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  1. And Therefore.Bram Vaassen & Alex Sandgren - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This article focuses on `therefore' constructions such as ‘The switch is on, and therefore the lights are on’. We submit that the contribution of `therefore’ is to express a dependence as part of the core content of these constructions, rather than being conveyed by conventional implicature (Grice 1975, Potts 2005, Neta 2013) or a triggered presupposition (Pavese 2017, forthcoming, Stokke 2017). We argue that the standard objections to this view can be answered by relying on the general projection hypothesis defended (...)
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  2. Eliminating the Speed of Light as a ‘Constant’.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  3. Free Choice and Homogeneity.Simon Goldstein - 2019 - Semantics and Pragmatics 12:1-48.
    This paper develops a semantic solution to the puzzle of Free Choice permission. The paper begins with a battery of impossibility results showing that Free Choice is in tension with a variety of classical principles, including Disjunction Introduction and the Law of Excluded Middle. Most interestingly, Free Choice appears incompatible with a principle concerning the behavior of Free Choice under negation, Double Prohibition, which says that Mary can’t have soup or salad implies Mary can’t have soup and Mary can’t have (...)
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  4. The Connectives.Ian Humberstone - unknown
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  5. But Merely in What is Indicated by (the Presence of) the Word 'But':(1) Shaq is Huge but He is Agile.Kent Bach - 1999 - Linguistics and Philosophy 22:327-366.
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  6. Connectives.Caterina Mauri & Johan van der Auwera - 2012 - In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.
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  7. Free Choice Disjunction and Epistemic Possibility.Thomas Ede Zimmermann - 2000 - Natural Language Semantics 8 (4):255-290.
    This paper offers an explanation of the fact that sentences of the form (1) ‘X may A or B’ may be construed as implying (2) ‘X may A and X may B’, especially if they are used to grant permission. It is suggested that the effect arises because disjunctions are conjunctive lists of epistemic possibilities. Consequently, if the modal may is itself epistemic, (1) comes out as equivalent to (2), due to general laws of epistemic logic. On the other hand, (...)
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  8. On Modeling Scope of Inflectional Negation.Alex Lascarides & Emily M. Bender - unknown
    In this paper, we investigate the representation of negated sentences in Minimal Recursion Semantics (Copestake, Flickinger, Pollard, & Sag, 2005). We begin with its treatment in the English Resource Grammar (Flickinger, 2000, 2011), a broad-coverage implemented HPSG (Pollard & Sag, 1994), and argue that it is largely a suitable representation for English, despite possible objections. We then explore whether it is suitable for typologically different languages: namely, those that express sentential negation via inflection on the verb, particularly Turkish and Inuktitut. (...)
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  9. Uwagi o implikacji materialnej.Stanisław Kiczuk - 2006 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 54 (1):69-79.
    In the initial part of the article texts of some authors are analyzed concerning material implication. In the further part of the article the proposition is justified that the operator of material implication differs in quality from other truth-functional operators. The final part of the article is devoted to considerations aiming at presenting what the thesis of the classical propositional calculus, in which the main operator is the operator of material implication, denote.
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  10. Connectives and Temporality.Safak Ural - 2001 - Philosophical Inquiry 23 (1-2):47-58.
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  11. The Bush Disjunction.Paul Keeling - 2005 - Philosophy Now 52:29-31.
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  12. Inferential Constructions.Robert J. Fogelin - 1967 - American Philosophical Quarterly 4 (1):15 - 27.
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  13. From Connectives to Argumentative Markers: A Quest for Markers of Argumentative Moves and of Related Aspects of Argumentative Discourse. [REVIEW]Assimakis Tseronis - 2011 - Argumentation 25 (4):427-447.
    In this paper, I explore the potential of systematically studying the linguistic surface of discourse for the purposes of identifying markers of argumentative moves and other related categories, such as types of arguments and argumentative strategies. Such a list of argumentative markers can prove useful for the (semi)automatic treatment of a large corpus of texts. After reviewing literature on the linguistic realization of argumentative moves as well as literature on the subject of discourse markers, it becomes clear that the search (...)
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  14. A Binary Sheffer Operator Which Does the Work of Quantifiers and Sentential Connectives.Robert B. Brandom - 1979 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (2):262-264.
  15. Propositional Logic in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries.E. J. Ashworth - 1968 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 9 (2):179-192.
  16. Propositional Connectives, Supposition, and Consequence in Paul of Pergola.Ivan Boh - 1966 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 7 (1):109-128.
