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Michael Scott [53]Michael G. Scott [3]Michael C. Scott [2]Michael E. Scott [1]
Michael S. Scott [1]
  1. Faith, Belief and Fictionalism.Finlay Malcolm & Michael Scott - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (S1):257-274.
    Is propositional religious faith constituted by belief? Recent debate has focussed on whether faith may be constituted by a positive non-doxastic cognitive state, which can stand in place of belief. This paper sets out and defends the doxastic theory. We consider and reject three arguments commonly used in favour of non-doxastic theories of faith: (1) the argument from religious doubt; (2) the use of ‘faith’ in linguistic utterances; and (3) the possibility of pragmatic faith. We argue that belief is required (...)
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  2. Religious fictionalism.Michael Scott & Finlay Malcolm - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (3):1-11.
    Religious fictionalism is the theory that it is morally and intellectually legitimate to affirm religious sentences and to engage in public and private religious practices, without believing the content of religious claims. This article discusses the main features of fictionalism, contrasts hermeneutic, and revolutionary kinds of fictionalism and explores possible historical and recent examples of religious fictionalism. Such examples are found in recent theories of faith, pragmatic approaches to religion, and mystical traditions in religious theology.
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  3.  44
    A Philosophy of Faith: Belief, Truth and Varieties of Commitment.Finlay Malcolm & Michael Scott - 2022 - New York, NY: Routledge. Edited by Michael Scott.
    Faith occupies an important place in human lives in both religious and secular contexts: faith may be directed towards God, friends, governments, political systems and football teams. It is said to help people through crises and motivate people to achieve life goals. But what is faith? Philosophers and theologians have for centuries been concerned with questions about the rationality of faith, but more recently, have focussed on what kind of psychological attitude faith is. We bring together, for the first time, (...)
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  4. True Grit and the Positivity of Faith.Finlay Malcolm & Michael Scott - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (1):(A1)5-32.
    Most contemporary accounts of the nature of faith explicitly defend what we call ‘the positivity theory of faith’ – the theory that faith must be accompanied by a favourable evaluative belief, or a desire towards the object of faith. This paper examines the different varieties of the positivity theory and the arguments used to support it. Whilst initially plausible, we find that the theory faces numerous problematic counterexamples, and show that weaker versions of the positivity theory are ultimately implausible. We (...)
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  5.  8
    Faith, Belief and Fictionalism.Michael Scott & Finlay Malcolm - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (2):257-274.
    Is propositional religious faith constituted by belief? Recent debate has focussed on whether faith may be constituted by a positive non‐doxastic cognitive state, which can stand in place of belief. This article sets out and defends the doxastic theory. We consider and reject three arguments commonly used in favour of non‐doxastic theories of faith: (1) the argument from religious doubt; (2) the use of ‘faith’ in linguistic utterances; and (3) the possibility of pragmatic faith. We argue that belief is required (...)
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  6. Religious language.Michael Scott - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (6):505-515.
    This study reviews some of the principal themes in contemporary work on religious language. Unlike other recent surveys, the most pressing issues about religious language are addressed from the perspective of the philosophy of language; different positions taken on these issues by philosophers of religion and theologians are considered. Topics that are covered include: the subject matter of religious discourse, reductionism and subjectivism, expressivism, the nature of religious metaphor, religious fictionalism and truth in religious discourse. The study also looks at (...)
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  7. Faith, fictionalism and bullshit.Michael Scott - 2020 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):94-104.
    According to a simple formulation of doxasticism about propositional faith, necessarily faith that p requires belief that p. Support of doxasticism is long-standing and was rarely a matter of dispute until William Alston (1996) proposed that that the content of propositional faith need not be believed if it is accepted. Subsequently non-doxastic theories that reject the belief requirement have proliferated and have come to dominate literature in the field. This paper aims to redress the balance by identifying a dilemma for (...)
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  8.  78
    Time and change.Michael Scott - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):213-218.
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  9.  79
    An Indexical Theory of Racial Pejoratives.Michael Scott & Graham Stevens - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 60 (4):385-404.
