Based on Maldonado-Torres’s formulation of the term, we conceive the decolonial turn as a form of liberating and decolonising reason beyond the liberal and Enlightened emancipation of rationality, and beyond the more radical Euro-critiques that have failed to consistently challenge the legacies of Eurocentrism and white male heteronormativity (often Eurocentric critiques of Eurocentrism). We complement Maldonado-Torres’s account of the decolonial turn in philosophy, theory and critique by providing an analysis of the trajectories of academic philosophy and clarifying the (...) relevance of decolonising philosophy and of the decolonial turn for current efforts in transforming philosophy in face of the challenges of social movements such as the Third World Liberation Front and Black Lives Matter in the United States, and Rhodes Must Fall in South Africa and England. After a brief analysis of the trajectory and current status of philosophy as a discipline in the modern Western research university, we provide examples of the decolonial turn and of decolonising philosophy in three areas: the engagement with (1) Asian and (2) Latin American philosophies, and (3) debates in the philosophy of race and gender. (shrink)
Many of the doctrines expounded by Alfonso de la Torre have found their inspiration in Maimonides’s Guide of the Perplexed and, indirectly, in some Arab authors. Mention must be made of the Maimonidean doctrine of prophecy and that of his predecessor the Arabic philosopher al-Fârâbî. It is also indicated that some of Avicenna’s works could have influenced both Maimonides and Alfonso.
Interest in ethical aspects associated to product acquisition and consumption is a growing trend among consumers. In this context, the concept of “product with ethical attributes” has arisen to refer to products with explicit social and environmental characteristics. However, one of the factors that most hinders the purchasing of these products is certainly price. Given the difficulty of reducing price, the question that arises is the extent to which other product attributes can attenuate the negative impact of price on perceived (...) value. We assume that the special benefits associated to this type of products are, at a different level, attenuators of the relationship between price and perceived value. Focusing on Fair Trade organic coffee, hypotheses are tested regarding survey data from 407 customers. They were interviewed in an actual purchasing scenario. The models are tested using conventional Structural Equation Models and the Latent Moderated Structural Equation method. The results obtained shed some light on a highly generalised belief that the marketing of these products can only be improved by reducing their price. However, although a price reduction could be desirable, albeit complicated in this product category, its effects could be reduced by acting on other variables such as the ethical aspects, quality and healthiness of this product category. (shrink)
The author of the Visión deleytable practiced the ironic-esoteric art of writing. This article demonstrates basically two thesis: Alfonso de la Torre was without question a Jewish writer, and his books constitutes a magnificent and insuperable expression of literary and philosophical marranism. Alfonso de la Torre was a Jewish master of the secret and irony. Marranism and secret are likewise both touchstone in Maimonides’ thought, whose influence in Alfonso de la Torre’s work became decisive, mostly regarding the philosophical-political sphere. For (...) these reasons, this article proves that the author of Visión deleytable, not only was a perfect connoisseur of Guide for the Perplexed ; the influence of the Sefardí reaches further. Alfonso de la Torre’s book incorporates other Maimonides’ books like The Art of Logic, Epistle about forced conversio n or Epistle to Yemen. (shrink)
