Results for 'Forcing'

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  1. Performative Force, Convention, and Discursive Injustice.Rebecca Kukla - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (2):440-457.
    I explore how gender can shape the pragmatics of speech. In some circumstances, when a woman deploys standard discursive conventions in order to produce a speech act with a specific performative force, her utterance can turn out, in virtue of its uptake, to have a quite different force—a less empowering force—than it would have if performed by a man. When members of a disadvantaged group face a systematic inability to produce a specific kind of speech act that they are entitled (...)
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  2.  51
    Forcing Closed Unbounded Sets.Uri Abraham & Saharon Shelah - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (3):643-657.
    We discuss the problem of finding forcing posets which introduce closed unbounded subsets to a given stationary set.
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  3. Force, Content and the Varieties of Unity.Michael Schmitz - 2022 - In Gabriele Mras & Michael Schmitz (eds.), Force, content and the unity of the proposition. New York: Routledge. pp. 71-90.
    In this paper I propose three steps to overcome the force-content dichotomy and dispel the Frege point. First, we should ascribe content to force indicators. Through basic assertoric and directive force indicators such as intonation, word order and mood, a subject presents its position of theoretical or practical knowledge of a state of affairs as a fact, as something that is the case, or as a goal, as something to do. Force indicators do not operate on truth- or satisfaction evaluable (...)
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  4.  13
    The Force of Knowledge: The Scientific Dimension of Society.John M. Ziman - 1976 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this 1976 volume, Professor Ziman paints a broad picture of science, and of its relations to the world in general. He sets the scene by the historical development of scientific research as a profession, the growth of scientific technologies out of the useful arts, the sources of invention and technical innovation, and the advent of Big Science. He then discusses the economics of research and development, the connections between science and war, the nature of science policy and the moral (...)
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  5. Force and Freedom: Kant's Legal and Political Philosophy.Arthur Ripstein - 2009 - Harvard University Press.
    In this masterful work, both an illumination of Kant's thought and an important contribution to contemporary legal and political theory, Arthur Ripstein gives a comprehensive yet accessible account of Kant's political philosophy. In addition to providing a clear and coherent statement of the most misunderstood of Kant's ideas, Ripstein also shows that Kant's views remain conceptually powerful and morally appealing today.
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  6. Newtonian Forces.Jessica Wilson - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (2):173-205.
    Newtonian forces are pushes and pulls, possessing magnitude and direction, that are exerted (in the first instance) by objects, and which cause (in particular) motions. I defend Newtonian forces against the four best reasons for denying or doubting their existence. A running theme in my defense of forces will be the suggestion that Newtonian Mechanics is a special science, and as such has certain prima facie ontological rights and privileges, that may be maintained against various challenges.
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  7. Force (God) in Descartes' Physics.Gary C. Hatfield - 1979 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 10 (2):113-140.
    It is difficult to evaluate the role of activity - of force or of that which has causal efficacy - in Descartes’ natural philosophy. On the one hand, Descartes claims to include in his natural philosophy only that which can be described geometrically, which amounts to matter (extended substance) in motion (where this motion is described kinematically).’ Yet on the other hand, rigorous adherence to a purely geometrical description of matter in motion would make it difficult to account for the (...)
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  8. The Force and Fairness of Blame.Pamela Hieronymi - 2004 - Philosophical Perspectives 18 (1):115–148.
    In this paper I consider fairness of blaming a wrongdoer. In particular, I consider the claim that blaming a wrongdoer can be unfair because blame has a certain characteristic force, a force which is not fairly imposed upon the wrongdoer unless certain conditions are met--unless, e.g., the wrongdoer could have done otherwise, or unless she is someone capable of having done right, or unless she is able to control her behavior by the light of moral reasons. While agreeing that blame (...)
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  9. Force of Law: The 'Mystical Foundation of Authority'.Jacques Derrida - 2002 - In Gil Anidjar (ed.), Acts of Religion.
     
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  10. Force Cancellation.François Recanati - 2019 - Synthese 196 (4):1403-1424.
