gallow - manuscript
    My topic is how to make decisions when you possess foreknowledge of the consequences of your choice. Many have thought that these kinds of decisions pose a distinctive and novel problem for causal decision theory (CDT). My thesis is that foreknowledge poses no new problems for CDT. Some of the purported problems are not problems. Others are problems, but they are not problems for CDT. Rather, they are problems for our theories of subjunctive supposition. Others are problems, but they are (...)
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  7. Instrumental Rationality Without Separability.Johanna Thoma - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (5):1219-1240.
    This paper argues that instrumental rationality is more permissive than expected utility theory. The most compelling instrumentalist argument in favour of separability, its core requirement, is that agents with non-separable preferences end up badly off by their own lights in some dynamic choice problems. I argue that once we focus on the question of whether agents’ attitudes to uncertain prospects help define their ends in their own right, or instead only assign instrumental value in virtue of the outcomes they may (...)
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  8. Newcomb Greenleaf. Fields in Which Varieties Have Rational Points: A Note on a Problem of Ax. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 27 , Pp. 139–140. [REVIEW]Verena H. Dyson - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (1):163.
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  9. David P. Gauthier. Hare's Debtors. Mind, N.S. Vol. 77 , Pp. 400–405.Brian F. Chellas - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (2):366.
  10. Temptation and Preference-Based Instrumental Rationality.Johanna Thoma - 2018 - In José Bermudez (ed.), Self-control, decision theory and rationality. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.
    In the dynamic choice literature, temptations are usually understood as temporary shifts in an agent’s preferences. What has been puzzling about these cases is that, on the one hand, an agent seems to do better by her own lights if she does not give into the temptation, and does so without engaging in costly commitment strategies. This seems to indicate that it is instrumentally irrational for her to give into temptation. On the other hand, resisting temptation also requires her to (...)
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  11. Risk Aversion and the Long Run.Johanna Thoma - 2019 - Ethics 129 (2):230-253.
    This article argues that Lara Buchak’s risk-weighted expected utility theory fails to offer a true alternative to expected utility theory. Under commonly held assumptions about dynamic choice and the framing of decision problems, rational agents are guided by their attitudes to temporally extended courses of action. If so, REU theory makes approximately the same recommendations as expected utility theory. Being more permissive about dynamic choice or framing, however, undermines the theory’s claim to capturing a steady choice disposition in the face (...)
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  12. Arrovian Aggregation of Generalised Expected-Utility Preferences: (Im)Possibility Results by Means of Model Theory.Frederik Herzberg - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (5):947-967.
    Cerreia-Vioglio et al. :341–375, 2011) have proposed a very general axiomatisation of preferences in the presence of ambiguity, viz. Monotonic Bernoullian Archimedean preference orderings. This paper investigates the problem of Arrovian aggregation of such preferences—and proves dictatorial impossibility results for both finite and infinite populations. Applications for the special case of aggregating expected-utility preferences are given. A novel proof methodology for special aggregation problems, based on model theory, is employed.
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  13. Advice for the Steady: Decision Theory and the Requirements of Instrumental Rationality.Johanna Thoma - 2017 - Dissertation,
    Standard decision theory, or rational choice theory, is often interpreted to be a theory of instrumental rationality. This dissertation argues, however, that the core requirements of orthodox decision theory cannot be defended as general requirements of instrumental rationality. Instead, I argue that these requirements can only be instrumentally justified to agents who have a desire to have choice dispositions that are stable over time and across different choice contexts. Past attempts at making instrumentalist arguments for the core requirements of decision (...)
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  14. Quantum-Like Models Cannot Account for the Conjunction Fallacy.Thomas Boyer-Kassem, Sébastien Duchêne & Eric Guerci - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (4):479-510.
    Human agents happen to judge that a conjunction of two terms is more probable than one of the terms, in contradiction with the rules of classical probabilities—this is the conjunction fallacy. One of the most discussed accounts of this fallacy is currently the quantum-like explanation, which relies on models exploiting the mathematics of quantum mechanics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical adequacy of major quantum-like models which represent beliefs with quantum states. We first argue that they (...)
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  15. Risk Attitudes in Axiomatic Decision Theory: A Conceptual Perspective.Jean Baccelli - 2018 - Theory and Decision 84 (1):61-82.
    In this paper, I examine the decision-theoretic status of risk attitudes. I start by providing evidence showing that the risk attitude concepts do not play a major role in the axiomatic analysis of the classic models of decision-making under risk. This can be interpreted as reflecting the neutrality of these models between the possible risk attitudes. My central claim, however, is that such neutrality needs to be qualified and the axiomatic relevance of risk attitudes needs to be re-evaluated accordingly. Specifically, (...)
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  16. A Representation Theorem for Frequently Irrational Agents.Edward Elliott - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (5):467-506.
    The standard representation theorem for expected utility theory tells us that if a subject’s preferences conform to certain axioms, then she can be represented as maximising her expected utility given a particular set of credences and utilities—and, moreover, that having those credences and utilities is the only way that she could be maximising her expected utility. However, the kinds of agents these theorems seem apt to tell us anything about are highly idealised, being always probabilistically coherent with infinitely precise degrees (...)
