Recording and manipulating neuronal ensemble activity is a key requirement in advanced neuromodulatory and behavior studies. Devices capable of both recording and manipulating neuronal activity brain-computer interfaces should ideally operate un-tethered and allow chronic longitudinal manipulations in the freely moving animal. In this study, we designed a new intracortical BCI feasible of telemetric recording and stimulating local gray and white matter of visual neural circuit after irradiation exposure. To increase the translational reliance, we put forward a Göttingen minipig model. The (...) animal was stereotactically irradiated at the level of the visual cortex upon defining the target by a fused cerebral MRI and CT scan. A fully implantable neural telemetry system consisting of a 64 channel intracortical multielectrode array, a telemetry capsule, and an inductive rechargeable battery was then implanted into the visual cortex to record and manipulate local field potentials, and multi-unit activity. We achieved a 3-month stability of the functionality of the un-tethered BCI in terms of telemetric radio-communication, inductive battery charging, and device biocompatibility for 3 months. Finally, we could reliably record the local signature of sub- and suprathreshold neuronal activity in the visual cortex with high bandwidth without complications. The ability to wireless induction charging combined with the entirely implantable design, the rather high recording bandwidth, and the ability to record and stimulate simultaneously put forward a wireless BCI capable of long-term un-tethered real-time communication for causal preclinical circuit-based closed-loop interventions. (shrink)
Was besagt Whiteheads berühmte Charakterisierung der europäischen Philosophietradition als eine Reihe von "Fußnoten zu Platon"? Whiteheads Organismusphilosophie tritt mit dem Anspruch auf, Grundpositionen der Philosophiegeschichte von Aristoteles bis Kant kritisch zu reflektieren und die in ihnen nur defizitär umgesetzte platonische Programmatik mit einer hypothetischen Metaphysik zu erfüllen. Was besagt Whiteheads berühmte Charakterisierung der europäischen Philosophietradition als eine Reihe von "Fußnoten zu Platon"? Welches Platon-Bild liegt der Fußnoten-These zugrunde? Wie verhält sich die Fußnoten-These zu Whiteheads sonstigen philosophiegeschichtlichen Analysen und zu seiner (...) eigenen philosophischen Kosmologie? Im Vordergrund der Untersuchung stehen Whiteheads philosophiegeschichtliche und historiographische Grundpositionen. Dabei zeigt sich, daß er der platonischen Philosophie sowohl inhaltlich als auch methodologisch einen Prinzipienstatus zuschreibt: Inhaltlich rekonstruiert er bei Platon ein grundlegendes Repertoire metaphysischer Grundbegriffe, methodologisch ein dort erstmals greifbares Ensemble von Spekulationskriterien sowie das Ideal eines mehr fragenden als dogmatisch behauptenden Philosophierens. Whitehead entnimmt der platonischen Philosophie eine Programmatik, der die nachfolgenden Traditionen - insbesondere die Fußnoten-Beiträge von Aristoteles, Descartes, Newton, Locke, Leibniz, Hume und Kant - allenfalls ansatzweise gerecht werden. Insofern für diese Denker aus Whiteheads Sicht u.a. ein wesentlich statisches Substanz-Qualitäts-Schema maßgeblich ist, entfernen sich ihre Konzeptionen von dem genuin platonischen Paradigma eines prozeßhaften Naturgeschehens. Whiteheads Organismusphilosophie tritt mit dem Anspruch auf, Grundpositionen der Philosophiegeschichte von Aristoteles bis Kant kritisch zu reflektieren und die in ihnen nur defizitär umgesetzte platonische Programmatik mit einer hypothetischen Metaphysik zu erfüllen, die, ausgehend von der Kosmologie des Timaios, Platons Verständnis vom Sein als Werden Rechnung trägt und zugleich ein geeignetes Erklärungsmodell unserer Gesamterfahrung anbietet. (shrink)
This paper uses the Process Dissociation Procedure to explore whether people can acquire unconscious knowledge in the serial reaction time task [Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. . Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 343–350; Wilkinson, L., & Shanks, D. R. . Intentional control and implicit sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 354–369]. Experiment 1 showed that people generated legal sequences above baseline levels under exclusion (...) instructions. Reward moved exclusion performance towards baseline, indicating that the extent of motivation in the test phase influenced the expression of unconscious knowledge. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that even with reward, adding noise to the sequences or shortening training led to above-baseline exclusion performance, suggesting that task difficulty and the amount of training also affected the expression of unconscious knowledge. The results help resolve some current debates about the role of conscious awareness in sequence learning. (shrink)
The Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China is an important layer for unconventional oil exploration. To solve the problem of the main controlling factors of shale oil enrichment, to quantitatively analyze the paleosalinity, paleoclimate, paleoredox environment, provenance, and lake productivity, and to clarify the relationship between sedimentary environment and total organic carbon, we have analyzed quantitative reconstruction of the sedimentary environment by using comprehensive analysis of multiple indicators with major and trace elements, fossils, and biomarkers. The results (...) are as follows: the paleosalinity index w/ w ratio is 0.4–4, the w/ w value is 0.7–8.5, and the w/ w value is 0.8–2.8, which mainly stand for fresh brackish to saline water. The paleoclimate CIW′ ] × 100 [molecular proportions]) value is 90–100, indicating a warm and humid climate. The redox index w/ w) value is 0.54–0.89, which mainly belongs to the dysoxic environment. The provenance input of terrigenous debris index w/ w value is 0.026–0.034, mainly standing for low terrigenous debris input. The production index CAL value is 1–3, belonging to high production. We conclude that the humid climate, the fresh brackish to saline and dysoxic water, and the high lake production provide favorable geologic conditions for biological reproduction and then provide a foundation for the formation, enrichment, and preservation of organic matter. The quantitative reconstruction of the paleoenvironment of the Qingshankou Formation has theoretical significance for Gulong shale oil exploration and development. (shrink)
Yan Fu was the first Chinese person to introduce the teachings of the West to China systematically. Since returning to China from Britain, to which he had been sent to study in 1879, he held an office at the Beiyang Naval College until leaving the institution in 1900. These twenty-some years were precisely the direst moment in the intensifying of China's social crisis, when the imperialists were pressing their aggression toward China and China was being brought to the brink of (...) being partitioned outright. At the time, all the progressive intellectuals in China were worried for the future of the motherland, and pressed on to find what they considered to be the truth of national salvation. The bourgeois reformist faction of the day, with Kang Youwei as its leader, advocated political and legal reform and was tremendously enthusiatic and active in pleading its case throughout China, calling on the intellectuals to respond. Yan Fu, too, at this time, did a large amount of propaganda work for the cause of reform, using the thought of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi as his foundation and employing his own exceptional knowledge of Western things and Western learning, and his understanding of the capitalist world. He founded the Guowen bao and published a number of important political essays, including "Lun shibian zhi ji" , "Yuan qiang" , "Pi Han" and "Jiu wang jue lun" . He also translated a number of the works of Western bourgeois social science, including [Thomas Huxley's] Evolution and Ethics , [Adam Smith's] The Wealth of Nations , [Herbert Spencer's] A Study of Sociology , [John Stuart Mill's] Logic , and Montesquieu's De l'esprit des lois . Furthermore, he carried out an annotated and evaluative reading of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, and in so doing he assimilated Western learning and ideas into the Chinese interpretation of Lao-Zhuang's thought. (shrink)
Past research suggests that spiritual leadership plays a pivotal role in enhancing employee job performance, yet we have little understanding of how and when spiritual leadership enhances employee job performance. The present study explores how and when spiritual leadership promotes job performance by examining relational energy as a mediator and leader integrity and relational energy differentiation as boundary conditions. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 12 months from 497 employees and their supervisors in 108 (...) groups. Results showed that the positive relationship between spiritual leadership and job performance was mediated by relational energy. Moreover, we found that leader integrity amplified the mediated relationship between spiritual leadership and employee job performance via relational energy. In contrast, relational energy differentiation weakened this mediated relationship. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Im Mittelpunkt des Beitrags steht das bisher ungeklärte Verhältnis praxistheoretischer Ansätze zum Konzept der face-to-face Interaktion. So berücksichtigen praxistheoretische Analysen i. d. R. nicht, ob soziale Praktiken unter den Bedingungen von Anwesenheit und wechselseitiger Wahrnehmung stattfinden oder alleine. Entsprechend findet die Eigengesetzlichkeit der Interaktionsordnung im Rahmen der Praxistheorie bislang keine Anwendung, wodurch sich wiederum bestimmte Einschränkungen bei der Beschreibung und Erklärung sozialer Wirklichkeit ergeben können. Das gilt vor allem für den Bereich des Sports, der tur die Durchführung körperlicher Leistungsvergleiche (...) wie kaum ein anderes soziales Feld auf die gleichzeitige Anwesenheit der Akteure angewiesen ist. Der Beitrag demonstriert am Beispiel des Fußballspiels den Erkenntnisgewinn, den eine interaktionstheoretische Perspektive leisten kann und liefert erste Vorschläge für die Integration des Interaktionsbegriffs in praxistheoretische Analvsen am Beispiel der Theorie der Praxis von Pierre Bourdieu. (shrink)