Reconstruying historically the beginning of development scientific thought in Venezuela, particularly in Physics, allow to account imperative need to preserve academic-scientific formation of Venezuelan society in 21st century. The Venezuelan historians Rafael Balza and Yajaira Freites in their respectively studies "Modern Physics in the Caraqueña Society of the late eighteenth century: between Mathematics and technique and "The problem of knowledge between hacendados and illustrated merchants of the province of Caracas-Venezuela (1793-1810)" allow to account efforts of Agustín de la Torre (...) to insert, in Venezuelan society of 18th century, teaching , research, divulgation and application of modern physical sciences initiated in Europe, marking the beginning of development of eighteenth-century Venezuelan technical and scientific thought. It should be noted that historical study of Agustín de la Torre is a complicated due to scarce documentation and cultural complexity of eighteenth-century Venezuela. The contribution of study is to account for risk of loss of Science in Venezuela in XXI century, through historical reconstruction around of Agustín de la Torre and his countless and tireless efforts to develop the study and application of physics experimental in Venezuela. The scope of this research is framed in the need to show the importance in the preservation of scientific talent. Studying the efforts in eighteenth-century Venezuela allows this. The historical study around Agustín de la Torre gives an account of the origin in the studies of physics and the complex situation within the scientific and social context to develop Science in Venezuela. (shrink)
Manuel-Reyes Mate propone que el tiempo tiene la clave para construir un nuevo pensamiento que se haga cargo del sufrimiento y lo ponga en el orden del día. En efecto, desde hace uno años Reyes Mate interpeló a la tradición filosófica que, a su juicio, se había vuelto incapaz de responder por la catástrofe a la que condujo la razón ilustrada, catástrofe cuyo símbolo es Auschwitz. Desde Memoria de occidente y La razón de los vencidos, Reyes Mate puso la memoria (...) en el centro de la discusión a la hora de pensar sobre las víctimas de pasados violentos, sobre sus demandas de justicia y sus exigencias de no olvidar; él apuesta por una razón anamnética, capaz de dar cuenta de las catástrofes de la historia, de ver la injusticia en el centro del progreso y el margen de la Historia... (shrink)
This article examines gender imbalance in philosophy using statistical analysis of philosophy professionals and students in Spain. It is the only study on an international scope that provides complete, real data of an entire national system. This analysis shows that among teaching and research personnel, women make up 25% of the total, among full professors they represent 12%, and the glass-ceiling index in the field is the same as that in engineering. For the study, I resorted to a normalization of (...) indicators to allow for international comparisons, which I have done using the reports and analyses available in other countries. In the second part of the article, I use the Spanish data to test some recent hypotheses on gender imbalance in philosophy. The data does not confirm the theory of Neven Sesardic and Rafael de Clercq, which attributes the imbalance to differences in cognitive abilities. However, the data does partially confirm the study by Molly Paxton, Carrie Figdor, and Valerie Tiberius regarding the dissuasive effect of introductory courses in philosophy, as well as that by Sarah Leslie and her colleagues on the field-specific abilities belief hypothesis. (shrink)
A lo largo de la siguiente conversación se discutirán algunas de las condiciones e implicaciones que acompañan a la noción de exilio, tanto para la historia del pasado como para su representación desde el presente. La categoría de exilio —como forma de extraterritorialidad— ha jugado un rol central en la reflexión del historiador italiano Enzo Traverso. Desde la perspectiva que nos ofrece, el exilio no fue solo una condición compartida por las masas y los intelectuales del pasado siglo. Al contrario, (...) el potencial semántico de esta categoría refleja las tensiones diacrónicas y sincrónicas que surgen cuando nos enfrentamos a los problemas de nuestro pretérito y nuestro presente. Su generalización, al fin y al cabo, nos permite apreciar algunos rasgos básicos del siglo XXI. Sobre esta multiplicidad de significados del exilio gira el texto que presentamos. (shrink)
Lists the practical problems found in the manuscript of Book III of the Algebra which were not included in the printed text. The author believes that their omission reflects the influence of Bombelli's discovery of Diophantus.
De se attitudes seem to play a special role in action and cognition. This raises a challenge to the traditional way in which mental attitudes have been understood. In this chapter, we review the case for thinking that de se attitudes require special theoretical treatment and discuss various ways in which the traditional theory can be modified to accommodate de se attitudes.