    Peter Hanks and Scott Soames both defend pragmatic solutions to the problem of the unity of the proposition. According to them, what ties together Tim and baldness in the singular proposition expressed by ‘Tim is bald’ is an act of the speaker : the act of predicating baldness of Tim. But Soames construes that act as force neutral and noncommittal while, for Hanks, it is inherently assertive and committal. Hanks answers the Frege–Geach challenge by arguing that, in complex sentences, the (...)
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  11. Vital Forces, Teleology and Organization: Philosophy of Nature and the Rise of Biology in Germany.Andrea Gambarotto - 2017 - Springer Verlag.
    This book offers a comprehensive account of vitalism and the Romantic philosophy of nature. The author explores the rise of biology as a unified science in Germany by reconstructing the history of the notion of “vital force,” starting from the mid-eighteenth through the early nineteenth century. Further, he argues that Romantic Naturphilosophie played a crucial role in the rise of biology in Germany, especially thanks to its treatment of teleology. In fact, both post-Kantian philosophers and naturalists were guided by teleological (...)
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  12.  11
    Forcing with Sequences of Models of Two Types.Itay Neeman - 2014 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (2):265-298.
    We present an approach to forcing with finite sequences of models that uses models of two types. This approach builds on earlier work of Friedman and Mitchell on forcing to add clubs in cardinals larger than $\aleph_{1}$, with finite conditions. We use the two-type approach to give a new proof of the consistency of the proper forcing axiom. The new proof uses a finite support forcing, as opposed to the countable support iteration in the standard proof. (...)
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  13. Force of Law: The 'Mystical Foundation of Authority'. In Ed. Drucilla Cornell, Michael Rosenfield and David G. Carlson.Jacques Derrida - 1992 - In Drucilla Cornell, Michel Rosenfeld & David Carlson (eds.), Deconstruction and the Possibility of Justice. Routledge.
     
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  14. Forces and Fields: The Concept of Action at a Distance in the History of Physics.Mary B. Hesse - 1961 - Dover Publications.
    This history of physics focuses on the question, "How do bodies act on one another across space?" The variety of answers illustrates the function of fundamental analogies or models in physics as well as the role of so-called unobservable entities. Forces and Fields presents an in-depth look at the science of ancient Greece, and it examines the influence of antique philosophy on seventeenth-century thought. Additional topics embrace many elements of modern physics--the empirical basis of quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality and the (...)
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  15. Forces.John Bigelow, Brian Ellis & Robert Pargetter - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (4):614-630.
    Traditionally, forces are causes of a special sort. Forces have been conceived to be the direct or immediate causes of things. Other sorts of causes act indirectly by producing forces which are transmitted in various ways to produce various effects. However, forces are supposed to act directly without the mediation of anything else. But forces, so conceived, appear to be occult. They are mysterious, because we have no clear conception of what they are, as opposed to what they are postulated (...)
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  16. Illocutionary Force and Semantic Content.Mitchell S. Green - 2000 - Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (5):435-473.
    Illocutionary force and semantic content are widely held to occupy utterly different categories in at least two ways: Any expression serving as an indicator of illocutionary force must be without semantic content, and no such expression can embed. A refined account of the force/content distinction is offered here that does the explanatory work that the standard distinction does, while, in accounting for the behavior of a range of parenthetical expressions, shows neither nor to be compulsory. The refined account also motivates (...)
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  17.  55
    Force Dynamics in Language and Cognition.Leonard Talmy - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (1):49-100.
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  18. Force, Content and the Varieties of Subject.Michael Schmitz - 2019 - Language and Communication 69:115-129.
    This paper argues that to account for group speech acts, we should adopt a representationalist account of mode / force. Individual and collective subjects do not only represent what they e.g. assert or order. By asserting or ordering they also indicate their theoretical or practical positions towards what they assert or order. The ‘Frege point’ cannot establish the received dichotomy of force and propositional content. On the contrary, only the representationalist account allows a satisfactory response to it. It also allows (...)
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  19. The Force of Things.Jane Bennett - 2004 - Political Theory 32 (3):347-372.
