This study examines the construction of a positive corporate image in public statements issued by 12 Chilean companies facing a crisis in the period January 2008 to July 2010. Drawing on repair image theory, narrative theory, and argumentation theory, this article aims to investigate which discursive strategies and which linguistic structures have been instrumental in this construction. Three analytical categories were investigated in this study, namely, image repair strategies, construction of ethos, and narratives. In each of these categories, special attention (...) is paid to lexico-grammatical features and socio-pragmatic strategies. The analysis shows that the core image repair strategy is denial, which is accomplished through a highly rhetorical language. It also demonstrates how the public statements create a secondary narrative of the companies’ good sense, good moral character, and goodwill, through the use and abuse of linguistic and pragmatic devices. (shrink)
Cuando enfrentan un escándalo, las empresas deben entablar una comunicación efectiva para intentar aminorar los efectos de la publicidad negativa sobre su imagen corporativa. Uno de los géneros empleados por las empresas como formas de discurso de reparación de la imagen es la declaración pública, que corresponde a un texto escrito corto emitido por una empresa con el propósito de comunicar su versión de la crisis que enfrenta directamente al público general, publicándola en el sitio web de la compañía, o (...) bien pagando una inserción en un periódico. El presente estudio, un estudio de casos múltiples, se propone determinar si la retórica empleada por las empresas chilenas cuando enfrentan un escándalo mediático, es decir, la forma en que argumentan y se defienden de las acusaciones de mala conducta, es ética y lícita desde la perspectiva de la ética empresarial. Para ello, se realizó un análisis crítico del manejo de la carga de la prueba en un corpus de veintiséis declaraciones públicas emitidas por empresas chilenas tras una crisis que empañó su imagen corporativa. Basándonos en la regla de la carga de la prueba propuesta desde la teoría pragma-dialéctica, y en algunos lineamientos para el diseño de códigos de ética corporativos planteados en la literatura se pudo determinar la validez de la argumentación retórica desplegada por las empresas. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de las empresas evaden la carga de la prueba, lo que sugiere que estas empresas chilenas no se sienten obligadas a dar cuenta de sus acciones. El análisis ético revela que en la vasta mayoría de estas declaraciones no se emplea una retórica que evidencie un respeto hacia los afectados por la actividad de la empresa, especialmente hacia los consumidores, los trabajadores de la empresa y los competidores. Una de las conclusiones del estudio es que las empresas chilenas evidencian una concepción bastante limitada de lo que es la ética empresarial, que no considera los conceptos de transparencia ni responsabilidad pública y de control. (shrink)
We present an inferentialist account of collective rationality and intentionality, according to which beliefs and other intentional states are understood in terms of the normative statuses attributed to, and undertaken by, the participants of a discursive practice—namely, their discursive or practical commitments and entitlements. Although these statuses are instituted by the performances and attitudes of the agents, they are not identified with any physical or psychological entity, process or relation. Therefore, we argue that inferentialism allows us to talk of collective (...) intentionality and agency without needing to posit the existence of any sort of collective psychology or mind. (shrink)
In this article I look for an alternative way in which ‘unreasonable’ people may be included in a liberal society. Differing from Rawls, whose reasonable hope is for unreasonable people gradually to adhere to liberal institutions so that, over time, an overlapping consensus is reached, I propose the alternative way of them supporting these institutions as a special modus vivendi, which does not require them to renounce their non-reasonableness. First I detail the Rawlsian notion of reasonableness and unreasonableness; second, I (...) discuss how the treatment of the unreasonable is addressed by Rawls; third, taking inspiration from two accounts of how to consider the ‘unreasonable’ within a liberal society, I maintain that a subset of ‘unreasonable’ (I call them ‘non-reasonable’) may be included in public debate; fourth, I propose that their way of inclusion is a stable modus vivendi. (shrink)
Scientization of the Social – Politization of Knowledge? On a Narrative of the History of the Twentieth Century. The spread of scientific methods and expert cultures in the social, political and economic fields represents a key aspect of twentieth century history. In German-speaking historiography, the “scientization of the social” has advanced to an influential concept for research into the role of social and human sciences within this development. Exploring this analytical framework against the background of methodological debates, this paper raises (...) the question of how the relationship between the academic and the political spheres in modern societies can be theoretically conceived. (shrink)