Addressing both collegiate and professional sports, the updated edition of Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport explores the ethical presuppositions of competitive athletics and their connection both to ethical theory and to concrete moral dilemmas that arise in actual athletic competition. This fourth edition has been updated with new examples, including a discussion of Spygate by the New England Patriots and recent discoveries on the use of performance enhancing drugs by top athletes. Two additional authors, Cesar R. Torres and (...) Peter F. Hager, bring to this edition a discussion of the moral issues involved in youth sports and the ethics of being a fan, as well as a fresh perspective on the theories of broad internalism and the quest for excellence. Furthermore, major criticisms of broad internalism by philosophers William J. Morgan and Scott Kretchmar add a new dimension to the discussion on the moral foundations of winning. (shrink)
Nelson Maldonado-Torres argues that European modernity has become inextricable from the experience of the warrior and conqueror. In _Against War_, he develops a powerful critique of modernity, and he offers a critical response combining ethics, political theory, and ideas rooted in Christian and Jewish thought. Maldonado-Torres focuses on the perspectives of those who inhabit the underside of western modernity, particularly Jewish, black, and Latin American theorists. He analyzes the works of the Jewish Lithuanian-French philosopher and religious thinker Emmanuel (...) Levinas, the Martiniquean psychiatrist and political thinker Frantz Fanon, and the Catholic Argentinean-Mexican philosopher, historian, and theologian Enrique Dussel. Considering Levinas’s critique of French liberalism and Nazi racial politics, and the links between them, Maldonado-Torres identifies a “master morality” of dominion and control at the heart of western modernity. This master morality constitutes the center of a warring paradigm that inspires and legitimizes racial policies, imperial projects, and wars of invasion. Maldonado-Torres refines the description of modernity’s war paradigm and the Levinasian critique through Fanon’s phenomenology of the colonized and racial self and the politics of decolonization, which he reinterprets in light of the Levinasian conception of ethics. Drawing on Dussel’s genealogy of the modern imperial and warring self, Maldonado-Torres theorizes race as the naturalization of war’s death ethic. He offers decolonial ethics and politics as an antidote to modernity’s master morality and the paradigm of war. _Against War_ advances the de-colonial turn, showing how theory and ethics cannot be conceived without politics, and how they all need to be oriented by the imperative of decolonization in the modern/colonial and postmodern world. (shrink)
This paper presents an experience in developing professional ethics by an approach that integrates knowledge, teaching methodologies and assessment coherently. It has been implemented for students in both the Software Engineering and Computer Engineering degree programs of the Technical University of Madrid, in which professional ethics is studied as a part of a required course. Our contribution of this paper is a model for formative assessment that clarifies the learning goals, enhances the results, simplifies the scoring and can be replicated (...) in other contexts. A quasi-experimental study that involves many of the students of the required course has been developed. To test the effectiveness of the teaching process, the analysis of ethical dilemmas and the use of deontological codes have been integrated, and a scoring rubric has been designed. Currently, this model is also being used to develop skills related to social responsibility and sustainability for undergraduate and postgraduate students of diverse academic context. (shrink)
Two systems of belief change based on paraconsistent logics are introduced in this article by means of AGM-like postulates. The first one, AGMp, is defined over any paraconsistent logic which extends classical logic such that the law of excluded middle holds w.r.t. the paraconsistent negation. The second one, AGMo , is specifically designed for paraconsistent logics known as Logics of Formal Inconsistency (LFIs), which have a formal consistency operator that allows to recover all the classical inferences. Besides the three usual (...) operations over belief sets, namely expansion, contraction and revision (which is obtained from contraction by the Levi identity), the underlying paraconsistent logic allows us to define additional operations involving (non-explosive) contradictions. Thus, it is defined external revision (which is obtained from contraction by the reverse Levi identity), consolidation and semi-revision, all of them over belief sets. It is worth noting that the latter operations, introduced by S. Hansson, involve the temporary acceptance of contradictory beliefs, and so they were originally defined only for belief bases. Unlike to previous proposals in the literature, only defined for specific paraconsistent logics, the present approach can be applied to a general class of paraconsistent logics which are supraclassical, thus preserving the spirit of AGM. Moreover, representation theorems w.r.t. constructions based on selection functions are obtained for all the operations. (shrink)