    This essay seeks to give philosophical expression to the vitality, willfullness, and recalcitrance possessed by nonhuman entities and forces. It also considers the ethico-political import of an enhanced awareness of "thing-power." Drawing from Lucretius, Spinoza, Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour, and others, it describes a materialism of lively matter, to be placed in conversation with the historical materialism of Marx and the body materialism of feminist and cultural studies. Thing-power materialism is a speculative onto-story, an admittedly presumptuous attempt to depict the (...)
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  20. Forcing and the Universe of Sets: Must We Lose Insight?Neil Barton - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (4):575-612.
    A central area of current philosophical debate in the foundations of mathematics concerns whether or not there is a single, maximal, universe of set theory. Universists maintain that there is such a universe, while Multiversists argue that there are many universes, no one of which is ontologically privileged. Often forcing constructions that add subsets to models are cited as evidence in favour of the latter. This paper informs this debate by analysing ways the Universist might interpret this discourse that (...)
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  21.  44
    The Forces of Law: Duty, Coercion, and Power.Leslie Green - 2016 - Ratio Juris 29 (2):164-181.
    This paper addresses the relationship between law and coercive force. It defends, against Frederick Schauer's contrary claims, the following propositions: The force of law consists in three things, not one: the imposition of duties, the use of coercion, and the exercise of social power. These are different and distinct. Even if coercion is not part of the concept of law, coercion is connected to law many important ways, and these are amply recognized in contemporary analytic jurisprudence. We cannot determine how (...)
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  22. Gap Forcing: Generalizing the Lévy-Solovay Theorem.Joel David Hamkins - 1999 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 5 (2):264-272.
    The Lévy-Solovay Theorem [8] limits the kind of large cardinal embeddings that can exist in a small forcing extension. Here I announce a generalization of this theorem to a broad new class of forcing notions. One consequence is that many of the forcing iterations most commonly found in the large cardinal literature create no new weakly compact cardinals, measurable cardinals, strong cardinals, Woodin cardinals, strongly compact cardinals, supercompact cardinals, almost huge cardinals, huge cardinals, and so on.
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  23. Forced Changes Only: A New Take on the Law of Inertia.Daniel Hoek - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-16.
    Newton’s First Law of Motion is typically understood to govern only the motion of force-free bodies. This paper argues on textual and conceptual grounds that it is in fact a stronger, more general principle. The First Law limits the extent to which any body can change its state of motion –– even if that body is subject to impressed forces. The misunderstanding can be traced back to an error in the first English translation of Newton’s Principia, which was published a (...)
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  24.  20
    Forcing with Filters and Complete Combinatorics.Claude Laflamme - 1989 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 42 (2):125-163.
    We study ultrafilters produced by forcing, obtaining different combinatorics and related Rudin-Keisler ordering; in particular we answer a question of Baumgartner and Taylor regarding tensor products of ultrafilters. Adapting a method of Blass and Mathias, we show that in most cases the combinatorics satisfied by the ultrafilters recapture the forcing notion in the Lévy model.
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  25.  21
    From Forcing to Satisfaction in Kripke Models of Intuitionistic Predicate Logic.Maryam Abiri, Morteza Moniri & Mostafa Zaare - 2018 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 26 (5):464-474.
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  26.  47
    A Force-Theoretic Framework for Event Structure.Bridget Copley & Heidi Harley - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (2):103-158.
    We propose an account of dynamic predicates which draws on the notion of force, eliminating reference to events in the linguistic semantics. We treat dynamic predicates as predicates of forces, represented as functions from an initial situation to a final situation that occurs ceteris paribus, that is, if nothing external intervenes. The possibility that opposing forces might intervene to prevent the transition to a given final situation leads us to a novel analysis of non-culminating accomplishment predicates in a variety of (...)
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  27.  23
    Evolutionary Forces and the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium.Eugene Earnshaw - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (3):423-437.
    The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium has been argued by Sober, Stephens and others to represent the zero-force state for evolutionary biology understood as a theory of forces. I investigate what it means for a model to involve forces, developing an explicit account by defining what the zero-force state is in a general theoretical context. I use this account to show that Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium is not the zero-force state in biology even in the contexts in which it applies, and argue based on this (...)
