In the last decade the concept of context has been extensivelyexploited in many research areas, e.g., distributed artificialintelligence, multi agent systems, distributed databases, informationintegration, cognitive science, and epistemology. Three alternative approaches to the formalization of the notion ofcontext have been proposed: Giunchiglia and Serafini's Multi LanguageSystems (ML systems), McCarthy's modal logics of contexts, andGabbay's Labelled Deductive Systems.Previous papers have argued in favor of ML systems with respect to theother approaches. Our aim in this paper is to support these arguments froma (...) theoretical perspective. We provide a very general definition of ML systems, which covers allthe ML systems used in the literature, and we develop a proof theoryfor an important subclass of them: the MR systems. We prove variousimportant results; among other things, we prove a normal form theorem,the sub-formula property, and the decidability of an importantinstance of the class of the MR systems. The paper concludes with a detailed comparison among the alternativeapproaches. (shrink)
With the rapid development of China’s Internet finance industry and the continuous growth of transaction amount in recent years, a variety of financial risks have increased, especially credit risk in the financial industry. Also, the credit risk evaluation is usually made by using the application card scoring model, which has the shortcomings of strict data assumption and inability to process complex data. In order to overcome the limitations of the credit card scoring model and evaluate credit risk better, this paper (...) proposes a credit evaluation model based on extreme gradient boosting tree machine learning algorithm to construct a credit risk assessment model for Internet financial institutions. At the same time, an Internet lending company in China is taken as a case study to compare the performance of the traditional credit card scoring model and the proposed machine learning algorithm model. The results show that ML algorithm has a very significant advantage in the field of Internet financial risk control, it has more accurate prediction results and has no particularly strict assumptions and restrictions on data, and the process of processing data is more convenient and reliable. We should increase the application of ML in the field of financial risk control. The value of this paper lies in enriching the related research of financial technology and providing a new reference for the practice of financial risk control. (shrink)
We describe KAT-ML, an implementation of an interactive theorem prover for Kleene algebra with tests. The system is designed to reflect the natural style of reasoning with KAT that one finds in the literature. One can also use the system to reason about properties of simple imperative programs using schematic KAT. We explain how the system works and illustrate its use with some examples, including an extensive scheme equivalence proof.
This article contributes to conversations on hospitality in educational settings, with a focus on higher education and the online context. We integrate Derrida’s ethics of hospitality framework with a focus on practices of hospitality, including its affective and material, embodied dimension. This article offers empirical examples of practices of what we termed ‘virtual academic hospitality’: during a series of online collaborative and cross borders workshops with teachers of English based in the Gaza Strip, we performed academic hospitality through virtual convivial (...) rituals and the sharing of virtual gifts, which are illustrated here. We propose a revision of the concept of academic hospitality arguing that: firstly, academic hospitality is not limited to intellectual conversations; secondly, that the relationship between hospitality and mobility needs to be revised, since hospitality mediated by the technological medium can be performed, and technology may even stretch hospitality towards the unreachable ‘unconditional hospitality’ theorised by Derrida ; and thirdly, that indigenous epistemics, with their focus on the affective, may offer alternative understandings of conviviality within the academy. These points may contribute to the collective development of a new paradigmatic understanding of hospitality, one which integrates Western and indigenous traditions of hospitality, and which includes the online environment. (shrink)
We present the first effectively presentable fully abstract model for Starkʼs Reduced ML, a call-by-value higher-order programming language featuring integer-valued references. The model is constructed using techniques of nominal game semantics. Its distinctive feature is the presence of carefully restricted information about the store in plays, combined with conditions concerning the participantsʼ ability to distinguish reference names. We show how it leads to an explicit characterization of program equivalence.
In this paper we discuss an interpretation of intuitionistic type theory in many-sorted arithmetic with so-called conditional application. Via the formulas-as-types correspondence the arithmetical system in turn can be embedded in ML, resulting in a characterization of strong Σ-elimination by an axiom of conditional choice.
Should objects count as necessarily having certain properties, despite their not having those properties when they do not exist? For example, should a cat that passes out of existence, and so no longer is a cat, nonetheless count as necessarily being a cat? In this essay I examine different ways of adapting Aldo Bressan’s MLν so that it can accommodate an affirmative answer to these questions. Anil Gupta, in The Logic of Common Nouns, creates a number of languages that have (...) a kinship with Bressan’s MLν , three of which are also tailored to affirmatively answering these questions. After comparing their languages, I argue that metaphysicians and philosophers of language should prefer MLν to Gupta’s languages in most applications because it can accommodate essential properties, like being a cat, while being more uniform and less cumbersome. (shrink)