Results for 'Models, Neurological'

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  1.  33
    Neurological Models of Size Scaling.Helen E. Ross - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):425-425.
    Lehar argues that a simple Neuron Doctrine cannot explain perceptual phenomena such as size constancy but he fails to discuss existing, more complex neurological models. Size models that rely purely on scaling for distance are sparse, but several models are also concerned with other aspects of size perception such as geometrical illusions, relative size, adaptation, perceptual learning, and size discrimination.
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  2. A Neurologically Plausible Model of Individual Differences in Visual Mental Imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Michael H. Van Kleeck & Kris N. Kirby - 1990 - In P. J. Hampson, D. F. Marks & Janet Richardson (eds.), Imagery: Current Developments. Routledge.
  3.  13
    Models of Neurological Defects and Defects in Neurological Models.Timothy Schallert - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):68-69.
    The transition from research to patient following advances in transplantation research is likely to be disappointing unless it includes a better understanding of critically relevant characteristics of the neurological disorder and improvements in the animal models, particularly the behavioral features. The appropriateness of the model has less to do with the species than with how the species is used.
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  4.  28
    Cortical Models and the Neurological Gap.Bruce Bridgeman - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (2):157-158.
  5.  11
    Emotional Experience: A Neurological Model.K. M. Heilman - 2000 - In Richard D. R. Lane, L. Nadel, G. L. Ahern, J. Allen & Alfred W. Kaszniak (eds.), Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion. Oxford University Press. pp. 328--344.
  6.  21
    A Unified 3D Default Space Consciousness Model Combining Neurological and Physiological Processes That Underlie Conscious Experience.Ravinder Jerath, Molly W. Crawford & Vernon A. Barnes - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-26.
    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, (...)
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  7.  5
    Towards A Neurological Model of Giftedness: A Conceptual Perspective.Maqsoud Kruse - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
  8.  23
    Language Deficits, Localization, and Grammar: Evidence for a Distributive Model of Language Breakdown in Aphasic Patients and Neurologically Intact Individuals.Frederic Dick, Elizabeth Bates, Beverly Wulfeck, Jennifer Aydelott Utman, Nina Dronkers & Morton Ann Gernsbacher - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (4):759-788.
  9. Longitudinal Neurological Analysis of Moderate and Severe Pediatric Cerebral Visual Impairment.Andres Jimenez-Gomez, Kristen S. Fisher, Kevin X. Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Qin Sun & Veeral S. Shah - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    IntroductionCerebral visual impairment results from damage to cerebral visual processing structures. It is the most common cause of pediatric visual impairment in developed countries and rising in prevalence in developing nations. There is currently limited understanding on how neurologic, developmental, and ophthalmic factors predict outcome for pediatric CVI.MethodA retrospective manual chart review of pediatric CVI patients seen at the tertiary pediatric hospital neurology and neuro-ophthalmology service between 2010 and 2019 was conducted. Patients were stratified into severity groups, and followed over (...)
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  10. Neuroethics in Spain: Neurological Determinism or Moral Freedom?Enrique Bonete - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):225-232.
    Spanish culture has recently shown interest about Neuroethics, a new line of research and reflection. It can be said that two general, and somewhat opposing, perspectives are currently being developed in Spain about neuroethics-related topics. One originates from the neuroscientific field and the other from the philosophical field. We will see, throughout this article, that the Spanish authors, who I am going to select here, deal with very diverse neuroethical topics and that they analyse them from different intellectual assumptions. However, (...)
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  11.  38
    When the Boss Turns Pusher: A Proposal for Employee Protections in the Age of Cosmetic Neurology.J. M. Appel - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (8):616-618.
    Neurocognitive enhancement, or cosmetic neurology, offers the prospect of improving the learning, memory and attention skills of healthy individuals well beyond the normal human range. Much has been written about the ethics of such enhancement, but policy-makers in the USA, the UK and Europe have been reluctant to legislate in this rapidly developing field. However, the possibility of discrimination by employers and insurers against individuals who choose not to engage in such enhancement is a serious threat worthy of legislative intervention. (...)
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  12.  92
    Representing Disease Courses: An Application of the Neurological Disease Ontology to Multiple Sclerosis Typology.Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Barry Smith & Alexander Diehl - 2013 - In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), CEUR, vol. 1060.
    The Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) is being developed to provide a comprehensive framework for the representation of neurological diseases (Diehl et al., 2013). ND utilizes the model established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in medicine and disease (Scheuermann et al., 2009). The goal of ND is to include information for each disease concerning its molecular, genetic, and environmental origins, the processes involved in its etiology and realization, as well as its (...)
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  13. Large-Scale Brain Networks and Psychopathology: A Unifying Triple Network Model.Vinod Menon - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (10):483-506.
