84 found
Order:
See also
Varol Akman
Bilkent University
  1. Turing test: 50 years later.Ayse Pinar Saygin, Ilyas Cicekli & Varol Akman - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):463-518.
    The Turing Test is one of the most disputed topics in artificial intelligence, philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. This paper is a review of the past 50 years of the Turing Test. Philosophical debates, practical developments and repercussions in related disciplines are all covered. We discuss Turing's ideas in detail and present the important comments that have been made on them. Within this context, behaviorism, consciousness, the 'other minds' problem, and similar topics in philosophy of mind are discussed. We (...)
    Direct download (16 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  2.  71
    Representing the Zoo World and the Traffic World in the language of the causal calculator.Varol Akman, Selim T. Erdoğan, Joohyung Lee, Vladimir Lifschitz & Hudson Turner - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence 153 (1-2):105-140.
    The work described in this report is motivated by the desire to test the expressive possibilities of action language C+. The Causal Calculator (CCalc) is a system that answers queries about action domains described in a fragment of that language. The Zoo World and the Traffic World have been proposed by Erik Sandewall in his Logic Modelling Workshop—an environment for communicating axiomatizations of action domains of nontrivial size. -/- The Zoo World consists of several cages and the exterior, gates between (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  3.  54
    Steps toward formalizing context.Varol Akman & Mehmet Surav - 1996 - AI Magazine 17 (3):55-72.
    The importance of contextual reasoning is emphasized by various researchers in AI. (A partial list includes John McCarthy and his group, R. V. Guha, Yoav Shoham, Giuseppe Attardi and Maria Simi, and Fausto Giunchiglia and his group.) Here, we survey the problem of formalizing context and explore what is needed for an acceptable account of this abstract notion.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  4. Burn all your textbooks.Varol Akman - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Logic 14 (3).
    The standard propositional exposition of necessary and sufficient conditions, as available in introductory logic texts, leads to a contradiction. It should be abolished.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  5.  91
    The use of situation theory in context modeling.Varol Akman & Mehmet Surav - 1997 - Computational Intelligence 13 (3):427-438.
    At the heart of natural language processing is the understanding of context dependent meanings. This paper presents a preliminary model of formal contexts based on situation theory. It also gives a worked-out example to show the use of contexts in lifting, i.e., how propositions holding in a particular context transform when they are moved to another context. This is useful in NLP applications where preserving meaning is a desideratum.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  6. Strawson on intended meaning and context.Varol Akman & Ferda N. Alpaslan - 1999 - In P. Bouquet, M. Benerecetti, L. Serafini, P. Brezillon & F. Castellani (eds.), CONTEXT 1999: Modeling and Using Context (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol 1688). Berlin: Springer. pp. 1-14.
    Strawson proposed in the early seventies an attractive threefold distinction regarding how context bears on the meaning of 'what is said' when a sentence is uttered. The proposed scheme is somewhat crude and, being aware of this aspect, Strawson himself raised various points to make it more adequate. In this paper, we review the scheme of Strawson, note his concerns, and add some of our own. However, our main point is to defend the essence of Strawson's approach and to recommend (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  7.  28
    Rethinking context as a social construct.Varol Akman - 2000 - Journal of Pragmatics 32 (6):743-759.
    This paper argues that in addition to the familiar approach using formal contexts, there is now a need in artificial intelligence to study contexts as social constructs. As a successful example of the latter approach, I draw attention to 'interpretation' (in the sense of literary theory), viz. the reconstruction of the intended meaning of a literary text that takes into account the context in which the author assumed the reader would place the text. An important contribution here comes from Wendell (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  8.  84
    The complexity of context: guest editors' introduction.Varol Akman & Carla Bazzanella - 2003 - Journal of Pragmatics 35:321-329.
    Papers in this special issue were written upon invitation. They were then subjected to the usual refereeing process of the Journal of Pragmatics. While we have attempted to cover almost all important areas in which context is employed as a conceptual apparatus, our coverage is clearly limited in scope. Accordingly, instead of a general updated overview of the use of context in every conceivable specific field (let's say the state-of-the-art of interdisciplinary research on context: a colossal/impossible enterprise!), we will offer (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  9.  65
    John Haugeland, ed., Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1998 - ACM SIGART Bulletin 9 (3-4):33-36.
    This is a review of Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence, edited by John Haugeland and published by The MIT Press in 1997.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  59
    Contexts of social action: guest editors' introduction.Anita Fetzer & Varol Akman - 2002 - Language and Communication 22:391-402.