Success semantics is a theory of content that characterizes the truth-conditions of mental representations in terms of the success-conditions of the actions derived from them. Nanay : 151-165, 2013) and Dokic and Engel have revised this theory in order to defend it from the objections that assailed its previous incarnations. I argue that both proposals have seemingly decisive flaws. More specifically, these revised versions of the theory fail to deal adequately with the open-ended possibility of unforeseen obstacles for the success (...) of our actions. I suggest that the problem of ignored obstacles undermines success semantics quite generally, including alternative formulations such as Blackburn’s. (shrink)
Fr. Sala attempts in this article to provide readers and students of Lonergan with a clear, precise, and condensed presentation of his conception of method in theology in today’s context. He does this by sketching the most important stages in the evolution of Lonergan’s thought. The core of this presentation is the analysis of the “human subject in its subjectivity.” Lonergan deals primarily not with the content of theological science but with the operations theologians perform in constructing theology. He endeavors (...) to clarify this subjectivity in all its dimensions. Having given us an analysis of Lonergan’s Verbum articles, Sala goes on to present Lonergan’s Insight under three headings: knowledge, objectivity, and reality. This done, he proceeds to summarize Method in Theology under these headings: the religious dimension of the subject, the structure of theological method, the specific theological principle of a method in theology, and the authentic subject as the foundation for theological reflection.The article is a masterly presentation of a vast area of research and a good introduction to Lonergan’s works.This article appeared in Theologie und Philosophie 63 (1988) 34-59 and was titled: “B. Lonergans Methode der Theologie: Ein Theologe hinterfugt seinen eigenen Verstand.” Von Giovanni B. Sala, S.J. (shrink)
El artículo con el título “Acerca de los progymnasmata” firmado con el nombre de Diony González Rendón fue publicado en la revista Escritos, vol. 16, No. 36 (enero-junio de 2008), pp. 260-282. Después de su publicación el día 10 de 0ctubre de 2012, el profesor Jose Antonio Fernández Delgado comunicó a la jefatura de la editorial UPB que este artículo era de su autoría y consideraba que era un plagio. En consecuencia, el profesor Delgado procedió a adjuntar las evidencias necesarias (...) para determinar que se ha había incurrido en un plagio por parte del señor Diony Gonzalez, de la obra titulada: “Influencia literaria de los progymnásmata” publicado en el libro J. A. Fernández Delgado, F. Pordomingo & A. Stramaglia (Eds.), Escuela y literatura en Grecia Antigua, Cassino 2007, pp. 273-306, libro que recoge los trabajos presentados en el simposio internacional que tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Salamanca del 17 al 19 de noviembre de 2004. Dicho libro se terminó de imprimir en mayo de 2007, según consta en sus datos de copy rightajun. (shrink)
ABSTRACTSeveral authors have claimed that indicative conditionals are sensitive to the epistemic perspective of agents. According to this sort of view, the truth of an indicative conditional depends on the background evidence of some relevant agent or group of agents. In this paper, I argue that the context-dependence of indicative conditionals goes beyond this. Indicative conditionals are not only sensitive to the evidence of agents, but also to contextual factors that determine what is inferable from such background evidence. More specifically, (...) my proposal is that when the inference associated with a conditional is defeasible, the truth of that conditional is sensitive to practical stakes. (shrink)
There is an interesting contrast between permissions to act and permissions to believe. Plausibly, if it is permissible to believe something from a perspective with incomplete evidence, it cannot become impermissible to believe it from a second perspective with complete evidence. In contrast, it seems that something permissible to do for an agent in a perspective with limited evidence can become impermissible in a second perspective in which all the relevant evidence is available. What is more, an agent with incomplete (...) evidence may be permitted to do something that she knows would be impermissible if she occupied a perspective of complete evidence. In this paper, I argue that this contrast is explained by a disanalogy between the role played by belief in epistemic deliberation and the role played by action in practical deliberation. Epistemic deliberation may be closed by adopting other attitudes than belief, whereas in general, practical deliberation can only be closed by endorsing some course of action. Thus, when there are pressures to close some practical deliberation, agents have to make a decision about what to do even if they lack relevant information. By contrast, lacking relevant evidence, agents may always refrain from forming a belief and close instead their epistemic deliberation by adopting some other attitude. (shrink)
In this paper I argue that defeasible inferences are occasion-sensitive: the inferential connections of a given claim depend on features of the circumstances surrounding the occasion of inference. More specifically, it is an occasion-sensitive matter which possible defeaters have to be considered explicitly by the premises of an inference and which possible defeaters may remain unconsidered, without making the inference enthymematic. As a result, a largely unexplored form of occasion-sensitivity arises in inferentialist theories of content that appeal to defeasible inferences.