  14.  93
    Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations During Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare.J. Allan Cheyne, Steve D. Rueffer & Ian R. Newby-Clark - 1999 - Consciousness and Cognition 8 (3):319-337.
    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs) accompanying sleep paralysis (SP) are often cited as sources of accounts of supernatural nocturnal assaults and paranormal experiences. Descriptions of such experiences are remarkably consistent across time and cultures and consistent also with known mechanisms of REM states. A three-factor structural model of HHEs based on their relations both to cultural narratives and REM neurophysiology is developed and tested with several large samples. One factor, labeled Intruder, consisting of sensed presence, fear, and auditory and visual (...)
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  15. A Model for the Mechanism of Unilateral Neglect of Space.M. Kinsbourne - 1970 - Transactions of the American Neurological Association 95:143-147.
  16.  49
    Animal Models of Depression in Neuropsychopharmacology Qua Feyerabendian Philosophy of Science.Cory Wright - 2002 - In P. Shohov (ed.), Advances in Psychology Research Volume 13. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc. pp. 129-148.
    The neuropsychopharmacological methods and theories used to investigate the nature of depression have been viewed as suspect for a variety of philosophical and scientific reasons. Much of this criticism aims to demonstrate that biochemical- and neurological-based theories of this mental illness are defective, due in part because the methods used in their service are consistently invalidated, failing to induce depression in pre-clinical animal models. Neuropsychopharmacologists have been able to stave off such criticism by showing that their methods are context (...)
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  17. Large-Scale Brain Systems in ADHD: Beyond the Prefrontal–Striatal Model.F. Xavier Castellanos & Erika Proal - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (1):17-26.
  18. A Neurocognitive and Socioecological Model of Self-Awareness.Alain Morin - 2004 - Genetic Social And General Psychology Monographs 130 (3):197-222.
    In the past, researchers have focused mainly on the effects and consequences of self-awareness; however, they have neglected a more basic issue pertaining to the specific mechanisms that initiate and sustain self-perception. The author presents a model of self-awareness that proposes the existence of 3 sources of self-information. First, the social milieu includes early face-to-face interactions, self-relevant feedback, a social comparison mechanism that leads to perspective taking, and audiences. Second, contacts with objects and structures in the physical environment foster self–world (...)
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  19.  98
    Bayesian Fundamentalism or Enlightenment? On the Explanatory Status and Theoretical Contributions of Bayesian Models of Cognition.Matt Jones & Bradley C. Love - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):169-188.
    The prominence of Bayesian modeling of cognition has increased recently largely because of mathematical advances in specifying and deriving predictions from complex probabilistic models. Much of this research aims to demonstrate that cognitive behavior can be explained from rational principles alone, without recourse to psychological or neurological processes and representations. We note commonalities between this rational approach and other movements in psychology that set aside mechanistic explanations or make use of optimality assumptions. Through these comparisons, we identify a number (...)
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  20.  7
    A Disposition-Based Fraud Model: Theoretical Integration and Research Agenda.Vasant Raval - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):741-763.
    For several decades, most discussion on financial fraud has centered on the fraud triangle, which has evolved over time through various extensions and re-interpretations. While this has served the profession well, the articulation of the human side of the act is indirect and diffused. To address this limitation, this research develops a model to explain the role of human desires, intentions, and actions in indulgence of, or resistance to, the act of financial fraud. Evidence from religion, philosophy, sociology, neurology, behavioral (...)
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  21.  11
    Against the Drug Cure Model: Addiction, Identity, and Pharmaceuticals.Şerife Tekin, Owen Flanagan & George Graham - 2017 - In Dien Ho (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use. Springer.
    Recent advances in brain imaging methods as well as increased sophistication in neuroscientific modeling of the brain’s reward systems have facilitated the study of neural mechanisms associated with addiction such as processes associated with motivation, decision-making, pleasure seeking, and inhibitory control. These scientific activities have increased optimism that the neurological underpinnings of addiction will be delineated, and that pharmaceuticals that target and change these mechanisms will by themselves facilitate early intervention and even full recovery. In this paper, we argue (...)
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  22.  25
    Localist Representations Are a Desirable Emergent Property of Neurologically Plausible Neural Networks.Colin Martindale - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):485-486.
    Page has done connectionist researchers a valuable service in this target article. He points out that connectionist models using localized representations often work as well or better than models using distributed representations. I point out that models using distributed representations are difficult to understand and often lack parsimony and plausibility. In conclusion, I give an example – the case of the missing fundamental in music – that can easily be explained by a model using localist representations but can be explained (...)
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  23.  51
    Human Brain Surrogates: Models or Distortions?Monika Piotrowska - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):66-68.
    Although neurological disease and mental illness can cause terrible human suffering, strategies for researching their causes and cures are not obvious. Invasive brain research on actual human being...