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  10. What’s in the two envelope paradox?Alexander D. Scott & Michael Scott - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):34–41.
  11. Pragmatic antirealism: a new antirealist strategy.Michael Scott & Philip Brown - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (3):349-366.
    In everyday speech we seem to refer to such things as abstract objects, moral properties, or propositional attitudes that have been the target of metaphysical and/or epistemological objections. Many philosophers, while endorsing scepticism about some of these entities, have not wished to charge ordinary speakers with fundamental error, or recommend that the discourse be revised or eliminated. To this end a number of non-revisionary antirealist strategies have been employed, including expressivism, reductionism and hermeneutic fictionalism. But each of these theories faces (...)
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  12.  34
    Realism and Religion: Philosophical and Theological Perspectives.Andrew Moore & Michael Scott (eds.) - 2007 - Ashgate.
    This book draws together a distinguished group of philosophers and theologians to present new thinking on realism and religion.
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  13.  25
    An innovative approach to integrated medicines management.Claire Scullin, Michael G. Scott, Anita Hogg & James C. McElnay - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (5):781-788.
  14. Religious Assertion.Michael Scott - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 8:269-293.
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  15.  31
    The Morality of Theodicies.Michael Scott - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (1):1 - 13.
    Kenneth Surin has argued that theoretical theodicies of the kind associated with Swinburne and Hick face two major moral criticisms: first that they tacitly sanction evils; second that they display moral blindness in the face of unconditional evils. The paper upholds Surin's criticisms in the light of recent defences of theodicy. It concludes by considering and criticizing Wetzel's arguments for saying that theodicy is unavoidable for those who believe in God.
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  16.  22
    Why Belief? Varieties of Religious Commitment: A Response to Tim Crane.Michael Scott - 2023 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 65 (4):447-457.
    Are religious commitments beliefs or some other kind of mental state? Do religious affirmations express beliefs or other non-doxastic attitudes? These questions have been prominent in philosophical research on the language and psychology of religion since the mid-twentieth century, but the history of interest in these topics traces back to late antiquity. In a recent paper, Tim Crane approaches these questions from the perspective of research on theories about the nature of belief. According to some accounts, he argues, the attitudes (...)
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  17.  48
    Is God an Antirealist?Michael Scott & Graham Stevens - 2007 - American Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):383 - 393.
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  18.  66
    Can theological realism be refuted?Michael Scott & Andrew Moore - 1997 - Religious Studies 33 (4):401-418.
    A number of arguments have been put forward by D. Z. Phillips which purportedly establish that the problems that lie at the heart of the theological realism/nonrealism controversy are confused, and that realism itself is incoherent and may be refuted. These arguments are assessed and several different theories of realism are considered. The questions of the nature of religious belief and whether God is an object are addressed. Phillips' arguments are shown to fail to supply a substantial objection to any (...)
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  19.  51
    Wittgenstein and Realism.Michael Scott - 2000 - Faith and Philosophy 17 (2):170-190.
    It is clear from both his writings and lectures on religion that Wittgenstein thought that there are many differences in the standards and forms of justification informing religious and scientific discourses. However, the evidence of such differences can be used to support two quite different and conflicting lines of argument. On one apparently realist argument, the differences are taken to show that religious discourse describes different kinds of fact (or offers different kinds of description) to scientific discourse; on the other (...)
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  20.  42
    How to Defend Religious Realism.Michael Scott - 2006 - Faith and Philosophy 23 (3):314-336.
  21. Reading Philosophy of Religion: Selected Texts with Interactive Commentary.Graham Robert Oppy & Michael Scott (eds.) - 2010 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Reading Philosophy of Religion_ combines a diverse selection of classical and contemporary texts in philosophy of religion with insightful commentaries. Offers a unique presentation through a combination of text and interactive commentary Provides a mix of classic and contemporary texts, including some not anthologized elsewhere Includes writings from thinkers such as Aquinas, Boethius, Hume, Plantinga and Putnam Divided into sections which examine religious language, the existence of God, reason, argument and belief, divine properties, and religious pluralism.