Traditional expressivists want to preserve a contrast between the representational use of declarative sentences in descriptive domains and the non-representational use of declarative sentences in other areas of discourse. However, expressivists have good reasons to endorse minimalism about representational notions, and minimalism seems to threaten the existence of such a bifurcation. Thus, there are pressures for expressivists to become global anti-representationalists. In this paper I discuss how to reconstruct in non-representationalist terms the sort of bifurcation traditional expressivists were after. My (...) proposal is that the relevant bifurcation can be articulated by appeal to the contrast between relativistic and non-relativistic assertoric practices. I argue that this contrast, which can be specified without appeal to representational notions, captures the core intuitions behind the expressivist bifurcation. (shrink)
This paper examines the meaning of what Karol Wojtyła/John Paul II calls “The Law of the Gift,” namely, “Man, who is the only creature on earth which God willed for itself, can fully find himself only through a sincere gift of himself.” After explaining what it means to be “willed for itself,” I consider how “finding oneself only through a gift of self ” is justified. I then argue that in his theory of self-gift,Wojtyła/John Paul II espouses an “embodied” altruism. (...) Two objections to Wojtyła/John Paul II’s account are also addressed: (1) the idea that finding fulfillment (moral goodness) through self-giving is incompatible with altruism and (2) that reciprocal self-giving is incompatible with altruism. I defend Wojtyła/John Paul II’s notion of self-giving against these objections in several ways, but focus on evidence for the compatibility of subjective enrichment and altruism. (shrink)
Neste artigo, apresentamos algumas experiências realizadas na disciplina de Estágio Supervisionado em Educação Infantil I, do curso de Pedagogia da UNIVATES, no qual investigou-se as possibilidades de conciliar a funcionalidade do espaço da sala de aula dos bebês com objetivos pedagógicos. Os dados foram obtidos mediante a realização de filmagens, fotografias e do uso de Diário de Campo. Observa-se que buscar contemplar na sala de aula de Educação Infantil os interesses e necessidades das crianças e dos adultos, exige dos docentes (...) uma escuta sensível do que as crianças manifestam, bem como, a criação de novos materiais e uso de diferentes estratégias a fim de garantir a multissensorialidade do espaço. (shrink)
In this paper I argue that Aquinas’s doctrine of analogy must be understood against the background of his overall philosophy of being. I suggest that Thomas’s oscillation between an analogy of attribution and proper proportionality should be understood as an attempt to address analogy from two different, albeit complementary, metaphysical perspectives. If created being is, as Thomas maintains, a composition of essence and existential act, then it would seem that the analogy of being would bear out the implications of the (...) composite character of being. Thus, if Thomas’s analogy sometimes focuses on formal causality and at other times upon the communication of act via efficient causality, it is not because he adopts a new doctrine of being that supplants his earlier teaching but because of the twofold character of created being. (shrink)
This essay analyses the positions which are related to the quantitative and qualitative research models in the social disciplines; it examines the universality and invariance of scientific laws; and it presents the inadequacy of the conceptions of logical positivism and of classical epistemology, as..