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  24. Do Connectionist Networks Model Cognition?Christopher D. Green - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)
    Over the past two decades connectionist computational models of cognitive processes have come to predominate over traditional symbolic computational models. Whereas, however, it was relatively clear what aspects the parts of the symbolic models mapped on to in the cognitive domain , it has never been completely clear what the components of connectionist networks map on to in either the cognitive domain or some other "nearby" domain. Connectionist frequently speak of the "neural inspiration" and "biological plausibility" of the networks, they (...)
     
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  25.  38
    A Bifold Model of Free Will.John McCrone - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (8-9):241-59.
    The folk psychology view of the faculty of freewill is that it is innate, unitary, structureless and, of course, free. A bifold approach to the mind, as taken by Vygotsky, Mead, Luria and others, argues that, like all the other higher mental abilities of humans, freewill is in fact largely a socially-constructed and language-enabled habit of thought. There is a neurology for this habit to latch on to -- after all, the ‘raw’ animal brain is built for acting rather than (...)
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  26.  24
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice. [REVIEW]Lara Huber & Lara K. Kutschenko - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (4):307-313.
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Notes Pages 307-313 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0036-2 Authors Lara Huber, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Lara K. Kutschenko, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Journal (...)
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  27.  25
    Understanding and Augmenting Human Morality: An Introduction to the ACTWith Model of Conscience.Jeffrey White - 2010 - In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. pp. 607--621.
    Recent developments, both in the cognitive sciences and in world events, bring special emphasis to the study of morality. The cognitive sciences, spanning neurology, psychology, and computational intelligence, offer substantial ad- vances in understanding the origins and purposes of morality. Meanwhile, world events urge the timely synthesis of these insights with traditional ac- counts that can be easily assimilated and practically employed to augment moral judgment, both to solve current problems and to direct future action. The object of the following (...)
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  28.  59
    Raw Feeling: A Model for Affective Consciousness.Jack van Honk, Barak E. Morgan & Dennis J. L. G. Schutter - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):107-108.
    Seeking to unlock the secrets of consciousness, neuroscientists have been studying neural correlates of sensory awareness, such as meaningless randomly moving dots. But in the natural world of species' survival, “raw feelings” mediate conscious adaptive responses. Merker connects the brainstem with vigilance, orientating, and emotional consciousness. However, depending on the brain's phylogenetic level, raw feeling takes particular forms. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  29. Hallucinations in Schizophrenia, Sensory Impairment, and Brain Disease: A Unifying Model.Ralf-Peter Behrendt & Claire Young - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):771-787.
    Based on recent insight into the thalamocortical system and its role in perception and conscious experience, a unified pathophysiological framework for hallucinations in neurological and psychiatric conditions is proposed, which integrates previously unrelated neurobiological and psychological findings. Gamma-frequency rhythms of discharge activity from thalamic and cortical neurons are facilitated by cholinergic arousal and resonate in networks of thalamocortical circuits, thereby transiently forming assemblies of coherent gamma oscillations under constraints of afferent sensory input and prefrontal attentional mechanisms. If perception is (...)
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  30.  16
    Accuracy, Authenticity, Fidelity: Aesthetic Realism, the “Deficit Model,” and the Public Understanding of Science.Fernando Vidal - 2018 - Science in Context 31 (1):129-153.
    Argument“Deficit model” designates an outlook on the public understanding and communication of science that emphasizes scientific illiteracy and the need to educate the public. Though criticized, it is still widespread, especially among scientists. Its persistence is due not only to factors ranging from scientists’ training to policy design, but also to the continuance of realism as an aesthetic criterion. This article examines the link between realism and the deficit model through discussions of neurology and psychiatry in fiction film, as well (...)
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  31. Understanding and Augmenting Human Morality: The Actwith Model of Conscience.Jeffrey White - 2009 - In L. Magnani (ed.), computational intelligence.
    Abstract. Recent developments, both in the cognitive sciences and in world events, bring special emphasis to the study of morality. The cognitive sci- ences, spanning neurology, psychology, and computational intelligence, offer substantial advances in understanding the origins and purposes of morality. Meanwhile, world events urge the timely synthesis of these insights with tra- ditional accounts that can be easily assimilated and practically employed to augment moral judgment, both to solve current problems and to direct future action. The object of the (...)
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  32.  88
    Falsifications of Hameroff-Penrose Orch OR Model of Consciousness and Novel Avenues for Development of Quantum Mind Theory.Danko Georgiev - 2007 - Neuroquantology 5 (1):145-174.
    In this paper we try to make a clear distinction between quantum mysticism and quantum mind theory. Quackery always accompanies science especially in controversial and still under development areas and since the quantum mind theory is a science youngster it must clearly demarcate itself from the great stuff of pseudo-science currently patronized by the term "quantum mind". Quantum theory has attracted a big deal of attention and opened new avenues for building up a physical theory of mind because its principles (...)