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  22.  55
    On John Allen's critique of induction.Lawrence A. Kelley & Michael Scott - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (9):860-861.
  23.  37
    Infinite Exchange Problems.Michael Scott & Alexander Scott - 2004 - Theory and Decision 57 (4):397-406.
    This paper considers a range of infinite exchange problems, including one recent example discussed by Barrett and Arntzenius, and propose a general taxonomy based on cardinality considerations and the possibility of identifying and tracking the units of exchange.
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  24.  68
    The context of Wittgenstein's philosophy of action.Michael Scott - 1998 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 36 (4):595-617.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:The Context of Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of ActionMichael Scottmore than any other topic examined by Wittgenstein in Philosophical Investigations,1 his writings on action and the will are perhaps in greatest need of being put into a historical and theoretical context. Not only do his remarks seem unhelpfully concise, as if intermediary reasoning had been excised by ruthless editing, but also the rationale for several of his arguments is mysterious. Even (...)
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  25. The paradox of the question.Alexander D. Scott & Michael Scott - 1999 - Analysis 59 (4):331–335.
  26.  55
    Wittgenstein's philosophy of action.Michael Scott - 1996 - Philosophical Quarterly 46 (184):347-363.
  27.  20
    Integrated medicines management–can routine implementation improve quality?Claire Scullin, Anita Hogg, Ruoyin Luo, Michael G. Scott & James C. McElnay - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):807-815.
  28.  9
    Developing a State University System Model to Diversify Faculty in the Biomedical Sciences.Robin Herlands Cresiski, Cynthia Anne Ghent, Janet C. Rutledge, Wendy Y. Carter-Veale, Jennifer Aumiller, John Carlo Bertot, Blessing Enekwe, Erin Golembewski, Yarazeth Medina & Michael S. Scott - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Amid increasing demands from students and the public, universities have recently reinvigorated their efforts to increase the number of faculty from underrepresented populations. Although a myriad of piecemeal programs targeting individual recruitment and development have been piloted at several institutions, overall growth in faculty diversity remains almost negligible and highly localized. To bring about genuine change, we hypothesize a consortia approach that links individuals to hiring opportunities within a state university system might be more effective. Here we present a case (...)
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  29.  31
    Comparison of tools for the assessment of inappropriate prescribing in hospitalized older people.Ruoyin Luo, Claire Scullin, Andrea M. P. Mullan, Michael G. Scott & James C. McElnay - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1196-1202.
  30.  14
    Book Reviews: Thinking Photography by Victor Burgin , London: Macmillan, 1982, pp viii + 235, £18.00 and £6.95.Michael Scott - 1983 - Theory, Culture and Society 1 (3):185-187.
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  31.  6
    Changing the Culture: The Transitional Stage of the British University.Michael Scott - 1993 - British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (1):52 - 58.
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  32.  8
    Changing the culture: The transitional stage of the British university.Michael Scott - 1993 - British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (1):52-58.
  33.  19
    C. Y. Thomas’s Thinking and Perspectives on CARICOM.Michael E. Scott - 2016 - CLR James Journal 22 (1-2):255-270.
  34.  34
    Don Fallis.Michael Scott - forthcoming - Social Epistemology: Essential Readings.
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  35.  63
    Do religious beliefs aim at the truth?Michael Scott - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (2):217-224.
    This paper evaluates Brian Zamulinski's argument from considerations of relative likelihood for preferring a ‘religion-as-fiction’ hypothesis to metaphysical realism. The paper finds that the argument fails to consider numerous variant hypotheses, and that the ‘religion-as-fiction’ hypothesis is poorly formulated. It is concluded that an argument from likelihood about the status of religious belief will not, in the way Zamulinski constructs it, give support to a hypothesis unless supplemented by an estimate of its probability. Moreover, once probability is taken into account, (...)
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  36. Distinguishing the senses.Michael Scott - 2007 - Philosophical Explorations 10 (3):257 – 262.
