We characterize all finitary consequence relations over S4.3, both syntactically, by exhibiting so-called passive rules that extend the given logic, and semantically, by providing suitable strongly adequate classes of algebras. This is achieved by applying an earlier result stating that a modal logic L extending S4 has projective unification if and only if L contains S4.3. In particular, we show that these consequence relations enjoy the strong finite model property, and are finitely based. In this way, we extend the known (...) results by Bull and Fine, from logics, to consequence relations. We also show that the lattice of consequence relations over S4.3 is countable and distributive and it forms a Heyting algebra. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to show that the operations of forming direct products and submatrices suffice to construct exhaustive semantics for all structural strengthenings of the consequence determined by a given class of logical matrices.
This paper, which in its subject matter goes back to works on strongly nite logics , is concerned with the following problems: Let Cn1; Cn2 be two strongly nite logics over the same propositional language. Is the supremum of Cn1 and Cn2 also a strongly nite operation? Is any nite matrix axiomatizable by a nite set of standard rules? The rst question can be found in  . The second conjec- ture was formulated by Wolfgang Rautenberg, but investigations into this (...) problem had been carried out earlier in works of many logicians . Moreover, Stephen Bloom  posed a conjecture stronger than that: the consequence de- termined by a nite matrix is nitely based, i.e. it is the consequence generated by a nite set of standard rules. This hypothesis was, however, disproved by Andrzej Wronski  . In the present paper it is shown that neither nor holds true. The negative answer to can be viewed as a generalization of the result given by Andrzej Wronski . (shrink)
This is an expository paper on the problem of independent axiomatization of any set of sentences. This subject was investigated in 50's and 60's, and was abandoned later on, though not all fundamental questions were settled then. Besides, some papers written at that time are hardly available today and there are mistakes and misunderstandings there. We would like to get back to that unfinished business to clarify the subject matter, correct mistakes and answer questions left open by others. We shall (...) deal with results of many authors. However, they will be exposed in a different manner, with complete proofs and, often, with refinements and supplements. Some questions will be brought up to date and related to other questions in logic. New results and questions will also be added. Stress will be laid on constructive aspects; that is, we will examine the problem of the possibility of independent axiomatization as well as algebraic means by use of which independent sets of axioms can be given. (shrink)
We consider the notion of structural completeness with respect to arbitrary (finitary and/or infinitary) inferential rules. Our main task is to characterize structurally complete intermediate logics. We prove that the structurally complete extension of any pure implicational in termediate logic C can be given as an extension of C with a certain family of schematically denned infinitary rules; the same rules are used for each C. The cardinality of the family is continuum and, in the case of (the pure implicational (...) fragment of) intuitionistic logic, the family cannot be reduced to a countable one. It means that the structurally complete extension of the intuitionistic logic is not countably axiomatizable by schematic rules. (shrink)
This paper develops a proof theory for logical forms of proofs in the case of monadic languages. Among the consequences are different kinds of generalization of proofs in various schematic proof systems. The results use suitable relations between logical properties of partial proof data and algebraic properties of corresponding sets of linear diophantine equations.