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  33.  36
    From Amateur to Professional: A Neuro-Cognitive Model of Categories and Expert Development. [REVIEW]Michael S. Harré - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (4):443-472.
    The ability to group perceptual objects into functionally relevant categories is vital to our comprehension of the world. Such categorisation aids in how we search for objects in familiar scenes and how we identify an object and its likely uses despite never having seen that specific object before. The systems that mediate this process are only now coming to be understood through considerable research efforts combining neurological, psychological and behavioural studies. What is much less well understood are the differences (...)
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  34.  28
    Conscience: The A.C.T.With Model Of Moral Cognition.Jeffrey Benjamin White - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:437-444.
    This work introduces the ACTWith model of moral cognition. This is a model of conscience and conscientious agency, inspired by Socratic philosophy, neurology and artificial intelligence. The ACTWith model is a synthesis across these disciplines, integrating ancient and contemporary insights into the human condition, while distilling this synthesis into a practicable dynamic simplified via architectural paradigms imported from theories of computational models of human learning. It was developed in response to the need in these fields for a clear articulation of (...)
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  35.  15
    Neural Grafting in Human Disease Versus Animal Models: Cautionary Notes.Kathy Steece-Collier - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):71-72.
    Over the past two decades, research on neural transplantation in animal models of neurodegeneration has provided provocative in sights into the therapeutic use of grafted tissue for various neurological diseases. Although great strides have been made and functional benefits gained in these animal models, much information is still needed with regard to transplantation in human patients. Several factors are unique to human disease, for example, age of the recipient, duration of disease, and drug interaction with grafted cells; these need (...)
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  36.  40
    Two Kinds of “Memory Images”: Experimental Models for Hallucinations?David Ingle - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):768-768.
    Collerton et al. postulate that in a variety of different clinical conditions, hallucinations are derived from object schema lodged in long-term memory. I review two new experiments in which memory images can be easily triggered in neurologically intact subjects. These examples of making visible items in memory may provide experimental models for genesis of hallucinations.
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  37. The Free-Energy Principle: A Rough Guide to the Brain?Karl Friston - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (7):293-301.
  38. Can Cognitive Processes Be Inferred From Neuroimaging Data?Russell A. Poldrack - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):59-63.
  39. The Proactive Brain: Using Analogies and Associations to Generate Predictions.Moshe Bar - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (7):280-289.
  40. A Dual-Networks Architecture of Top-Down Control.Nico U. F. Dosenbach, Damien A. Fair, Alexander L. Cohen, Bradley L. Schlaggar & Steven E. Petersen - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (3):99-105.
  41. Computational Psychiatry.P. Read Montague, Raymond J. Dolan, Karl J. Friston & Peter Dayan - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (1):72-80.
  42.  93
    Statistically Optimal Perception and Learning: From Behavior to Neural Representations.József Fiser, Pietro Berkes, Gergő Orbán & Máté Lengyel - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):119-130.
  43.  69
    The Multifaceted Interplay Between Attention and Multisensory Integration.Durk Talsma, Daniel Senkowski, Salvador Soto-Faraco & Marty G. Woldorff - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (9):400.
  44. Understanding Complexity in the Human Brain.Danielle S. Bassett & Michael S. Gazzaniga - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (5):200.
  45.  84
    Mind the Gap: Bridging Economic and Naturalistic Risk-Taking with Cognitive Neuroscience.Tom Schonberg, Craig R. Fox & Russell A. Poldrack - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (1):11.
  46. The Brain Circuitry of Attention.Stewart Shipp - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (5):223-230.
  47. A Measurable and Testable Brain-Based Emergent Interactionism.Larry R. Vandervert - 1991 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 201 (2):201-219.
    Possible measurement and testability weaknesses in Sperry's mind-supervenient emergent interactionism "argument by analogy" model are described. An alternative brain-supervenient interactionism that addresses the weaknesses of Sperry's mind-brain model is presented. The alternative model, Neurological Positivism - a systems-theoretical evolutionary epistemology - proposes that the measurable energy quality of the algorithmic organization of the Darwinian brain supervenes that of cultural mental models and thus downwardly influences the brain circuitry patterns that underlie them. Brain and mind are defined in interrelated energy (...)
     
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  48. Cognit Activation: A Mechanism Enabling Temporal Integration in Working Memory.Joaquín M. Fuster & Steven L. Bressler - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (4):207.
  49.  87
    The Role of Neuromodulators in Selective Attention.Behrad Noudoost & Tirin Moore - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (12):585.
  50.  68
    Dynamic Network Connectivity: A New Form of Neuroplasticity.Amy F. T. Arnsten, Constantinos D. Paspalas, Nao J. Gamo, Yang Yang & Min Wang - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):365-375.
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