Contre toute attente is the manifesto of a thought that refuses passivity and can only endlessly seek the "weak force" of hope for a different, spectral, melancholy future. This book brings together several works around Gerard Bensussan which retrace the paths of his philosophical reflection.
By rethinking the meaning of a central idiom in the Great Learning, this essay intends to open up a new horizon for the hermeneutics of early Confucian thinking, which has little to do with metaphysics. Through a careful etymological study of ge wu and a dialogue between the Great Learning and Heidegger's phenomenology of human affection, I demonstrate the critical position of the human heart in early Chinese thinking. This new interpretation of early Confucian moral teachings also recovers an invigorating (...) possibility for contemporary discourse on the question of ethics. (shrink)
Ernesto Laclau (1935-2014) est reconnu aujourd'hui comme l'un des philosophes politiques principaux pour le XXIe siècle. Cet ouvrage poursuit les débats entrepris avec lui, et réunit quelques-uns de ses principaux interlocuteurs en France (Étienne Balibar, Toni Negri, Jacques Rancière), aux États-Unis (Judith Butler, Nancy Fraser) et en Argentine (Horacio González, Leonor Arfuch, Emilio de Ipola, Senda Sferco). Laclau a écrit des ouvrages devenus des références sur l'hégémonie, le populisme et l'émancipation. Longtemps ignorées par la philosophie institutionnelle et méconnues du grand (...) public, ses thèses originales ont su perturber la scène contemporaine de la pensée politique. Son activité citoyenne en Argentine a fait de lui un intellectuel familier du public hispanophone. Ce que disent ici les penseurs argentins éclaire d'un jour nouveau la contribution des épistémologies du Sud aux débats politiques français et européens, mais aussi au-delà, portant sur la question d'un populisme de gauche que Laclau appelait de ses voeux et qu'il nous laisse en héritage."--Page 4 of cover. (shrink)
Using Hofstede's culture theory (1980, 2001 Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nation. Sage, NewYork), the current study incorporates the moral development (e.g. Thorne, 2000; Thorne and Magnan, 2000; Thorne et al., 2003) and multidimensional ethics scale (e.g. Cohen et al., 1993; Cohen et al., 1996b; Cohen et al., 2001; Flory et al., 1992) approaches to compare the ethical reasoning and decisions of Canadian and Mainland Chinese final year undergraduate accounting students. The results indicate that Canadian accounting (...) students' formulation of an intention to act on a particular ethical dilemma (deliberative reasoning) as measured by the moral development approach (Thorne, 2000) was higher than Mainland Chinese accounting students. The current study proposes that the five factors identified by the multidimensional ethics scale (MES), as being relevant to ethical decision making can be placed into the three levels of ethical reasoning identified by Kohlberg's (1958, The Development of Modes of Moral Thinking and Choice in the Years Ten to Sixteen. University of Chicago, Doctoral dissertation) theory of cognitive moral development. Canadian accounting students used post-conventional MES factors (moral equity, contractualism, and utilitarianism) more frequently and made more ethical audit decisions than Chinese accounting students. (shrink)
ABSTRACTFilm clips are widely used in emotion research due to their relatively high ecological validity. Although researchers have established various film clip sets for different cultures, the few that exist related to Chinese culture do not adequately address positive emotions. The main purposes of the present study were to establish a standardised database of Chinese emotional film clips that could elicit more categories of reported positive emotions compared to the existing databases and to expand the available film clips that can (...) be used as neutral materials. Two experiments were conducted to construct the database. In experiment 1, 111 film clips were selected from more than one thousand Chinese movies for preliminary screening. After 315 participants viewed and evaluated these film clips, 39 excerpts were selected for further validation. In experiment 2, 147 participants watched and rated these 39 film clips, as well as another 8 excerpts chosen from the existing databases, to compare their validit... (shrink)
This study investigates how board size and occupational background of directors differentially influence social performance in for-profit and non-profit organizations. Using data from California hospitals, we develop a quantitative measure of social performance and provide the following empirical evidence. First, board size is negatively (positively) associated with social performance in for-profit (non-profit) hospitals. Second, the presence of government officials on the board is negatively (positively) related to social performance in for-profit (non-profit) hospitals. Third, representation of physicians on the board is (...) positively associated with social performance in for-profit hospitals, whereas their presence is not significantly related to social performance in non-profit hospitals. Our findings highlight the different effects of governance mechanisms on social performance in for-profit and non-profit organizations. (shrink)
Hilbert algebras are important tools for certain investigations in intuitionistic logic and other non-classical logic and as a generalization of Hilbert algebra a new algebraic structure, called a GE-algebra, is introduced and studied its properties. We consider filters, upper sets and congruence kernels in a GE-algebra. We also characterize congruence kernels of transitive GE-algebras.