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  28.  24
    Bounded Forcing Axioms as Principles of Generic Absoluteness.Joan Bagaria - 2000 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 39 (6):393-401.
    We show that Bounded Forcing Axioms (for instance, Martin's Axiom, the Bounded Proper Forcing Axiom, or the Bounded Martin's Maximum) are equivalent to principles of generic absoluteness, that is, they assert that if a $\Sigma_1$ sentence of the language of set theory with parameters of small transitive size is forceable, then it is true. We also show that Bounded Forcing Axioms imply a strong form of generic absoluteness for projective sentences, namely, if a $\Sigma^1_3$ sentence with parameters (...)
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  29.  13
    Buoyancy Force Acting on Underground Structures Considering Seepage of Confined Water.Ji-wen Zhang, Jie Cao, Linlong Mu & Jie le WangLi - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-10.
    The antifloating property of underground structures in areas with high underground water levels is a key design aspect. Evaluating the buoyancy forces acting on underground structures is complicated, particularly in the presence of confined water beneath the structures. Herein, the effects of the permeability coefficient of layered soil, hydraulic gradient, and embedment depth of the aquiclude on the buoyancy force acting on underground structures are investigated through three model tests: calibration of the test system, buoyancy force acting on a structure (...)
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  30. Stakeholder Forces of Socially Responsible Supply Chain Management Orientation.Haesun Park-Poaps & Kathleen Rees - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):305-322.
    This project investigates salient stakeholder forces of socially responsible supply chain orientation (SRSCO) in the apparel and footwear sector focusing on fair labor management issues. SRSCO was conceptualized as a composite of internal organizational direction and external partnership for a creation and continuation of fair labor conditions throughout the supply chain. Primary stakeholders identified were consumers, regulation, industry, and media. A total of 209 mail survey responses from sourcing managers of U.S. apparel and footwear companies were analyzed. Two dimensions of (...)
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  31.  36
    Forces and Fields: The Concept of Action at a Distance in the History of Physics.Mary B. Hesse - 1961 - Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press.
    An in-depth look at the science of ancient Greece, this volume examines the influence of antique philosophy on 17th-century thought. Additional topics embrace many elements of modern physics: the empirical basis of quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle, and the action-at-a-distance theory of Wheeler and Feynman. 1961 edition.
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  32.  70
    Force and Meaning.Marilyn Frye - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (10):281-294.
    The three notions of illocutionary force, sentence-meaning, and speaker-meaning (what a speaker means by an utterance) have been bandied about, misused and confused in some influential papers about speech acts and, I presume, in quieter corners as well. My object here is to disentangle these notions.
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  33.  10
    The Force of the Example: Explorations in the Paradigm of Judgment.Alessandro Ferrara - 2008 - Columbia University Press.
    Whereas exemplarity has long been thought to belong to the domain of aesthetics, this book explores the other uses to which it can be put in our philosophical predicament, especially in the field of politics.
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  34. Forced to Be Free? Increasing Patient Autonomy by Constraining It.Neil Levy - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (5):293-300.
    It is universally accepted in bioethics that doctors and other medical professionals have an obligation to procure the informed consent of their patients. Informed consent is required because patients have the moral right to autonomy in furthering the pursuit of their most important goals. In the present work, it is argued that evidence from psychology shows that human beings are subject to a number of biases and limitations as reasoners, which can be expected to lower the quality of their decisions (...)
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  35. Sensory Force, Sublime Impact, and Beautiful Form.Eli I. Lichtenstein - 2019 - British Journal of Aesthetics 59 (4):449-464.
    Can a basic sensory property like a bare colour or tone be beautiful? Some, like Kant, say no. But Heidegger suggests, plausibly, that colours ‘glow’ and tones ‘sing’ in artworks. These claims can be productively synthesized: ‘glowing’ colours are not beautiful; but they are sensory forces—not mere ‘matter’, contra Kant—with real aesthetic impact. To the extent that it inheres in sensible properties, beauty is plausibly restricted to structures of sensory force. Kant correspondingly misrepresents the relation of beautiful wholes to their (...)