Drawing upon career construction theory, we examined the mediating effect of deliberate practice on career adaptability and the effects of learning goal orientation and supervisor incompetence accusations as well as career development training on DP. Using data collected from 204 Chinese PhD students in three waves over a period of 2 months, we found that individuals who were inclined to learn new skills and obtain new knowledge were more likely to deliberately practice professional activities in their fields. When a PhD (...) student’s professional competence was questioned by his or her supervisor, the student was more prone to negative emotions and would reduce his or her effort in the development of expertise. CDT – contrary to expectations – negatively predicted DP of professional activities. One possible reason is that the participants in this study have strong autonomy so that those who really struggling are participating in training and seeking help and those who with strong professional abilities are not accessing training programs. Moreover, results showed that DP of professional activities significantly promoted PhD students to adapt to their academic circumstances. Implications for career-related practice within the academic domain are provided. (shrink)
Engaging theories of comedy and of critical and literary theory in general, I consider the function of the buffo within opera, why this trope was an historical necessity for the generic development of opera: the buffo as a specific mechanism in the operatic machine, and what this character made possible in its wake. I take as paradigms the buffi of Mozart and Rossini, citing Don Alfonso and Don Bartolo respectively. It is my belief these operas have suffered from the general (...) misprizing in philosophy of comedy. I claim Il Barbiere di Siviglia as a drama of the letter, as positing a subversive economics. I then offer a reading of Così fan tutte as a staging of Foucauldian relations: combinatorial, topological, tactical, strategic. This brings me to what these operas understand by freedom, the subject, and the Enlightenment. What is it these operas demand of us? (shrink)
This paper investigates the conscious status of both the knowledge that an item is legal and the knowledge of why it is legal in sequence learning. We compared ability to control use of knowledge with stated awareness of the knowledge as measures of the conscious status of knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that when people could control use of judgment knowledge they were indeed conscious of having that knowledge according to their own statements. Yet Experiment 2 showed that people could exert (...) such control over the use of judgment knowledge when claiming they had no structural knowledge: i.e. conscious judgment knowledge could be based on unconscious structural knowledge. Further implicit learning research should be clear over whether judgment or structural knowledge is claimed to be unconscious as the two dissociate in sequence learning. (shrink)
H. L. A Hart complained about the ambiguity of legal positivism, and proposed a definition that refers to particular explications of the concept of law, to certain theories of legal interpretation, to particular views on the moral problem of a duty to obey the law, and to a sceptical position with regard to the meta-ethical issue of the possibility of moral knowledge. It is said to be restricted to the Thesis of Separation — the contention that there is no necessary (...) connection between law and morals. In this chapter, the Separation Thesis is discussed even further, and has three shortcomings identified: first, that it has been vacillating between object-level contentions about moral qualities of the law; that the precise logical relation between both levels has never been properly accounted for; and that the question of necessary relations between morality and law hinges crucially on the presupposition that the very concept of law itself does not unravel into different sets of convenient stipulations from different epistemological angles, each of which renders the question of such necessary relations trivial. The Separation Thesis is also identified as having two versions: the Fallibility Law and the Neutrality Law. (shrink)
This study examines the impact of various factors on ethical behavior of 507 employees working for three state-owned Chinese firms. Regulation of one’s emotions had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Organizational commitment also had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of the respondents. Among various facets of job satisfaction, satisfaction with promotion, coworker, and supervision had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Among control variables, age of the employee had a significant negative (...) impact on ethical behavior, which indicated that the young employees showed a better ethical behavior than the old employees. (shrink)