    In traditional linguistic accounts of context, one thinks of the immediate features of a speech situation, that is, a situation in which an expression is uttered. Thus, features such as time, location, speaker, hearer and preceding discourse are all parts of context. But context is a wider and more transcendental notion than what these accounts imply. For one thing, context is a relational concept relating social actions and their surroundings, relating social actions, relating individual actors and their surroundings, and relating (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  11.  33
    Situated semantics.Varol Akman - 2009 - In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 401-418.
    Situated semantics can be regarded as an attempt at placing situational context (context of situation) at the center of all discussions of meaning. Situation theory is a theory of information content that takes context very seriously. Individuals, properties, relations, and spatiotemporal locations are basic constructs of situation theory. Individuals are conceived as invariants; having properties and standing in relations, they tend to persist in time and space. An anchoring function binds the location parameters to appropriate objects present in the grounding (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  12.  37
    Situational semantics.Varol Akman - 2009 - In Siobhan Chapman & Christopher Routledge (eds.), Key Ideas in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 209-212.
    An information-based approach to natural language semantics. Formulated by Jon Barwise and John Perry in their influential book Situations and Attitudes (1983), it is built upon the notion of a 'situation' --- a limited part of the real world that a cognitive agent can individuate and has access to. A situation represents a lump of information in terms of a collection of facts. It is through the actualist ontology of situations that the meaning of natural language utterances can be elucidated.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  33
    Bilgisayar profesörü felsefeyle ne yapar?Varol Akman - 2004 - Bilkent Dergisi 1:22-25.
    Bilkent Üniversitesi'nde bu yıl [2003] açılan Felsefe Bölümü’nün başkanlığını yürüten ve ana ilgi alanı yapay zekâ olan Prof. Dr. Varol Akman, yapay zekâyla felsefenin ilişkisini ve Felsefe Bölümü'nün özelliklerini anlattı. (An interview published in Bilkent Magazine about the then new Bilkent Philosophy Department.).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  33
    When silence may mean derision.Varol Akman - 1994 - Journal of Pragmatics 22 (2):211-212.
    In a paper published in 1992, Dennis Kurzon shows that silence does not necessarily mean lack of power: the silent response to a question may well be aiming at gaining control of a situation, viz. exercising power. I would like to extend Kurzon's analysis and argue that at times silence may mean derision or ridicule.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  62
    Editorial: context in context.Bruce Edmonds & Varol Akman - 2002 - Foundations of Science 7 (3):233-238.
    The papers that make up this special issue do not take idealized abstractions of context as their point of departure but rather start with the actual phenomena under study and later generalize. We agree that, more often than not, giving a formal model and providing a theory of a loaded notion – such as context – can lead to important insights. Thus, precise models of context and accompanying theories are useful. However, given the widely different fields, methodologies and worldviews within (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  16.  20
    Robotlar ve planlama.Varol Akman & Erkan Tin - 1993 - Elektrik Mühendisliği 391:37-43.
    Planlama --- bir amaca ulaşmak üzere bir aksiyonlar bütünü tasarlamak --- yapay zekadaki en temel problemlerden biridir. Bu yazıda, robotikte planlama konusuna mantıkçı (logicist) yaklaşım ele alınmaktadır. [Planning --- devising a plan of action to reach a given goal --- is a fundamental problem in AI. This paper reviews the logicist approach to planning in robotics.].
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  53
    The power of physical representations.Varol Akman & Paul J. W. ten Hagen - 1989 - AI Magazine 10 (3):49-65.
    Commonsense reasoning about the physical world, as exemplified by "Iron sinks in water" or "If a ball is dropped it gains speed," will be indispensable in future programs. We argue that to make such predictions (namely, envisioning), programs should use abstract entities (such as the gravitational field), principles (such as the principle of superposition), and laws (such as the conservation of energy) of physics for representation and reasoning. These arguments are in accord with a recent study in physics instruction where (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  18.  19
    Logical connectives.Varol Akman - 2006 - In A. C. Grayling, Naomi Goulder & Andrew Pyle (eds.), The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy (4 volumes). London: Continuum. pp. 1939-1940.
    Logical connectives (otherwise known as 'logical constants' or 'logical particles') have seemed challenging to philosophers of language. This article gives a concise account of logical connectives.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  18
    Context and the indexical 'I'.Varol Akman - 2002 - 1st North American Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (NASSLLI) Workshop on Cognition: Formal Models and Experimental Results, John Perry (Organizer), CSLI, Stanford, CA.