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  36.  49
    Forces and Causes in Evolutionary Theory.Christopher Stephens - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):716-727.
    The traditional view of evolutionary theory asserts that we can usefully understand natural selection, drift, mutation, migration, and the system of mating as forces that cause evolutionary change. Recently, Denis Walsh and Robert Brandon have objected to this view. Walsh argues that the traditional view faces a fatal dilemma and that the force analogy must be rejected altogether. Brandon accepts the force analogy but argues that drift, rather than the Hardy-Weinberg law, is the best candidate for a zero-force law. Here (...)
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  37. Force, Content and Logic.Michael Schmitz - 2019 - In Gabriele M. Mras, Paul Weingartner & Bernhard Ritter (eds.), Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics: Contributions of the 41st International Wittgenstein Symposium. pp. 221-223.
    The Frege point to the effect that e.g. the clauses of conditionals are not asserted and therefore cannot be assertions is often taken to establish a dichotomy between the content of a speech act, which is propositional and belongs to logic and semantics, and its force, which belongs to pragmatics. Recently this dichotomy has been questioned by philosophers such as Peter Hanks and Francois Recanati, who propose act-theoretic accounts of propositions, argue that we can’t account for propositional unity independently of (...)
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  38.  17
    Forcing with Adequate Sets of Models as Side Conditions.John Krueger - 2017 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 63 (1-2):124-149.
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  39. The Explanatory Force of Dynamical and Mathematical Models in Neuroscience: A Mechanistic Perspective.David Michael Kaplan & Carl F. Craver - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (4):601-627.
    We argue that dynamical and mathematical models in systems and cognitive neuro- science explain (rather than redescribe) a phenomenon only if there is a plausible mapping between elements in the model and elements in the mechanism for the phe- nomenon. We demonstrate how this model-to-mechanism-mapping constraint, when satisfied, endows a model with explanatory force with respect to the phenomenon to be explained. Several paradigmatic models including the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model of bimanual coordination and the difference-of-Gaussians model of visual receptive fields are (...)
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  40.  29
    Creature Forcing and Large Continuum: The Joy of Halving.Jakob Kellner & Saharon Shelah - 2012 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (1-2):49-70.
    For ${f,g\in\omega^\omega}$ let ${c^\forall_{f,g}}$ be the minimal number of uniform g-splitting trees needed to cover the uniform f-splitting tree, i.e., for every branch ν of the f-tree, one of the g-trees contains ν. Let ${c^\exists_{f,g}}$ be the dual notion: For every branch ν, one of the g-trees guesses ν(m) infinitely often. We show that it is consistent that ${c^\exists_{f_\epsilon,g_\epsilon}{=}c^\forall_{f_\epsilon,g_\epsilon}{=}\kappa_\epsilon}$ for continuum many pairwise different cardinals ${\kappa_\epsilon}$ and suitable pairs ${(f_\epsilon,g_\epsilon)}$ . For the proof we introduce a new mixed-limit creature (...) construction. (shrink)
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  41.  19
    Mathias Forcing and Combinatorial Covering Properties of Filters.David Chodounský, Dušan Repovš & Lyubomyr Zdomskyy - 2015 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 80 (4):1398-1410.
    We give topological characterizations of filters${\cal F}$onωsuch that the Mathias forcing${M_{\cal F}}$adds no dominating reals or preserves ground model unbounded families. This allows us to answer some questions of Brendle, Guzmán, Hrušák, Martínez, Minami, and Tsaban.
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  42.  16
    Proper Forcing and Remarkable Cardinals II.Ralf-Dieter Schindler - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (3):1481-1492.
    The current paper proves the results announced in [5]. We isolate a new large cardinal concept, "remarkability." Consistencywise, remarkable cardinals are between ineffable and ω-Erdos cardinals. They are characterized by the existence of "O # -like" embeddings; however, they relativize down to L. It turns out that the existence of a remarkable cardinal is equiconsistent with L(R) absoluteness for proper forcings. In particular, said absoluteness does not imply Π 1 1 determinacy.