    Seeing, hearing and touching are phenomenally different, even if we are detecting the same spatial properties with each sense. This presents a prima facie problem for intentionalism, the theory that phenomenal character supervenes on representational content. The paper reviews some attempts to resolve this problem, and then looks in detail at Peter Carruthers' recent proposal that the senses can be individuated by the way in which they represent spatial properties and incorporate time. This proposal is shown to be ineffective in (...)
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  37.  31
    Framing the realism question.Michael Scott - 2000 - Religious Studies 36 (4):455-471.
    This paper begins with a revaluation of Carnap's critique of existence questions, and finds that with modification his argument is successful in giving a prima facie cause for doubt that the ontological question addressed by religious realists and non-realists has content. The second part of the paper argues that these doubts can be met with proper attention to the role of truth in the religious realism debate. The paper concludes by arguing for a close relationship between the semantic and the (...)
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  38.  56
    (M.) Maaß Das antike Delphi. Pp. 128, ills, maps. Munich: C.H. Beck, 2007. Paper, €7.90. ISBN: 978-3-406-53631-.Michael C. Scott - 2008 - The Classical Review 58 (2):623-.
  39.  49
    Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief and Practice By Aaron Rizzieri.Michael Scott - 2015 - Analysis 75 (3):530-532.
  40.  32
    Seeing aspects.Michael Scott - 1998 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 44 (2):93 - 108.
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  41.  8
    The Proper Objects of Faith and Hope.Michael Scott - 2023 - The Monist 106 (1):25-34.
    Can one have faith that something is the same as itself, or hope that a triangle has four sides? Accounts of the proper object of faith or of hope typically exclude modal cases, where the object of faith or hope is understood by the agent to be either necessary or impossible, on the basis of their intuitive implausibility or their incompatibility with beliefs that the agent has about the probability or possibility of the object of faith or hope. This paper (...)
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  42.  35
    Taking the measure of doom.Alexander D. Scott & Michael Scott - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (3):133-141.
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  43.  20
    Taking the Measure of Doom.Alexander D. Scott & Michael Scott - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (3):133.
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  44. Gulliver's Travels. In the series The Critics Debate.Brian Tippett & Michael Scott - 1990 - Utopian Studies 1 (2):167-169.
  45.  24
    Religious Language. [REVIEW]Michael Scott - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (6):505-515.
    This study reviews some of the principal themes in contemporary work on religious language. Unlike other recent surveys, the most pressing issues about religious language are addressed from the perspective of the philosophy of language; different positions taken on these issues by philosophers of religion and theologians are considered. Topics that are covered include: the subject matter of religious discourse, reductionism and subjectivism, expressivism, the nature of religious metaphor, religious fictionalism and truth in religious discourse. The study also looks at (...)
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  46. Chalmers, David J. The Character of Consciousness, Oxford University Press, 2010, 624 pp. Cliteur, Paul. The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 328 pp. Cochran, Molly. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey, Cambridge Uni. [REVIEW]Fred Evans, Allan Gotthelf, James G. Lennox, Jesus Ilundain-Agurruza, Michael W. Austin, Timothy O'Connor, Constantine Sandis, Graham Oppy, Michael Scott & Roland Pierik - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):0026-1068.
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  47. Phil Dowe Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking: The Interplay of Science, Reason, and Religion. [REVIEW]Michael Scott - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):575-577.
  48.  24
    Christian Humanism in Shakespeare: A Study in Religion and Literature. By Lee Oser. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2022. Pp. 285. $34.95. [REVIEW]Michael Scott - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (5):1029-1030.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 5, Page 1029-1030, September 2022.
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  49.  67
    Amandry P. and Hansen E. Le Temple d'Apollon du IVe siècle (Fouilles de Delphes II, Topographie et Architecture 14). Paris: De Boccard, 2010. Vol. I: text, pp. 512; vol. II: figures; vol. III: plans. €200. 9782869582057. [REVIEW]Michael Scott - 2013 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 133:272-273.
  50.  3
    Book Review. [REVIEW]Michael Scott - 1983 - Theory, Culture and Society 1 (3):185-187.
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