    John Perry argued that the clearest case of an indexical that relies only on the narrow context is 'I,' whose designation depends on the agent and nothing else. In this presentation, I give some examples which show that this view, while essentially correct, may have problems in some rare divergent cases.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  18
    Situation semantics.Varol Akman - 2009 - In Keith Brown & Keith Allan (eds.), Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier. pp. 890-893.
    This article first appeared in "Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2nd Edition," Keith Brown, ed., pp. 398-401, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  17
    The logic of counteraction.Erkan Tin & Varol Akman - 1993 - Elektrik 1 (3):167-181.
    We extend causal theories and study actions in domains involving multiple agents. Causal theories, invented by Yoav Shoham, are based on a temporal nonmonotonic logic and have computationally tractable aspects. Since Shoham's formalism does not provide an adequate mechanism for representing simultaneous actions and specifying their consequences, we introduce the notion of counteractions while preserving the efficiency and model-theoretic properties of causal theories.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  16
    Undaunted sets.Varol Akman - 1992 - ACM SIGACT News 23 (1):47-48.
    This is a short piece of humor (I hope) on nonstandard set theories. An earlier version appeared in Bull. EATCS 45: 146-147 (1991).
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  16
    Computing with causal theories.Erkan Tin & Varol Akman - 1992 - International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 6 (4):699-730.
    Formalizing commonsense knowledge for reasoning about time has long been a central issue in AI. It has been recognized that the existing formalisms do not provide satisfactory solutions to some fundamental problems, viz. the frame problem. Moreover, it has turned out that the inferences drawn do not always coincide with those one had intended when one wrote the axioms. These issues call for a well-defined formalism and useful computational utilities for reasoning about time and change. Yoav Shoham of Stanford University (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  15
    Analogy-making in situation theory.Emre Sahin & Varol Akman - 2008 - In Randal B. Bernstein & Wesley N. Curtis (eds.), Artificial Intelligence: New Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. pp. 299-321.
    Analogy-making is finding analogies between different situations. In this paper, we provide a new model of computational analogy-making which uses Situation Theory as its formal background. Situation Theory is a semantic and logical theory which provides a naturalistic way to represent relations in situations. The system described in this paper is aimed at solving analogy problems made by basic geometric figures in a chessboard-like environment.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  14
    Ronald Cole, Joseph Mariani, Hans Uszkoreit, Annie Zaenen & Victor Zue, editors, Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1999 - Computational Linguistics 25 (1):161-164.
    This is a review of Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology, [editorial board: Ronald Cole (editor-in-chief), Joseph Mariani, Hans Uszkoreit, Annie Zaenen, Victor Zue], Cambridge University Press (Studies in Natural Language Processing) and Giardini Editori e Stampatori in Pisa (Linguistica Computazionale, volumes XII-XII1), managing editors: Giovanni Battista Varile and Antonio Zampolli, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  13
    On an alleged problem with Stalnaker’s representation of context.Varol Akman - 2001 - Contexts in Logics, a Workshop Co-Located with CONTEXT'01: 3rd International Conference on Modeling and Using Context, Dundee, UK.
    We consider an objection of Hans Kamp (based on an example by Barbara Partee) to Robert Stalnaker's model of context.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  13
    Mental models of force and motion.Varol Akman, Deniz Ede, William Randolph Franklin & Paul J. W. ten Hagen - 1990 - In Okyay Kaynak (ed.), Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Motion Control (Istanbul, 20-22 August 1990). New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp. 153-158.
    Future robots should have common sense about the world in order to handle the problems they will encounter. A large part of this commonsense knowledge must be naive physics knowledge, since carrying out even the simplest everyday chores requires familiarity with physics laws. But how should one start codifying this knowledge? What kind of skills should be elicited from the experts (each and every one of us)? This paper will attempt to provide some hints by studying the mental models of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28.  13
    Vagueness.Varol Akman - 2006 - In A. C. Grayling, Naomi Goulder & Andrew Pyle (eds.), The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy (4 volumes). London: Continuum. pp. 3260-3261.
    Vagueness, 'the quality or condition of being vague' (OED), has kept philosophers busy since ancient times. This article gives a concise account of vagueness.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  12
    Focusing for pronoun resolution in English discourse: an implementation.Ebru Ersan & Varol Akman - 1994 - Department of Computer Engineering Technical Reports, Bilkent University.
    Anaphora resolution is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing. This study examines focusing as a tool for the resolution of pronouns which are a kind of anaphora. Focusing is a discourse phenomenon like anaphora. Candy Sidner formalized focusing in her 1979 MIT PhD thesis and devised several algorithms to resolve definite anaphora including pronouns. She presented her theory in a computational framework but did not generally implement the algorithms. Her algorithms related to focusing and pronoun (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  11
    Gul A. Agha, Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1990 - AI Magazine 11 (4):92-93.