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  17. Review Essays: The Paradox of Immediacy: Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy by Nadia Urbinati. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006. 326 Pp. $45.00 , $30.00 . On the Side of the Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship by Nancy L. Rosenblum. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008. 600 Pp. $29.95.David Runciman - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):148-155.
  18. Conditionals and a Two-Envelope Paradox.Byeong-Uk Yi - 2013 - Journal of Philosophy 110 (5):233-257.
    C onsider two contrary conditionals 1 about two envelopes, Ali and Baba: (a) If Ali has more money than Baba, the difference between the amounts in them is $5. (b) If Ali has more money than Baba, the difference between the amounts in them is $10. Can these both be true? The answer is a resounding yes on the standard account of conditionals, which identifies indicative con- ditionals with material conditionals. It is not the same with many other contemporary accounts (...)
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  19. Newcomb's Problem Revisited.Terry Horgan - 2015 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 22:4-15.
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  20. Dictatorship of the “Proletariat”.Stanisław Dronicz & Lesław Kawalec - 2011 - Dialogue and Universalism 21 (3):137-150.
    This article sets out to propose some characteristic features of the intellectual and ethical attitudes which, in the popular belief and scholarly communities alike, stand for ideals worthy of promoting as ones which could underpin a modern society where both believers and unbelievers can feel at home. The “ethos” is construed to be about the sort of behaviour logically stemming from a tolerant outlook on the one hand, and an intellectual commitment to a noble cause worthy of one’s efforts, on (...)
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  21. Smielew W.. Decision Problem in Group Theory. Ebd., Sonderabdruck 1948, S. 373–376.Rózsa Péter - 1949 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):63-64.
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  22. Living Up to One's Commitments: Agency, Strategies and Trust.Thomas Müller - 2008 - Journal of Applied Logic 6 (2):251-266.
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  23. XII—In the Neighbourhood of the Newcomb-Predictor.David Gauthier - 1989 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 89 (1):179-194.
  24. Note on the Newcomb Operators Used in the Development of the Perturbative Function.R. T. A. Innes - 1913 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3 (1):337-339.
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  25. Ambiguity Attitudes, Framing and Consistency.Alex Voorhoeve, Ken G. Binmore, Arnaldur Stefansson & Lisa Stewart - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (3):313-337.
    We use probability-matching variations on Ellsberg’s single-urn experiment to assess three questions: (1) How sensitive are ambiguity attitudes to changes from a gain to a loss frame? (2) How sensitive are ambiguity attitudes to making ambiguity easier to recognize? (3) What is the relation between subjects’ consistency of choice and the ambiguity attitudes their choices display? Contrary to most other studies, we find that a switch from a gain to a loss frame does not lead to a switch from ambiguity (...)
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  26. The Openness of Attitudes and Action in Ambivalence.Hili Razinsky - 2015 - South African Journal of Philosophy 34 (1):79-92.
    Ambivalence of desire and action in light of it are ordinary human engagements and yet received conceptions of desire and action deny that such action is possible. This paper contains an analysis of the possibility of fertile ambivalent compromises conjointly with a reconstruction of (Davidsonian) basic rationality and of action-desire relations. It is argued that the Aristotelian practical syllogism ought not to be conceived as paralysing the ambivalent agent. The practical syllogism makes compromise behaviour possible, including compromise action in the (...)
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  27. Fischer on Backtracking and Newcomb's Problem.E. Carlson - 1998 - Analysis 58 (3):229-231.
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  28. Examining Boxing and Toxin.L. Goldstein - 2003 - Analysis 63 (3):242-244.
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  29. Newcomb's Paradox and Priest's Principle of Rational Choice.B. -U. Yi - 2003 - Analysis 63 (3):237-242.
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  30. The St. Petersburg Two-Envelope Paradox.D. J. Chalmers - 2002 - Analysis 62 (2):155-157.
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  31. The Meta-Newcomb Problem.N. Bostrom - 2001 - Analysis 61 (4):309-310.
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  32. Newcomb's Problem: The Causalists Get Rich.P. McKay - 2004 - Analysis 64 (2):187-189.
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  33. Newcomb's Problem: A Reply to Carlson.J. M. Fischer - 2001 - Analysis 61 (3):229-236.
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  34. Taking Stock of Infinite Value: Pascal’s Wager and Relative Utilities.Paul Bartha - 2007 - Synthese 154 (1):5-52.
    Among recent objections to Pascal's Wager, two are especially compelling. The first is that decision theory, and specifically the requirement of maximizing expected utility, is incompatible with infinite utility values. The second is that even if infinite utility values are admitted, the argument of the Wager is invalid provided that we allow mixed strategies. Furthermore, Hájek has shown that reformulations of Pascal's Wager that address these criticisms inevitably lead to arguments that are philosophically unsatisfying and historically unfaithful. Both the objections (...)
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  35. 2. The Scholar's Wager: The Lottery of Higher Learning.W. David Shaw - 2004 - In Babel and the Ivory Tower: The Scholar in the Age of Science. University of Toronto Press. pp. 21-34.
