"Devoted to the Truth" is a compilation of the most recent articles by renowned Islamic scholar, Fethullah Gülen, since 2016. The themes he covers are commitment to lofty ideals, self-reckoning, and hope.
This volume addresses the interplay of hadith and ethics and contributes to examining the emerging field of hadith-based ethics. The chapters cover four different sections: noble virtues (Makarim al-akhlaq) and virtuous acts (faḍa 'il al-a'mal); concepts (adab, taḥbib, 'uzla); disciplines (hadith transmission, gender ethics); and individual and key traditions (the hadith of intention, consult your heart, key hadiths). The volume concludes with a chronologically ordered annotated bibliography of the key primary sources in the Islamic tradition with relevance to understanding the (...) interplay of hadith and ethics. This volume will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of Islamic ethics, hadith studies, moral philosophy, scriptural ethics, religious ethics, and narrative ethics, in addition to Islamic and religious studies in general. Contributors Faqihuddin Abdul Kodir, Nuha Alshaar, Safwan Amir, Khairil Husaini Bin Jamil, Pieter Coppens, Chafik Graiguer, M. Imran Khan, Mutaz al-Khatib, Salahudheen Kozhithodi and Ali Altaf Mian. (shrink)
Presenting an outline of the version of Islamic ethics that is embedded in the textual legacy of the Islamic legal tradition, Abdulaziz Sachedina argues that this juridical ethics is an important, even dominant form of ethics in modern Islam. He notes that this form of ethics has been challenged by modernity and examines the variety of ways in which legal ethical thinkers have reacted to these challenges.
This book engages with the work of Miskawayh, a formative Islamic Philosopher in the 11th century, who is acknowledged as the founder of Islamic Moral Philosophy. Miskawayh's The Refinement of Character (Tahd̲īb al-Aḫlāq) draws from both ancient Greek philosophical tradition and Islamic thought, highlighting the concepts he integrated into what he argued to be the moral core of Islam. This book pursues a comparative study by analyzing and outlining the inherent philosophical concerns of the Aristotelian concepts of Happiness, Justice and (...) Friendship, which are then brought into conversation with Miskawayh's own concepualizations of them. While Tahd̲īb al-Aḫlāq is deeply influenced by Aristotle's ethics, Miskawayh employs not only a Platonizing interpretation of Aristotelian philosophy, but also incorporates traditions of Islamic thought. The study therefore concludes that Miskawayh is merely a transmitter of ancient Greek philosophy, as shown by both his critical survey of the material available to him and his own critical contributions. Essentially, Miskawayh attempted to harmonize philosophical and religious concepts of knowledge, demonstrating the interlinking of what are perceived as-at times detrimentally-incompatible positions. Ufuk Topkara illustrates how Aristotle's Ethics are integrated, modified and at times adjusted to the broader narrative of Islamic thought and how Miskawayh's discourse, albeit philosophical in nature, remains religious in its outlook. Providing clear insight into Miskawayh's work, this book is ideal for students and scholars of Islamic Philosophy and Muslim Theology. (shrink)
Bu bölümde karşılaştırmalı siyaset teorisinin, siyaset teorisinin hem bir alt alanı, hem de bir yöntemi olarak ortaya çıkış sürecini ele alacağım. Bu bağlamda öncelikle ‘karşılaştırmalı siyaset teorisinin’ (KST) ne zaman ortaya çıktığı sorusuyla ilgileneceğim. Ardından, KST’nin neden ortaya çıktığı, ne olduğu ve nasıl yapılması gerektiği ile ilgili tartışmalara değineceğim. Bu tartışmayı, son otuz yılda literatürde öne çıkan bazı çalışmalar ve isimler ve onların tartıştığı konular, meseleler, sorular ve sorunlar üzerinden (karşılaştırmada özne/nesne ilişkisi ve güç problemi, soruların ya da sorunların evrenselliği (...) meselesi, Batı/Avrupa merkezciliğini yeniden üretme riski) ve eleştirel bir değerlendirmeye tabi tutarak yürüteceğim. Son olarak, başlangıçta Amerika odaklı bir tartışma/gelişme olarak ve siyaset teorisinin belli sorunlarını (Avrupamerkezcilik, yanlış evrensellik, dar görüşlülük) aşma hedefiyle ortaya çıkan KST’nin aradan geçen otuz yılın ardından bugünkü durumu ile ilgili bazı değerlendirmelerde bulunacağım. (shrink)