This study explores the relevance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an element of the corporate identity of Spanish financial institutions. Specifically, it aims to analyze the CSR actions developed by financial entities through the analysis of all the available information disclosed in their websites. A content analysis applied to 82 banking institutions, followed by different quantitative analyses, reveals the multidimensionality of CSR. Findings show that, while the number of entities institutionalizing CSR values as core elements of their identities is (...) still reduced, most organizations disclose CSR information to construct communicated identities and legitimate behaviours. Besides, these dimensions are classified depending on the stakeholder the action is aimed to, and that entities favour the generation of distinctive identities through the implementation and communication of more visible CSR actions like those involving their customers or the community. In any case, results indicate that organizations with certain characteristics are more likely to construct distinctive identities through CSR activities and to establish ethical and social values within their corporate statements and cultures. (shrink)
Autonomy has been central to moral and political philosophy for millenia, and has been positioned as a critical aspect of both justice and wellbeing. Research in psychology supports this position, providing empirical evidence that autonomy is critical to motivation, personal growth and psychological wellness. Responsible AI will require an understanding of, and ability to effectively design for, human autonomy (rather than just machine autonomy) if it is to genuinely benefit humanity. Yet the effects on human autonomy of digital experiences are (...) neither straightforward nor consistent, and are complicated by commercial interests and tensions around compulsive overuse. This multi-layered reality requires an analysis that is itself multidimensional and that takes into account human experience at various levels of resolution. We borrow from HCI and psychological research to apply a model (“METUX”) that identifies six distinct spheres of technology experience. We demonstrate the value of the model for understanding human autonomy in a technology ethics context at multiple levels by applying it to the real-world case study of an AI-enhanced video recommender system. In the process we argue for the following three claims: 1) There are autonomy-related consequences to algorithms representing the interests of third parties, and they are not impartial and rational extensions of the self, as is often perceived; 2) Designing for autonomy is an ethical imperative critical to the future design of responsible AI; and 3) Autonomy-support must be analysed from at least six spheres of experience in order to approriately capture contradictory and downstream effects. (shrink)
_ Source: _Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 366 - 387 In this article, I focus on Heidegger’s conception of hospitality in his first and final lectures on Hölderlin’s _Germania_, _Remembrance_, and _The Ister_. I argue that the hospitality of the foreigner for Heidegger is the condition of possibility of dwelling understood as the happening of history.In the first section I analyze the notions of hospitality in Levinas and Derrida. The second section unpacks some of the senses of the earth in (...) Heidegger as the site of man’s historical dwelling, whereas in the third section I focus on holy mourning as the disposition that reveals the earth as the uncanny ground of history. In the final section, I spell out Heidegger’s conception of hospitality, the greeting, and the foreign guest. (shrink)
The term angeletics comes from greek angelos/angelia, meaning messenger/messages. We use these terms when we refer to angels or divine messengers. There is a long tradition in theology and religious studies called angelology. Angeletics is in this regard different from angelology. Its purpose is to study the phenomenon of messages and messengers within the boundaries of the condition humaine, having as its primary object human communication but including technical and natural processes as well. For the philosophers of the Enlightenment, such (...) as Immanuel Kant, the censorship-free distribution of scientific knowledge through the press belongs to the core of a free society. The question today is then to what extent the internet creates a new angeletic space giving rise to new synergies of messages and messengers beyond the hierarchical structure of mass media. Throughout this book angeletics is the general term used for the cultural, social and philosophical phenomenon of messages and messengers while ›messaging theory‹ is used more specifically for the phenomenon’s scientific and technological aspects. This publication has a bipartite structure: The first part, ›Foundations‹, deals with basic ideas of angeletics, its fundamental tenets, interpretations and presuppositions. The second part, ›Applications‹, illustrates these ideas through contributions from several experts in related fields such as bio-informatics, media studies, communication philosophy, information science, physics, classical studies, General Systems Theory and linguistics which shine a critical light on angeletics and at the same time develop it in various directions. (shrink)