  17. Induction and Disjunction.J. W. Roxbee Cox - 1986 - Philosophical Papers 15 (2-3):89-95.
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  18. How to Interpret “Expletive” Negation Under Bevor in German.Manfred Krifka - unknown
    (2) Peter wollte Potsdam nicht verlassen bevor das Projekt in ruhigem Fahrwasser war. There are other well-known examples of non-interpreted negation, viz. cases of so-called negative concord in Slavic and Romance languages, but also in dialects of German and English. But arguably, in those cases the “superfluous” negation has to be present for grammatical reasons, which is not the case here. I will show that the negation is in fact interpreted, and that, due to a complex interplay of semantic and (...)
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  19. Information Structure in Pa/Sn or Descriptive/Metalinguistic Negation: With Reference to Scalar Implicatures.Chungmin Lee - 2009 - In Dingfang Shu & Ken Turner (eds.), Contrasting Meanings in Languages of the East and West. Peter Lang.
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  20. Negation and Negative Concord in Romance.Ivan A. Sag & Henriëtte De Swart - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (4):373-417.
    This paper addresses the two interpretations that a combination ofnegative indefinites can get in concord languages like French:a concord reading, which amounts to a single negation, and a doublenegation reading. We develop an analysis within a polyadic framework,where a sequence of negative indefinites can be interpreted as aniteration of quantifiers or via resumption. The first option leadsto a scopal relation, interpreted as double negation. The secondoption leads to the construction of a polyadic negative quantifiercorresponding to the concord reading. Given that (...)
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  21. The Semantics of Respective Readings, Conjunction, and Filler-Gap Dependencies.Jean Mark Gawron & Andrew Kehler - 2004 - Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (2):169-207.
    We provide a semantic analysis of respective readings, including butnot limited to the interpretation of examples containing the adverbrespectively, which accounts for a number of facts that haveeither proven difficult for previous studies or heretofore goneunnoticed in the literature. The analysis introduces the new notionsof property sum and proposition sum which integrate smoothly with existing analyses of plurals and distributivity. The analysis also admits of a straightforward account of previouslyunacknowledged examples involving filler-gap dependencies that areproblematic for contemporary syntactic theories. Ramifications (...)
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  22. Dynamic Negation, the One and Only.Marco Hollenberg & Albert Visser - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):137-141.
    We consider the variety of Dynamic Relation Algebras V(DRA). We show that the monoid of an algebra in this variety determines dynamic negation uniquely.
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  23. The Connectives.Lloyd Humberstone - 2011 - MIT Press.
    It will be an essential resource for philosophers, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists, or any scholar who finds connectives, and the conceptual issues surrounding them, to be a source of interest.This landmark work offers both ...
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  24. Logical Reasoning in Natural Language: It is All About Knowledge. [REVIEW]Lucja Iwańska - 1993 - Minds and Machines 3 (4):475-510.
    A formal, computational, semantically clean representation of natural language is presented. This representation captures the fact that logical inferences in natural language crucially depend on the semantic relation of entailment between sentential constituents such as determiner, noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, and verb phrases.The representation parallels natural language in that it accounts for human intuition about entailment of sentences, it preserves its structure, it reflects the semantics of different syntactic categories, it simulates conjunction, disjunction, and negation in natural language by computable (...)
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  25. Truth as Material in Art.Bertram E. Jessup - 1945 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 4 (2):110-114.
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  26. Cn-Definitions of Propositional Connectives.Witold A. Pogorzelski & Piotr Wojtylak - 2001 - Studia Logica 67 (1):1-26.
    We attempt to define the classical propositional logic by use of appropriate derivability conditions called Cn-definitions. The conditions characterize basic properties of propositional connectives.
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  27. The Independence of Connectives.Timothy Smiley - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (4):426-436.
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  28. Misconditionalisation.D. C. Stove - 1972 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):173 – 183.
  29. Negation, Denial and Language Change in Philosophical Logic.Jamie Tappenden - unknown
    This paper uses the strengthened liar paradox as a springboard to illuminate two more general topics: i) the negation operator and the speech act of denial among speakers of English and ii) some ways the potential for acceptable language change is constrained by linguistic meaning. The general and special problems interact in reciprocally illuminating ways. The ultimate objective of the paper is, however, less to solve certain problems than to create others, by illustrating how the issues that form the topic (...)
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Conjunction
  1. De Morgan's Laws and NEG-Raising: A Syntactic View.Diego Gabriel Krivochen - 2018 - Linguistic Frontiers 1 (2):112-121.
    In this paper, we will motivate the application of specific rules of inference from the propositional calculus to natural language sentences. Specifically, we will analyse De Morgan’s laws, which pertain to the interaction of two central topics in syntactic research: negation and coordination. We will argue that the applicability of De Morgan’s laws to natural language structures can be derived from independently motivated operations of grammar and principles restricting the application of these operations. This has direct empirical consequences for the (...)