أَخَذَ النصُّ القرآنيُّ حيّزاً وافراً من الاهتمامِ والتّأليف، على امتدادِ القَرنِ التّاسع عَشَر وبداية القرنِ العشرين. تَقَعُ مُحَاوَلةُ الإصلاحيّةِ الإسْلاميّةِ في إعَادَةِ تَفْسِيرِ القُرْآنِ وفق شُرُوطٍ عَصْريَّةٍ، في مدارِ ما يمكنُ الاصطلاحُ عليه بـــ "التّفسير العقلاني"، وتعني العَقْلَنَةُ، في هذا المقام، إخْراجَ تَفْسِيرِ القرآنِ، وأشكالِ فهمه وتلقّيهِ، من دوائر الأسْطَرةِ التي غلّفتهُ لردحٍ طويل من الزّمنِ، حَيْثُ بلغتْ العَقْلَنَةُ ذروةَ نشاطها معَ بعضٍ من أَعْلَام الفكر الإصلاحيِّ، خاصَّةً معَ محمّد عبده. لكنّ، هذه المحاولة الإصلاحيّة، سرعان ما انكفتْ على أعقابها، وَوَلَجَتْ (...) طَريقاً ضَيِّقاً بفعلِ أزماتٍ متتاليّةٍ واجهها العربُ والمسلمون. تَسْعَى هَذِهِ الدِّرَاسَةُ إلى بَيَانِ مَدْلُولِ الإصلاحِ المتَعَلِّقِ بإعَادَةِ قراءة النّص القرآنيِّ، في مستوييه الاجتماعيّ واللّغويّ. والحديثُ عنْ هَذا الشكلِ من الإصلاح هو حديثٌ عن لحظةٍ قاومَتْ فيها قيمُ التَّنوير ضروب التّقليدِ. غير أنَّ استئناف هذا المشروعِ الإصلاحيِّ، قد أمسى من الضّروراتِ، التي لا حِوَلَ عنها من أجلِ الانتقال إلى طور الحداثة. The Qur’anic text received abundant attention and authorship throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. Islamic Reform attempt to re-interpret the Qur'an in accordance with modern conditions, in the orbit of what may be termed a "rational interpretation", we mean by "rationalization" , in this place, the results of the Qur'anic interpretations, forms understood and receives, from circles of mythologizing that wrap it up a long of time, where Reasoning reached the height of its activity with some of the reformist thinkers, especially with Mohamed Abduh. However, this attempt of reform ended in its wake, entering a narrow road due to successive crises faced by Arabs and Muslims This study seeks to clarify the meaning of reform related to re-reading the Qur’anic text, on two levels social and linguistic. The discussion about this form of reform is about a moment when the values of the Enlightenment resisted the sorts of tradition. However, the resumption of this reform project has become an indispensable necessity for the transition to modernity. (shrink)
Nowadays, Arab and Muslim societies live a new phase, in which a modern vision is being developed about many teachings brought about by religions, especially Islam, including the teachings concerning women, their rights and position in society. It has come in a new induction of religious texts and Islamic heritage. This movement in the Arab world has been called feminism. Islamic feminism tries to present the idea of equality as part of the Qur’anic concept of equality between human beings. It (...) calls for the application of the concept of justice that was brought about by the teachings of Islam. In this article, we have tried to put forth the continuing debate on the situation of Islamic feminism in the Islamic discourse, discuss its most important epistemological foundations and present a critical analytical view of this new discourse. We have concluded that this new induction of women's rights comes within the general Islamic framework, and that it is acceptable on condition that it would not blindly imitate the Western culture, but to adopt its own foundations and epistemological perspectives derived from the Qur’anic teachings. Many of opinions proposed by interpretative feminism’s leading women may be wrong and not but personal attempts. Some of them need more thoughtful contemplation, in order to get to definitive conclusion about it. (shrink)