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  43. The Metaphysics of Forces.Olivier Massin - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):555-589.
    This paper defends the view that Newtonian forces are real, symmetrical and non-causal relations. First, I argue that Newtonian forces are real; second, that they are relations; third, that they are symmetrical relations; fourth, that they are not species of causation. The overall picture is anti-Humean to the extent that it defends the existence of forces as external relations irreducible to spatio-temporal ones, but is still compatible with Humean approaches to causation (and others) since it denies that forces are a (...)
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  44.  65
    Forces in a True and Physical Sense: From Mathematical Models to Metaphysical Conclusions.Corey Dethier - 2019 - Synthese 198 (2):1109-1122.
    Wilson [Dialectica 63:525–554, 2009], Moore [Int Stud Philos Sci 26:359–380, 2012], and Massin [Br J Philos Sci 68:805–846, 2017] identify an overdetermination problem arising from the principle of composition in Newtonian physics. I argue that the principle of composition is a red herring: what’s really at issue are contrasting metaphysical views about how to interpret the science. One of these views—that real forces are to be tied to physical interactions like pushes and pulls—is a superior guide to real forces than (...)
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  45. Force and Inertia in the Seventeenth Century: Descartes and Newton.Alan Gabbey - 1980 - In Stephen Gaukroger (ed.), Descartes: Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics. Barnes & Noble. pp. 230--320.
     
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  46. Self-Interest Before Adam Smith: A Genealogy of Economic Science.Pierre Force - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Self-Interest before Adam Smith inquires into the foundations of economic theory. It is generally assumed that the birth of modern economic science, marked by the publication of The Wealth of Nations in 1776, was the triumph of the 'selfish hypothesis'. Yet, as a neo-Epicurean idea, this hypothesis had been a matter of controversy for over a century and Smith opposed it from a neo-Stoic point of view. But how can the Epicurean principles of orthodox economic theory be reconciled with the (...)
     
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  47. Normative Force and Normative Freedom: Hume and Kant, but Not Hume Versus Kant.Peter A. Railton - 1999 - Ratio 12 (4):320–353.
    Our notion of normativity appears to combine, in a way difficult to understand but seemingly familiar from experience, elements of force and freedom. On the one hand, a normative claim is thought to have a kind of compelling authority; on the other hand, if our respecting it is to be an appropriate species of respect, it must not be coerced, automatic, or trivially guaranteed by definition. Both Hume and Kant, I argue, looked to aesthetic experience as a convincing example exhibiting (...)
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  48. The Composition of Forces.Olivier Massin - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (3):805-846.
    This paper defends a realist account of the composition of Newtonian forces, dubbed ‘residualism’. According to residualism, the resultant force acting on a body is identical to the component forces acting on it that do not prevent each other from bringing about its acceleration. Several reasons to favor residualism over alternative accounts of the composition of forces are advanced. (i) Residualism reconciles realism about component forces with realism about resultant forces while avoiding any threat of causal overdetermination. (ii) Residualism provides (...)
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  49.  58
    Formalizing Forcing Arguments in Subsystems of Second-Order Arithmetic.Jeremy Avigad - 1996 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 82 (2):165-191.
    We show that certain model-theoretic forcing arguments involving subsystems of second-order arithmetic can be formalized in the base theory, thereby converting them to effective proof-theoretic arguments. We use this method to sharpen the conservation theorems of Harrington and Brown-Simpson, giving an effective proof that WKL+0 is conservative over RCA0 with no significant increase in the lengths of proofs.
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  50.  7
    Forced Caesareans: Applying Ordinary Standards to an Extraordinary Case.Hafez Ismaili M’Hamdi & Inez de Beaufort - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (4):233-238.
    Is it morally justifiable to force non-consenting pregnant women to submit to caesarean surgery to save their fetus in distress? Even though proponents and opponents largely agree on the interests at stake, such as the health and life of the fetus and the respect for bodily integrity and autonomy of pregnant women, they disagree on which moral weight to attach to these interests. This is why disagreements about the justifiability of forced caesareans tend to be pervasive and intractable. To sidestep (...)
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