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  2. Import‐Export and ‘And’.Matthew Mandelkern - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 100 (1):118-135.
    Import-Export says that a conditional 'If p, if q, r' is always equivalent to the conditional 'If p and q, r'. I argue that Import-Export does not sit well with a classical approach to conjunction: given some plausible and widely accepted principles about conditionals, Import-Export together with classical conjunction leads to absurd consequences. My main goal is to draw out these surprising connections. In concluding I argue that the right response is to reject Import-Export and adopt instead a limited version (...)
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  3. We’ve discovered that projection across conjunction is asymmetric.Matthew Mandelkern, Jérémy Zehr, Jacopo Romoli & Florian Schwarz - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (5):473-514.
    Is the mechanism behind presupposition projection and filtering fundamentally asymmetric or symmetric? This is a foundational question for the theory of presupposition which has been at the centre of attention in recent literature. It also bears on broader issues concerning the source of asymmetries observed in natural language: are these simply rooted in superficial asymmetries of language use ; or are they, at least in part, directly encoded in linguistic knowledge and representations? In this paper we aim to make progress (...)
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  4. An Epistemic Interpretation of Paraconsistent Weak Kleene Logic.Damian E. Szmuc - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    This paper extends Fitting's epistemic interpretation of some Kleene logics, to also account for Paraconsistent Weak Kleene logic. To achieve this goal, a dualization of Fitting's "cut-down" operator is discussed, rendering a "track-down" operator later used to represent the idea that no consistent opinion can arise from a set including an inconsistent opinion. It is shown that, if some reasonable assumptions are made, the truth-functions of Paraconsistent Weak Kleene coincide with certain operations defined in this track-down fashion. Finally, further reflections (...)
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  5. Conjunction and Disjunction in Infectious Logics.Hitoshi Omori & Damian Szmuc - 2017 - In Alexandru Baltag, Jeremy Seligman & Tomoyuki Yamada (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction (LORI 2017, Sapporo, Japan). Berlin: Springer. pp. 268-283.
    In this paper we discuss the extent to which conjunction and disjunction can be rightfully regarded as such, in the context of infectious logics. Infectious logics are peculiar many-valued logics whose underlying algebra has an absorbing or infectious element, which is assigned to a compound formula whenever it is assigned to one of its components. To discuss these matters, we review the philosophical motivations for infectious logics due to Bochvar, Halldén, Fitting, Ferguson and Beall, noticing that none of them discusses (...)
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  6. Plurality, Conjunction and Events.Peter Lasersohn - 1994 - Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Plurality, Conjunction and Events presents a novel theory of plural and conjoined phrases, in an event-based semantic framework. It begins by reviewing options for treating the alternation between `collective' and `distributive' readings of sentences containing plural or conjoined noun phrases, including analyses from both the modern and the premodern literature. It is argued that plural and conjoined noun phrases are unambiguously group-denoting, and that the collective/distributive distinction therefore must be located in the predicates with which these noun phrases combine. More (...)
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  7. ‘And’ and ‘But’: A Note.Saul A. Kripke - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):102-105.
    Most philosophers seem to be under a misleading impression about the difference between ‘and’ and ‘but’. They hold that they are truth-functional equivalents but that ‘but’ adds a Gricean ‘conventional implicature’ to ‘and’. Frege thought that the implicature attached to ‘but’ was that the second clause is unlikely given the first; others have simply said they express a contrast between the two. Though the second formulation may seem more general, in practice writers seem to agree with Frege's idea. The present (...)
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  8. Conjunction Meets Negation: A Study in Cross‐Linguistic Variation.Anna Szabolcsi & Bill Haddican - 2004 - Journal of Semantics 21 (3):219-249.
    The central topic of this inquiry is a cross-linguistic contrast in the interaction of conjunction and negation. In Hungarian (Russian, Serbian, Italian, Japanese), in contrast to English (German), negated definite conjunctions are naturally and exclusively interpreted as `neither’. It is proposed that Hungarian-type languages conjunctions simply replicate the behavior of plurals, their closest semantic relatives. More puzzling is why English-type languages present a different range of interpretations. By teasing out finer distinctions in focus on connectives, syntactic structure, and context, the (...)
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  9. Expressing Permission.William B. Starr - 2016 - Semantics and Linguistic Theory 26:325-349.
    This paper proposes a semantics for free choice permission that explains both the non-classical behavior of modals and disjunction in sentences used to grant permission, and their classical behavior under negation. It also explains why permissions can expire when new information comes in and why free choice arises even when modals scope under disjunction. On the proposed approach, deontic modals update preference orderings, and connectives operate on these updates rather than propositions. The success of this approach stems from its capacity (...)