Originally introduced by Plato and Aristotle, Moderation Theory in Ethics is the most prevalent theory of ethics among Islamic scholars. Moderation Theory suggests that every virtue or excellence of character lies in the mean between two vices: excess or defect. Every ethical virtue comes from moderation in actions or emotions and every ethical vice comes from excess or defect. This paper suggests that while Islamic scholars have been influenced by this doctrine, they have also developed and re-conceptualized it in innovative (...) ways. Kindī, Miskawayh, Avicenna, Rāghib Isfahānī, Nasīr al-Dīn Ṭusī, and others are among the Islamic contributors to the subject. Some of their innovations in this theory are as follows: bringing together Aristotle's doctrine of the mean with Plato's psychology (by Kindī), dividing virtues into four higher genuses, dividing vices into eight higher genuses, setting various kinds of vices and virtues under these higher genuses (by Miskawayh), adding the vice qualitative criteria to Aristotle's vice quantitative criteria (excess and defect) (by Ṭusī), dividing various conceptualizations of justice (by Avicenna), adding religious and mystical virtues into the existing list of virtues (by Rāghib Isfahānī), and proposing a comprehensive model for curing diseases of the soul. This paper seeks to establish the main contributions of these Muslim scholars to Moderation Theory and elaborate on this theory’s evolution within the Islamic world. (shrink)
Although some Muslim scholars have been affected in their ethical system by ancient Greek philosophers, they have also added some Islamic teachings to it and established a combined ethical system (philosophical and religious). Raghib Isfahani, the author of Al-Dharīʿa, is one of these Muslim scholars whose ethical system in this book should be regarded as a combined Islamic Virtue Ethics. It is the combination of Quranic and Philosophical Virtue Ethics. The general framework of his theory is philosophical adopted from Aristotle's (...) and Plato's Virtue Ethics, however, the content of his theory is completely Islamic and Quranic. One of the significant innovations of Raghib in philosophical Virtue Ethics is adding religious virtues to moral virtues. He added theses four religious virtues: Hidāya (God's guidance), Rushd (God's supplement), Tasdīd (God's giving strong will to individuals) and Taʾyīd (God's assistance) to Plato's four ethical virtues (wisdom, temperance, courage and justice). He has called them Tufīqī virtues. According to Raghib, there is no way to obtain virtues but by God's guidance and supplement. By inspiration from Quran, he divided justice into absolute and conditional one. This innovation help us in reconciling Muʿtazilites and as Ashʿarites dispute in being moral goodness and badness rational or religious. (shrink)
One of the major arguments for theological voluntarism offered by the Ash’arites involves the claim that that some of the factors upon which our salvation or condemnation depend are beyond our control. We will call this “the problem of salvific luck.” According to the Ash’arites, the fact that God does save and condemn human beings on the basis of factors beyond their control casts doubt on any non-voluntarist conception of divine justice. A common way to respond to this Ash’arite argument (...) for voluntarism is to eliminate the role of luck in God’s judgments. But this is not the Mu’tazilite way of resisting the argument. The Mu’tazilite, who oppose theological voluntarism, choose a more daunting solution to the problem of salvific luck. They reject the claim that God’s Judgment concerning the eternal destiny of some persons would be unjust if it depended upon factors beyond their control. The paper discusses this solution to the problem of salvific luck. (shrink)
1. Muhasibian Religious Subjectivity & the Travails of Sincerity -- 2. Living with Vulnerabilities: Muhasibian Moral Subjectivity and Self-Care -- 3. Belief Perspectives & the Nursian Religious Subject -- 4. Nursian Believer as Moral Subject.