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  36. A Resource-Bounded Agent Addresses the Newcomb Problem.John L. Pollock - 2010 - Synthese 176 (1):57-82.
    In the Newcomb problem, the standard arguments for taking either one box or both boxes adduce what seem to be relevant considerations, but they are not complete arguments, and attempts to complete the arguments rely upon incorrect principles of rational decision making. It is argued that by considering how the predictor is making his prediction, we can generate a more complete argument, and this in turn supports a form of causal decision theory.
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  37. Remarks on the Absent Minded Driver.Wlodek Rabinowicz - 2001 - Studia Logica 73 (2):241-256.
    Piccione and Rubinstein present and analyse the sequential decision problem of an "absentminded driver". The driver's absentmindedness leads him to time-inconsistent strategy evaluations. His original evaluation gets replaced by a new one under impact of the information that the circumstances have changed, notwithstanding the fact that this change in circumstances has been expected by him all along. The time inconsistency in strategy evaluation suggests that such an agent might have reason to renege on his adopted strategy. As we shall see, (...)
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  38. Double Up on Heaven.Casper Storm Hansen - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):213-214.
    This paper describes a scenario in which a person in his afterlife will with probability 1 spend twice as many days in Heaven as in Hell, but, even though Heaven is as good as Hell is bad, his expected utility for any given day in that afterlife is negative.
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  39. Realizing Newcomb’s Problem.Peter Slezak - unknown
    Richard Jeffrey said that Newcomb’s Problem may be seen “as a rock on which... Bayesianism... must founder” and the problem has been almost universally conceived as reconciling the science-fictional features of the decision problem with a plausible causal analysis. Later, Jeffrey renounced his earlier position that accepted Newcomb problems as genuine decision problems, suggesting “Newcomb problems are like Escher’s famous staircase”. We may interpret this to mean that we know there can be no such thing, though we see no local (...)
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  40. The Envelope of a Pointclass Under a Local Determinacy Hypothesis.Trevor M. Wilson - 2015 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 166 (10):991-1018.
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  41. On the Rocketship: How Top Charter Schools Are Pushing the Envelope.Richard Whitmire - 2014 - Jossey-Bass.
    _The face of American education is evolving—and the roadmap is clear_ _On the Rocketship: How Top Charter Schools are Pushing the Envelope_ examines the rise and expansion of leading charter school network Rocketship, revealing the "secret sauce" that makes a successful program. A strong narrative with a timely message, the book explores how Rocketship started and the difficulties encountered as it expands. Designing schools for children who have been failed by traditional schools is extremely challenging work. Setbacks are inevitable. Later (...)
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  42. Dilation, Disintegrations, and Delayed Decisions.Arthur Paul Pedersen & Gregory Wheeler - 2015 - In Thomas Augistin, Serena Dora, Enrique Miranda & Erik Quaeghebeur (eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Imprecise Probability: Theories and Applications (ISIPTA 2015). Aracne Editrice. pp. 227–236.
    Both dilation and non-conglomerability have been alleged to conflict with a fundamental principle of Bayesian methodology that we call \textit{Good's Principle}: one should always delay making a terminal decision between alternative courses of action if given the opportunity to first learn, at zero cost, the outcome of an experiment relevant to the decision. In particular, both dilation and non-conglomerability have been alleged to permit or even mandate choosing to make a terminal decision in deliberate ignorance of relevant, cost-free information. Although (...)
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  43. The Hausdorff Lower Semicontinuous Envelope of the Length in the Plane.Raphaël Cerf - 2002 - Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa- Classe di Scienze 1 (1):33-71.
    We study the Hausdorff lower semicontinuous envelope of the length in the plane. This envelope is taken with respect to the Hausdorff metric on the space of the continua. The resulting quantity appeared naturally as the rate function of a large deviation principle in a statistical mechanics context and seems to deserve further analysis. We provide basic simple results which parallel those available for the perimeter of Caccioppoli and De Giorgi.
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  44. Newcomb's Problem.Jackie Ray Caughran - 1980 - Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    Newcomb's Problem is a hypothetical situation wherein you are called upon to choose between two possible but mutually exclusive acts for both of which there are seemingly compelling, if not conclusive, arguments. As such it is a challenge to those who would construct a coherent and complete theory of rational decision. After introducing and clarifying the problem I suggest, following Robert Nozick, that the conflict, if there be such, is between a policy of choosing a dominant act and an policy (...)
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  45. Decision Problem in Group Theory.W. Smielew - 1949 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):63-64.
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  46. Word Problems, Decision Problems and Burnside Problem in Group Theory.William W. Boone, Frank B. Cannonito & Roger C. Lyndon - 1976 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 41 (4):785-788.
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  47. Intention and Understanding.Karl Aschenbrenner - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (2):138-138.
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  48. Une Méthode de Décision Pour Certaines Formules du Calcul des Prédicats.Wilhelm Ackermann - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (2):132-133.
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  49. A Note on Function Quantification.J. W. Addison & S. C. Kleene - 1958 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 23 (1):47-48.
  50. Decision Elements.John D. Goodell & Tenny Lode - 1953 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 18 (3):283-284.
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