Women entrepreneurs innovate, initiate, engage, and run business enterprises to contribute the domestic development. Women entrepreneurs think and start taking risks of operating enterprises and combine various factors involved in production to deal with the uncertain business environment. Entrepreneurship and technological innovation play a crucial role in developing the economy by creating job opportunities, improving skills, and executing new ideas. It has a significant impact on the income of the household. The study focused on investigating the role of women’s entrepreneurship (...) and innovation technologies in contributing to household income in the challenging situation of the pandemic COVID-19. The paper emphasized identifying the determinants of female entrepreneurial contribution toward household income. This study collected data from selected rural and urban areas of district Faisalabad through a self-administered questionnaire. Investigators interviewed female entrepreneurs and chose them through the snowball sampling technique from a population of purposively selected female-run businesses. Interviews were conducted with women entrepreneurs to gather relevant information for the survey investigation at their workplaces and home. The effects of various factors, including age, education, family size, income from other sources, time allocated to entrepreneurial activity, firm size, and location were estimated empirically using an ordered logit model. The study findings exhibited a positive and significant role of respondents’ education, family size, time allocated to entrepreneurial activities, and firm size. The survey outcomes also indicated that the contribution of entrepreneurial income to household income in the rural areas is significantly higher than that in urban areas. This study signifies that regulations against gender discrimination in public and private institutions are helpful. Besides, encouraging an environment for entrepreneurial culture among women in the country would increase family income. The study’s findings and policy implications directly link to Sustainable Development Goal 5 of Gender Equality and SDG 8 related to decent work and economic growth. (shrink)
La question de la valeur est partout. Elle ponctue toute consideration sociale, morale ou politique. Elle envahit le discours economique, politique, religieux, artistique. Elle est tres certainement le probleme philosophique de notre temps. Pour autant, c'est une omnipresence opaque. On serait bien en peine de la definir simplement. De quoi la valeur est-elle, pour nous, le nom? Un absolu? L'acte de valorisation? L'evaluation? Jerome Batout, en une synthese inedite et puissante, dresse la genealogie du concept. Sa lecture de l'histoire humaine (...) - des societes premieres jusqu'a l'ere contemporaine, en passant par Athenes et Jerusalem - distingue trois modes majeurs de valorisation. Le dernier, celui qui emerge avec l'Empire romain et se deploie jusqu'a la crise ecologique, se revele etre une impasse. Pour qui veut comprendre ce qui, de l'economie a l'ecologie, des inegalites aux identites, constitue l'arriere-plan commun des defis que nous aurons a relever, il est utile d'affronter cette question de la valeur. (shrink)
La question de la liberté est à la fois fondamentale et posée en des termes qui la rendent insoluble : comment penser une action libre si l'on admet que les phénomènes sont soumis à la causalité? En analysant l'émergence du concept de libre arbitre, Olivier Boulnois propose une autre généalogie de la morale.00Sous un problème en apparence évident (la liberté de la volonté, née de l'idée de responsabilité, et la difficulté de penser cette liberté dans un monde régi par des (...) rapports de cause à effet), l'auteur débusque une série de questions correspondant aux différents sens de la liberté : la liberté à l'égard d'une contrainte n'est pas la liberté à l'égard des causes extérieures ou internes ; elle peut viser la liberté d'agir, mais aussi la liberté de choisir entre plusieurs options et la liberté de vouloir ou de ne pas vouloir. Les approches classiques et modernes (celles d'Aristote, d'Augustin, de Descartes ou de Leibniz) sont confrontées aux pensées critiques des XlXe-XXe siècles (de Nietzsche à Freud et Wittgenstein). D'une liberté à l'autre, les questions ne sont pas les mêmes - ainsi, Aristote élabore une théorie cohérente de l'action sans poser la question de la liberté.00Il fallait faire apparaître l'± impensé? des théories du libre arbitre pour poser correctement la question, et espérer la résoudre. (shrink)
La Critique de la raison impure rapproche deux auteurs, deux oeuvres, a priori inconciliables : Le Banquet de Platon et Pour en finir avec le jugement de dieu d'Antonin Artaud. On ne peut bien sûr pas savoir si Platon a vraiment douté de ses propres thèses, mais il a probablement eu conscience de l'impasse de la métaphysique, du peu de consistance de la connaissance contemplative au regard de l'évidence des "faits construits" de la connaissance opératoire qui, au lieu de constituer (...) le réel comme sujet absolu, l'appréhende comme objet. Pour sa part, Antonin Artaud ne semble pas avoir douté des siennes, ne saisissant jamais le réel qu'en le reconstruisant, qu'en le recomposant, par la manipulation de quelques prélèvements soigneusement choisis. C'est sur cette base qu'il était possible de réunir Platon et Antonin Artaud, et aussi avec la thématique du scandale : s'il est camouflé, dans Le Banquet, par l'aspect anecdotique et quelque peu bouffon de l'intervention d'Alcibiade, avec ce subterfuge Platon n'affichait pas moins de défiance envers "dieu" qu'Antonin Artaud dans son émission radiophonique interdite d'antenne en 1948."--Page 4 of cover. (shrink)
The force of globalization has greatly challenged people’s conceptualization of national identity. The traditional definition of national identity as being distinct, stable and generated by such internal factors as ethnic, religion, citizenship and so on, has been replaced by the understanding that national identity is invested with more dynamic and complex features and is actually constructed differently in different situations. By following Van Dijk’s socio-cognitive perspective in critical discourse analysis and drawing on the 47 news reports collected on the websites (...) of People’s Daily Online and Xinhuanet, this study explores how China’s national identities are negotiated in its news reports of the Sino-US trade war. It is found that China’s news reports have constructed three types of Sino-US relations, namely, antagonistic, negotiatory and cooperative relations. Out of these relations, China has been constructed as victim of the trade war, defender of free trade, driver for negotiations and beneficiary of mutual cooperation. The construction of these identities and relations is realized through constructive, destructive, justification and transformation strategies. It is further found that the diversity of both China’s national identities and Sino-US relations in China’s news reports is the result of the political, social and economic differences between the two countries. (shrink)
"Hermann Cohen war ein herausragender deutscher Philosoph und jüdischer Denker. In nahezu allen Bereichen seiner verzweigten Tätigkeit beeinflusste er das akademische, politische und religiöse Leben seiner Zeit. Aus Anlass des hundertsten Todestages Cohens am 4. April 2018 widmet sich der vorliegende Band Kontexten und Netzwerken, in die Cohen zeit seines Lebens eingebunden war"--.