    This is a review of Gul A. Agha’s Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems (The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987), a part of the MIT Press Series in Artificial Intelligence, edited by Patrick Winston, Michael Brady, and Daniel Bobrow.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  11
    Identity.Varol Akman - 2006 - In A. C. Grayling, Naomi Goulder & Andrew Pyle (eds.), The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy (4 volumes). London: Continuum. pp. 1610-1611.
    In logic, the law (or principle) of identity states simply: 'A is A'. This article gives a concise account of identity.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  10
    On a proposal of Strawson concerning context vs. 'what is said'.Varol Akman - 2008 - In Paolo Bouquet, Luciano Serafini & Richmond H. Thomason (eds.), Perspectives on Contexts, CSLI Lecture Notes No. 180. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications. pp. 79-94.
    In Strawson’s Entity and Identity, there are two essays (Chapters 11 and 12), which study the notion of context. In these essays, Strawson advances a threefold distinction regarding how context bears on the meaning of 'what is said' when a sentence is uttered. -/- In this paper, we'll (i) review the original scheme of Strawson and summarize his improvements to his own scheme, and (ii) add our own improvements to make it even more thoroughgoing. We'll also show that unless it (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  9
    Peter D. Mosses, Action Semantics[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1993 - Journal of Logic and Computation 3 (4):442-444.
    This is a review of Action Semantics, by Peter D. Mosses, Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science 26, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34.  9
    Absolut I.Varol Akman - 2001 - In Filip Buekens (ed.), Proceedings of Information, Indexicality and Consciousness: A Conference on John Perry. Tilburg, The Netherlands: Department of Philosophy, Tilburg University.
    Having been influenced by John Perry's 1997 article, "Indexicals and Demonstratives," in this paper I take a closer look at contexts for indexicals, more specifically the indexical "I." (N.B. The adjective in the title is not misspelt; it is used in the sense of the leading brand of premium vodka.).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  9
    Commonsense aspects of buying and selling.Varol Akman & Murat Ersan - 1996 - Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal 27 (4):327-352.
    We describe an experimental approach toward implementing a commonsense "microtheory" for buying and selling. Our prototype system characterizes how intelligent agents hold items and money, how they buy and sell items, and the way money and items are transferred. The ontology of the system includes money (cash, check, credit card), agents (people, organizations), items (movable, real estate, service), barter, and the notions of transfer, loan, buying by installments, profit, and loss.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  9
    Representing emotions in terms of object directedness.Varol Akman & Hakime G. Unsal - 1994 - Department of Computer Engineering Technical Reports, Bilkent University.
    A logical formalization of emotions is considered to be tricky because they appear to have no strict types, reasons, and consequences. On the other hand, such a formalization is crucial for commonsense reasoning. Here, the so-called "object directedness" of emotions is studied by using Helen Nissenbaum's influential ideas.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  8
    Bruce D'Ambrosio, Qualitative Process Theory Using Linguistic Variables[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1991 - ACM SIGART Bulletin 2 (2):25-27.
    Ken Forbus's Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) is a popular theory for reasoning about the physical aspects of the daily world. Qualitative Process Theory Using Linguistic Variables by Bruce D'Ambrosio (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989) is an attempt to fill some gaps in QPT.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Editorial: Alan Turing and artificial intelligence.Varol Akman & Patrick Blackburn - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):391-395.
    The papers you will find in this special issue of JoLLI develop letter and spirit of Turing’s original contributions. They do not lazily fall back into the same old sofa, but follow – or question – the inspiring ideas of a great man in the search for new, more precise, conclusions. It is refreshing to know that the fertile landscape created by Alan Turing remains a source of novel ideas.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Issues in commonsense set theory.Mujdat Pakkan & Varol Akman - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence Review 8:279-308.
    The success of set theory as a foundation for mathematics inspires its use in artificial intelligence, particularly in commonsense reasoning. In this survey, we briefly review classical set theory from an AI perspective, and then consider alternative set theories. Desirable properties of a possible commonsense set theory are investigated, treating different aspects like cumulative hierarchy, self-reference, cardinality, etc. Assorted examples from the ground-breaking research on the subject are also given.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40.  6
    P. H. Winston & R. H. Brown, eds. Artificial Intelligence: An MIT Perspective (Volume 1)[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1983 - ACM SIGART Bulletin 84:24-26.