The Yellow Peril! … The peace of the world is at stake.—Sax Rohmer 1913, The Insidious Dr. Fu ManchuOur inner lives are something we ignore at our own peril.—The 14th Dalai Lama 2011, 75, Beyond Religion: Ethics for the Whole WorldThis essay is concerned with the contemporary convergence of Western and Eastern metaphysical paradigms as witnessed in and expressed through detective fiction written by Western writers, but with settings in, and influenced by, historically Buddhist cultures of East and Southeast Asia. (...) The essay argues that the traditional Western detective fiction novel is symptomatic of a scientific-materialist mindset that has reached an existential dead end with its loss of faith in the possibility of self-transcendence, a mindset that has become trapped in a deterministic world in which evil and violence, perpetually arising, inducing guilt, require perpetual dissipation and solution. In their various manners, each of the three novelists discussed in the essay puts forward the Buddhistically endorsed proposition that the only and ultimate solution to such a grievous existential condition is to fundamentally alter one's perception by acknowledging the living potential of self-transcendence and cultivating enlightenment. (shrink)
This research uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among caring climate, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance of 476 employees working in a Chinese insurance company. The SEM result showed that caring climate had a significant direct impact on job satisfaction, organizational command, and job performance. Caring climate also had a significant indirect impact on organizational commitment through the mediating role of job satisfaction, and on job performance through the mediating role of job (...) satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, job satisfaction had significant direct impact on organizational commitment, through which it also had a significant indirect impact on job performance. Finally, organizational commitment had a significant direct impact on job performance. (shrink)
This study examines factors impacting organizational commitment of 214 employees working at a Chinese state-owned steel company. Ethical behavior of peers and ethical behavior of successful managers had a significant impact on organizational commitment. The four facets of job satisfaction (pay, coworker, supervision, and work itself) had a significant impact on organizational commitment. Respondent’s age also significantly impacted organizational commitment. Perceptions of ethical behavior of successful managers, satisfaction with work, and gender were significantly correlated with social desirability bias.
EDITOR’S ABSTRACTIn this article, Huang stresses the important role played by the Chinese cultural context in the historical process of translation of Western concepts. Huang exemplifies this point through an analysis of Yan Fu’s translation of “individualism.”.
Plagiarism is a problematic issue in universities across the globe. This study explored the relationship between negative emotionality and positive attitudes toward plagiarism through the mediation of academic self-efficacy and self-control. Negative emotionality was examined as three components: stress, anxiety, and depression. Self-report surveys were completed by 454 university students to investigate the relationship between negative emotionality and positive attitudes toward plagiarism, as well as the mediating role of academic self-efficacy and self-control in this relationship. The hierarchical multiple regression found (...) that negative emotionality significantly predicted positive attitudes toward plagiarism over and above age and gender. Furthermore, three mediation analyses showed that academic self-efficacy and self-control mediate the relationship between positive attitudes toward plagiarism and each component of negative emotionality. Considering these results, subsequent research should investigate whether implementing strategies that alleviate stress, anxiety, and depression could increase academic self-efficacy and self-control, which in turn, could then reduce positive attitudes toward plagiarism. (shrink)
Engineering ethics education is a complex field characterized by dynamic topics and diverse students, which results in significant challenges for engineering ethics educators. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to determine what to teach and how to teach in an ethics curriculum. This is a topic that has not been adequately addressed in the engineering ethics literature. This systematic approach provides a method to: (1) develop a context-specific engineering ethics curriculum using the Delphi technique, a (...) process-driven research method; and (2) identify appropriate delivery strategies and instructional strategies using an instructional design model. This approach considers the context-specific needs of different engineering disciplines in ethics education and leverages the collaboration of engineering professors, practicing engineers, engineering graduate students, ethics scholars, and instructional design experts. The proposed approach is most suitable for a department, a discipline/field or a professional society. The approach helps to enhance learning outcomes and to facilitate ethics education curriculum development as part of the regular engineering curriculum. (shrink)
This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 208 employees of a Chinese state-owned steel company. Only rules climate had a significant impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Other ethical climate types such as professional, caring, instrumental, independence, and efficiency did not impact ethical behavior of respondents. Ethical behavior of peers, ethical behavior of successful managers, and overclaiming had a significant impact on ethical behavior of subjects.