This essay considers Edith Stein’s account of “essential being” and finds therein a point of continuity with medieval metaphysics. Scholarly attention has already been given to this feature of Stein’s metaphysics; it has been argued that “essential being,” while serving as a crucial point of distinction between Stein andThomas Aquinas’s own metaphysics, functions as a point of similarity between Stein and Duns Scotus. However, I argue that, while there are certainly manypoints of congruence between Stein and Scotus on the topic (...) of essential being, the position that Stein advances comes much closer to Henry of Ghent’s doctrineof esse essentiae. Finally, I show that the consequence of her adopting a position so similar to Henry of Ghent is that it opens Stein to a number of criticisms raised by Scotus himself against esse essentiae. (shrink)
In this paper I discuss Albert the Great’s notion of univocal analogy, which he raised in his Commentary on Pseudo-Dionysius’s De divinis nominibus. While other scholars such as Francis Ruello and Alain de Libera have addressed “analogy” as it pertains to Albert, I intend to treat the “univocal” aspect of “univocal analogy” so as to explain how it informs Albert’s teaching on analogy, and how it remains opposed to any pantheistic reduction of God to creature. While my own account remains (...) close to that of Ruello and De Libera, I hope to show how primacy is to be accorded to univocity in such a manner that, in actual reality, for Albert, it is analogy that qualifies univocity rather than vice versa. (shrink)
Empathy is an emotional response that may facilitate prosocial behavior and inhibit aggression by increasing empathic concern for others. But the vicarious experience of other’s feelings may also turn into personal distress when the person has poor regulation skills and holds stigmatizing beliefs. In thinking about the processes that may trigger the experience of personal distress or empathic concern, research on the influence of psychological flexibility and inflexibility on stigma is showing promising results. Both processes are assessed with the Acceptance (...) and Action Questionnaire–Stigma. The current study sought to carry out a validity study of a Spanish version of the AAQ-S with a sample of adolescents aged 11–17 years. The study included an expanded test of its predictive validity with measures at three times to evaluate the role of psychological flexibility and inflexibility as risk or protective variables for the development of personal distress and/or empathic concern in the stigmatizer. Statistical analyses confirmed a two-correlated-factor solution, the adequate reliability of both factors, and their construct and predictive validity in the expected direction. The stigmatizer’s inflexible reaction to their stigmatizing thoughts predicted the occurrence of personal distress, whereas the stigmatizer’s flexible reaction to their stigmatizing thoughts predicted the occurrence of empathic concern for others. These findings confirm the importance of considering the role of regulatory skills in the experience of empathic concern or personal distress in the presence of stigmatizing thoughts, with possible implications for the promotion of prosocial behavior and the reduction of aggressive behavior among adolescents. (shrink)
I argue that, while Hume’s approach to Newton is sometimes critical and sometimes not, Hume’s position with regard to newtonian method is coherent overall. Rather than speaking of two Humes (one a newtonian, the other not), from an humean perspective we should rather speak of two Newtons: the positivist and the theologian.
Este trabajo examina algunos de los valores epistémicos que la metáfora adquiere en el discurso científico, así como la importancia que esta estrategia cognitiva asume dentro de cualquier programa de investigación que defienda el privilegio epistemológico de la ciencia moderna.
This article explores Bonaventure’s metaphysical account of creation, which holds that at the heart of every creature is a sort of metaphysical vanity. That vanity stems from the exigencies of a creation metaphysics in which the creator-God draws every creature out of nothingness into being. But, while God’s creative act sustains the creature in being, the nothingness from which God preserves creation, on Bonaventure’s view, always remains a feature of creation’s metaphysical constitution. In short, for the Seraphic Doctor, because nothingness (...) always resides in creation, creation itself is fundamentally vain. Since vanity is a central theme in the book of Ecclesiastes, concerning which Bonaventure has left us a commentary, I argue that the metaphysical vision he employs to illuminate the nature of vanity as it pertains to creation—both within his biblical commentary and beyond—can be properly described as a “metaphysic of Ecclesiastes.”. (shrink)
Those who want to know anything about strike action by Italian nurses will find very little written about it. This contribution intends to show that, whatever they are prepared to admit, Italian nurses are not used to strike action because they mostly think of their profession as a form of mission. Even if we could agree with the idea of nursing as a profession subscribing to an ideal of service, we have to distinguish between a real profession and philanthropic work; (...) vocational motivation is not enough to make a good professional. Historically, nurses perceived strikes as contradictory to human need and action; patients must never be left alone. However, Italian nurses are now interested in a dramatic transformation of many aspects of their professional life, becoming conscious of the duty to protect themselves from every kind of exploitation, even if the typical idealism and dedication of nurses makes them vulnerable. (shrink)