This book contributes to the developing dialogue between cognitive science and social sciences. It focuses on a central issue in both fields, i.e. the nature and the limitations of the rationality of beliefs and action. The development of cognitive science is one of the most important and fascinating intellectual advances of recent decades, and social scientists are paying increasing attention to the findings of this new branch of science that forces us to consider many classical issues related to epistemology and (...) philosophy of action in a new light. This book encourages scholars from different fields who are interested in the dialogue between cognitive science and social sciences, to develop and analyze new perspectives that allow us to elucidate the mystery of rationality. What is rationality? What are its limitations? What rationality assumptions must be used to study social and economic phenomena? The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field. Analysis of the concept of rationality is a leitmotiv in the history of the social sciences and has involved endless disputes. Since it is difficult to give a precise definition of this concept, and there is a lack of agreement about its meaning, it is possible to say that there is a ‘mystery of rationality’. What is it to be rational? Is rationality merely instrumental or does it also involve the endorsement of values, i.e. the choice of goals? Should we consider rationality to be a normative principle or a descriptive one? Can rationality be only Cartesian or can it also be argumentative? Is rationality a conscious skill or a partly tacit one? This book, which has been written by an outstanding collection of authors, including both philosophers and social scientists, tries to make a useful contribution to the debates on these problems and shed some light on the mystery of rationality. (shrink)
This article re-examines the identity and chronology of the lexicographer Boethus, by analyzing three pieces of evidence. It is argued that the lexicographer Boethus is a Middle Platonist flourishing in the late first or early second century, who believed in the transmigration of souls and was engaged in exegesis of Plato. In particular, this article draws attention to a testimony on Boethus from a newly discovered treatise preserved in Syriac, which is identified as Porphyry’s On Principles and Matter.
The content of existence theorems in the calculus of variations has been explored and an effective treatment of semi-continuity has been achieved. An algorithm has been developed which captures the natural algorithmic content of the notion of a semi-continuous function and this is used to obtain an effective version of the “chattering lemma” of control theory and ordinary differential equations. This lemma reveals the main computational content of the theory of relaxed optimal control.
Since the 1990s, grammatical complexity has received substantial research attention in applied linguistics. The representation of grammatical complexity has expanded in L2 writing with the application of diverse measures in empirical studies in the recent three decades. In response to this situation, we found it important to revisit grammatical complexity, and an exploratory factor analysis was applied to explore latent dimensions of grammatical complexity in L2 writing. We analyzed Lu’s 14 grammatical complexity measures in the L2 corpus of the British (...) Academic Written English Corpus. We then proposed a four-factor model with “clausal subordination,” “phrasal construction”, “global length unit” and “others.” The four factors generally align with the types of grammatical complexity proposed in Lu, but differences on six measures are also found. Noteworthy points were discussed to interpret the reasons behind the differences. Research implications are provided to show further research directions. (shrink)
The Judeo-Christian concept of creatio ex nihilo provides a unique view of reality: God, the transcendent creator who has brought all things into being from nothing, is nonetheless profoundly immanent in his creatures. Such a worldview was apparently absent in classical Greek philosophy.1 It has been suggested by scholars, however, that similar understandings of the Deity's relation to the world can be found in Hinduism and other Eastern philosophies.2 It makes one wonder whether there are strands of ancient Chinese philosophy (...) that resonate with creatio ex nihilo. In this area, pioneering work has been carried out by American philosopher-theologian Robert Neville, who argues consistently that implications of... (shrink)
The functions of advertisement always give rise to the fact that trust and co-operation between the interlocutors are limited or lacking. Presupposition is frequently employed in order to enhance function of advertising language implicitly because of its own special properties and characteristics. This article refers to the historical and theoretical background of the study of presupposition and indicates pragmatic functions of presupposition in advertising English.
Ge argues that by transforming participatory ontology in light of creatio ex nihilo, Augustine and Aquinas have developed a distinctively Christian metaphysics that offers a promising solution to the modern dialectic of the One and the Many.