This paper investigated how implicit and explicit knowledge is reflected in event-related potentials in sequence learning. ERPs were recorded during a serial reaction time task. The results showed that there were greater RT benefits for standard compared with deviant stimuli later than early on, indicating sequence learning. After training, more standard triplets were generated under inclusion than exclusion tests and more standard triplets under exclusion than chance level, indicating that participants acquired both explicit and implicit knowledge. However, deviant targets elicited (...) enhanced N2 and P3 components for targets with explicit knowledge but a larger N2 effect for targets with implicit knowledge, revealing that implicit knowledge expresses itself in relatively early components and explicit knowledge in additional P3 components. The results help resolve current debate about the neural substrates supporting implicit and explicit learning. (shrink)
This study examines the impact of various ethical climate types and job satisfaction on organizational commitment of 144 employees working at a Chinese private construction company. Both caring and independence climate types had a significant positive impact on organizational commitment. Instrumental climate had a significant negative impact on organizational commitment. Other climate types (professional, rules, and efficiency) had no significant impact on organizational commitment. Overall job satisfaction had a significant positive impact on organizational commitment. Overclaiming was significantly correlated with organizational (...) commitment, caring climate, rules climate, and job satisfaction. (shrink)
In the recent years, along with the development of artificial intelligence and man-machine interaction technology, speech recognition and production have been asked to adapt to the rapid development of AI and man-machine technology, which need to improve recognition accuracy through adding novel features, fusing the feature, and improving recognition methods. Aiming at developing novel recognition feature and application to speech recognition, this paper presents a new method for articulatory-to-acoustic conversion. In the study, we have converted articulatory features into acoustic features. (...) By considering the graphical representation of the articulators’ motion, this study combined Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory with convolution neural network and adopted the idea of word attention in Mandarin to extract semantic features. In this paper, we used the electromagnetic articulography database designed by Taiyuan University of Technology, which contains ten speakers’ 299 disyllables and sentences of Mandarin, and extracted 8-dimensional articulatory features and 1-dimensional semantic feature relying on the word-attention layer; we then trained 200 samples and tested 99 samples for the articulatory-to-acoustic conversion. Finally, Root Mean Square Error, Mean Mel-Cepstral Distortion, and correlation coefficient have been used to evaluate the conversion effect and for comparison with Gaussian Mixture Model and BiLSTM of recurrent neural network. The results illustrated that the MMCD of Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient was 1.467 dB, and the RMSE of F2 was 22.10 Hz. The research results of this study can be used in the features fusion and speech recognition to improve the accuracy of recognition. (shrink)
Conventional wisdom suggests that aesthetic experiences - those moments when the senses come to life - are important only after more basic needs have been met. In this inspiring wealth of provocative ideas, Yi-Fu Tuan demonstrates that feeling and beauty are essential parts of life and society. The aesthetic is shown to be not merely one aspect of culture but its central core - both its driving force and its ultimate goal. Beginning with the individual and the physical world, the (...) author's exploration progresses from the simple to the complex. Tuan starts by examining the building blocks of aesthetic experience - sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste - and gradually expands his analysis to include the most elaborate of human constructs, including art, architecture, literature, philosophy, music, and landscape. This leads him to the realm of politics, where he grapples with the fundamental question of the relationship between goodness and beauty, and of how the aesthetic can become a moral force within society. To guide the reader along this journey, the author describes how the aesthetic operates in four widely disparate cultures: Australian aboriginal, Chinese, medieval European, and modern American. Yi-Fu Tuan, one of our most influential and original thinkers, brilliantly conveys the profound fascination of multisensory reality, and in so doing enables us to make connections among even the most diffuse elements of our lives. While Tuan does not ignore human folly, Passing Strange and Wonderful is a celebration of the world around us, our experiences, and our creations. (shrink)
ABSTRACT The ongoing Sino-U.S. trade dispute between the world’s two largest economies has since 2018 attracted much attention from the international media. This study used the approach of corpus-assisted discourse studies to compare how leading English-language newspapers from each side—The New York Times and China Daily — discursively constructed this issue. The findings indicated that while NYT tended to profile the trade conflict as a ‘war’ in line with mainstream hard-line ideologies that emphasize China’s presumed threat to national security of (...) the U.S., CD sought to dial down the rhetoric and showed a preference for defining the matter as a ‘friction’, consistent with the tenet of ‘pragmatic nationalism’ endorsed by the Communist Party of China. Accordingly, the two newspapers framed the causes, moral evaluation/consequences, and treatment of the issue in congruence with their respective dominant metaphors by means of various linguistic patterns. These differences are interpreted with regard to each side’s underlying ideologies and national interests. (shrink)