    Review of "Artificial Intelligence: An MIT Perspective, Volume 1: Expert Problem Solving, Natural Language Understanding, Intelligent Computer Coaches, Representation and Learning," Patrick Henry Winston & Richard Henry Brown (eds.), The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  72
    Nonstandard set theories and information management.Varol Akman & Mujdat Pakkan - 1996 - Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 6:5-31.
    The merits of set theory as a foundational tool in mathematics stimulate its use in various areas of artificial intelligence, in particular intelligent information systems. In this paper, a study of various nonstandard treatments of set theory from this perspective is offered. Applications of these alternative set theories to information or knowledge management are surveyed.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  42.  5
    P. H. Winston & R. H. Brown, eds., Artificial Intelligence: An MIT Perspective (Volume 2)[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1983 - ACM SIGART Bulletin 85:26-27.
    Review of "Artificial Intelligence: An MIT Perspective, Volume 2: Understanding Vision, Manipulation, Computer Design, Symbol Manipulation," Patrick Henry Winston & Richard Henry Brown (eds.), The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2nd printing, 1980.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  93
    John Barwise & Lawrence Moss, Vicious Circles: On the Mathematics of Non-Wellfounded Phenomena[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1997 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (4):460-464.
    This is a review of Vicious Circles: On the Mathematics of Non-Wellfounded Phenomena, written by Jon Barwise and Lawrence Moss and published by CSLI Publications in 1996.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44.  52
    Ripping the text apart at different seams.Varol Akman - 1994 - Stanford Humanities Review 4 (1).
    This is a brief reply to Herbert A. Simon's fine paper "Literary Criticism: A Cognitive Approach," Stanford Humanities Review, Special Supplement (Bridging the Gap: Where Cognitive Science Meets Literary Criticism), vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-26, Spring 1994.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45. John Lyons, Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1997 - Natural Language Engineering 3 (1):89-95.
    Sir John Lyons’s Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995) is a tolerable addition to the list of half a dozen or so impressive titles he has produced on linguistic subjects over the years. This book was initially planned to be a second edition of his Language, Meaning and Context (Lyons, 1981). However, in the end it turned out to be a successor and replacement. For it is, in the author’s words, a very different book compared to (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  34
    HYPERSOLVER: a graphical tool for commonsense set theory.Mujdat Pakkan & Varol Akman - 1995 - Information Sciences 85 (1-3):43-61.
    This paper investigates an alternative set theory (due to Peter Aczel) called Hyperset Theory. Aczel uses a graphical representation for sets and thereby allows the representation of non-well-founded sets. A program, called HYPERSOLVER, which can solve systems of equations defined in terms of sets in the universe of this new theory is presented. This may be a useful tool for commonsense reasoning.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  47.  93
    Guest editor’s introduction: situations and artificial intelligence.Varol Akman - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (4):475-477.
    In this special issue of Minds and Machines ("Situations and Artificial Intelligence") we take a close look at recent situation-theoretic research which has mostly originated within a philosophical framework but promises to have strong connotations for Artificial Intelligence workers. The seven papers which make up this special issue (three of the papers appear in Minds and Machines 9(1)) demonstrate the advantages of the situation-based approach towards problems with a definite AI flavor.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. On Strawsonian contexts.Varol Akman - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):363-382.
    P.F. Strawson proposed in the early seventies a threefold distinction regarding how context bears on the meaning of "what is said" when a sentence is uttered. The proposal was somewhat tentative and, being aware of this aspect, Strawson himself raised various questions to make it more adequate. In this paper, we review Strawson's scheme, note his concerns, and add some of our own. We also defend its essence and recommend it as an insightful entry point re the interplay of intended (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. Vladimir Lifschitz, ed., Formalizing Common Sense: Papers by John McCarthy[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence 77 (2):359-369.
    "Language has never been accessible to me in the way that it was for Sachs. I'm shut off from my own thoughts, trapped in a no-man's-land between feeling and articulation, and no matter how hard I try to express myself, I can rarely come up with more than a confused stammer. Sachs never had any of these difficulties. Words and things matched up for him, whereas for me they are constantly breaking apart, flying off in a hundred different directions. I (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  43
    The truth about "it is true that…".Varol Akman & M. Burak Senol - 2016 - Pragmatics and Cognition 23 (2):284-299.
    Deflationism, one of the influential philosophical doctrines of truth, holds that there is no property of truth, and that overt uses of the predicate "true" are redundant. However, the hypothetical examples used by theorists to exemplify deflationism are isolated sentences, offering little to examine what the predicate adds to meaning within context. We oppose the theory not on philosophical but on empirical grounds. We collect 7,610 occurrences of "it is true that" from 10 influential periodicals published in the United States. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 84