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  10. A Plural Reference Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Syntactic Trees.Friederike Moltmann - 2017 - In C. van Urk / H. Kotek / C. Halpert (eds.): A Pesky Set. Papers for David Pesetsky . MIT Working Papers in Linguistics (MITWPL) 80, MIT Cambridge (Mass.). Cambridge, MA:
    Various syntacticians have argued that coordinate structures involve a three-dimensional syntactic structure. This paper proposes an interpretation of three-dimensional syntactic structures in terms of plural reference and argues that such structures give further support for plural reference, the view that plural terms refer to several entities at once, rather than referring to a single plural individual.
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  11. Can Questions Be Directly Disjoined? (2015).Anna Szabolcsi - 2015 - CLS Invited Talk.
    Observe that complement questions can be either directly or indirectly conjoined, but they can only be indirectly disjoined. • What theories of questions and coordination predict this difference? • Look at Partition theory (Groenendijk & Stokhof 1984) and Inquisitive Semantics (Groenendijk & Roelofsen 2009, Ciardelli et al. 2012).
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  12. What Do Quantifier Particles Do?Anna Szabolcsi - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (2):159-204.
    In many languages, the same particles that form quantifier words also serve as connectives, additive and scalar particles, question markers, roots of existential verbs, and so on. Do these have a unified semantics, or do they merely bear a family resemblance? Are they aided by silent operators in their varied roles―if yes, what operators? I dub the particles “quantifier particles” and refer to them generically with capitalized versions of the Japanese morphemes. I argue that both MO and KA can be (...)
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  13. Conjunction and the Conjunction Fallacy.Katya Tentori, Nicolao Bonini & Daniel Osherson - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3).
  14. Conjunction and Plurality'.Jack Hoeksema - 1983 - In Alice G. B. Ter Meulen (ed.), Studies in Modeltheoretic Semantics. Foris Publications.
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  15. The Conjunction Fallacy and the Many Meanings of And.Ralph Hertwig, Björn Benz & Stefan Krauss - 2008 - Cognition 108 (3):740-753.
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  16. Focus on Conditional Conjunction.E. Keshet - 2013 - Journal of Semantics 30 (2):211-256.
    Certain conjunctions convey the meaning of a conditional statement. For instance, the sentence in (1a), which has the form of a simple conjunction, means roughly the same thing as the sentence in (1b), which has the form of an if-conditional. Such sentences are called conditional conjunctions (CCs): -/- (1) a. You eat too many carrots, and your skin will turn orange. b. If you eat too many carrots, your skin will turn orange. -/- The most in-depth analyses of this phenomenon (...)
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  17. Coordination and Comparatives.Friederike Moltmann - 1992 - Dissertation, MIT
  18. The Review Paradox: On The Diachronic Costs of Not Closing Rational Belief Under Conjunction.Hannes Leitgeb - 2014 - Noûs 48 (4):781-793.
    We argue that giving up on the closure of rational belief under conjunction comes with a substantial price. Either rational belief is closed under conjunction, or else the epistemology of belief has a serious diachronic deficit over and above the synchronic failures of conjunctive closure. The argument for this, which can be viewed as a sequel to the preface paradox, is called the ‘review paradox'; it is presented in four distinct, but closely related versions.
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  19. Connectives Without Truth Tables.Nathan Klinedinst & Daniel Rothschild - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (2):137-175.
    There are certain uses of and and or that cannot be explained by their normal meanings as truth-functional connectives, even with sophisticated pragmatic resources. These include examples such as The cops show up, and a fight will break out (‘If the cops show up, a fight will break out’), and I have no friends, or I would throw a party (‘I have no friends. If I did have friends, I would throw a party.’). We argue that these uses are indeed (...)
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  20. On the Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Syntactic Trees.Friederike Moltmann - 1992 - In Chris Barker & David Dowty (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 2, Ohio State University.
    Syntacticians have proposed three-dimensional syntactic structures to account for the peculiarities of coordination. This paper proposes a way of interpreting such structures and gives an account of sentences of the sort 'John bought and Mary sold a total of ten cars' based on a notion of 'implicit' coordination.
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  21. What Does '&' Mean?Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 5:45-50.
    Using conjunction as an example, I show a technical and philosophical problem when trying to conciliate the currently prevailing views on the meaning of logical connectives: the inferientialist (also called 'syntactic') one based on introduction and elimination rules, and the representationalist (also called 'semantic') one given through truth tables. Mostly I show that the widespread strategy of using the truth theoretical definition of logical consequence to collapse both definitions must be rejected by inferentialists. An important consequence of my argument is (...)
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