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  1. Acceleration AI Ethics, the Debate between Innovation and Safety, and Stability AI’s Diffusion versus OpenAI’s Dall-E.James Brusseau - manuscript
    One objection to conventional AI ethics is that it slows innovation. This presentation responds by reconfiguring ethics as an innovation accelerator. The critical elements develop from a contrast between Stability AI’s Diffusion and OpenAI’s Dall-E. By analyzing the divergent values underlying their opposed strategies for development and deployment, five conceptions are identified as common to acceleration ethics. Uncertainty is understood as positive and encouraging, rather than discouraging. Innovation is conceived as intrinsically valuable, instead of worthwhile only as mediated by social (...)
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  2. Ethics of Identity in the Time of Big Data - Delivered at 25th Annual International Vincentian Business Ethics Conference (IVBEC), 2018, St. John’s University, New York.James Brusseau - manuscript
    According to Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, big data reality means, “The days of having a different image for your co-workers and for others are coming to an end, which is good because having multiple identities represents a lack of integrity.” Two sets of questions follow. One centers on technology and asks how big data mechanisms collapse our various selves (work-self, family-self, romantic-self) into one personality. The second question set shifts from technology to ethics by asking whether we want the kind of (...)
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  3. Virtual Reality Interview (Metaphysics and Epistemology): "Welcome Back!".Erick Jose Ramirez & Miles Elliott - manuscript
    This is a virtual reality simulation that imagines its subject as emerging from a long stint in Robert Nozick's "Experience Machine." The simulation is an interview (with many branching paths) meant to gauge the subject's views on the metaphysics of virtual objects and the ethics of virtual actions. It draws heavily from the published work of David Chalmers, Mark Silcox, Jon Cogburn, Morgan Luck, and Nick Bostrom. *Requires an Oculus Rift (or Rift-S) or HTC Vive and a VR capable computer. (...)
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  4. Legal aspects of Big Data - GDPR.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The use of Big Data presents significant legal problems, especially in terms of data protection. The existing legal framework of the European Union based in particular on the Directive no. 46/95/EC and the General Regulation on the Protection of Personal Data provide adequate protection. But for Big Data, a comprehensive and global strategy is needed. The evolution over time was from the right to exclude others to the right to control their own data and, at present, to the rethinking of (...)
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  5. Coding the Dictatorship of ‘the They:’ A Phenomenological Critique of Digital Rights Management.Gordon Hull - forthcoming - In J. Jeremy Wisnewski Mark Sanders (ed.), Ethics and Phenomenology. Lexington Books.
    This paper uses Heidegger’s discussion of artifacts in Being and Time to motivate a phenomenological critique of Digital Rights Management regimes such as the one that allows DVDs to require one to watch commercials and copyright notices. In the first section, I briefly sketch traditional ethical approaches to intellectual property and indicate the gap that a phenomenological approach can fill. In section 2, following Heidegger’s discussion in Being and Time, I analyze DRM technologies as exemplary of the breakdown of things (...)
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  6. A matter of trust: : Higher education institutions as information fiduciaries in an age of educational data mining and learning analytics.Kyle M. L. Jones, Alan Rubel & Ellen LeClere - forthcoming - JASIST: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.
    Higher education institutions are mining and analyzing student data to effect educational, political, and managerial outcomes. Done under the banner of “learning analytics,” this work can—and often does—surface sensitive data and information about, inter alia, a student’s demographics, academic performance, offline and online movements, physical fitness, mental wellbeing, and social network. With these data, institutions and third parties are able to describe student life, predict future behaviors, and intervene to address academic or other barriers to student success (however defined). Learning (...)
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  7. Automated Influence and the Challenge of Cognitive Security.Sarah Rajtmajer & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - HoTSoS: ACM Symposium on Hot Topics in the Science of Security.
    Advances in AI are powering increasingly precise and widespread computational propaganda, posing serious threats to national security. The military and intelligence communities are starting to discuss ways to engage in this space, but the path forward is still unclear. These developments raise pressing ethical questions, about which existing ethics frameworks are silent. Understanding these challenges through the lens of “cognitive security,” we argue, offers a promising approach.
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  8. Corporatised Identities ≠ Digital Identities: Algorithmic Filtering on Social Media and the Commercialisation of Presentations of Self.Charlie Harry Smith - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-being: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer.
    Goffman’s (1959) dramaturgical identity theory requires modification when theorising about presentations of self on social media. This chapter contributes to these efforts, refining a conception of digital identities by differentiating them from ‘corporatised identities’. Armed with this new distinction, I ultimately argue that social media platforms’ production of corporatised identities undermines their users’ autonomy and digital well-being. This follows from the disentanglement of several commonly conflated concepts. Firstly, I distinguish two kinds of presentation of self that I collectively refer to (...)
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  9. An Analysis For A Just Cyber Warfare.Mariarosaria Taddeo - forthcoming - In Warfare. Fourth International Conference of Cyber Conflict. NATO CCD COE and IEEE Publication.
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  10. The philosophical basis of algorithmic recourse.Suresh Venkatasubramanian & Mark Alfano - forthcoming - Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency Conference 2020.
    Philosophers have established that certain ethically important val- ues are modally robust in the sense that they systematically deliver correlative benefits across a range of counterfactual scenarios. In this paper, we contend that recourse – the systematic process of reversing unfavorable decisions by algorithms and bureaucracies across a range of counterfactual scenarios – is such a modally ro- bust good. In particular, we argue that two essential components of a good life – temporally extended agency and trust – are under- (...)
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  11. Approaches to ethical AI.Erich Prem - 2024 - In Introduction to Digital Humanism. Springer Nature. pp. 225-239.
    This chapter provides an overview of existing proposals to address ethical issues of AI systems with a focus on ethical frameworks. A large number of such frameworks have been proposed with the aim to ensure the development of AI systems aligned with human values and morals. The frameworks list key ethical values that an AI system should follow. For the most part, they can be regarded as instances of philosophical principlism. This paper provides an overview of such frameworks and their (...)
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  12. On algorithmic content moderation.Erich Prem & Krenn - 2024 - In Introduction to digital humanism. Springer Nature. pp. 481-493.
    This chapter provides an overview of the challenges involved in algorithmic content moderation. Content moderation is the organized practice of screening user-generated content (UGC) on Internet sites, social media, and other online outlets to determine the appropriateness of the content for a given site, locality, or jurisdiction. The most common technical approaches consist in using classifier systems that assign predefined category labels to individual posts. We briefly introduce pre- and post-moderation and provide real-world examples of algorithmic moderation systems used by (...)
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  13. The Values of the Virtual.Rami Ali - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 40 (2):231-245.
    How do we assign values to virtual items, which include virtual objects, properties, events, subjects, worlds, environments, and experiences? In this article, I offer a framework for answering this question. After considering different value theses in the literature, I argue that whether we think these theses mutually exclusive or not turns on our view about the number of value-salient kinds virtual items belong to. Virtual monism is the view that virtual Xs belong to only one value-salient kind in relation to (...)
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  14. To pay or not to pay? handling crowdsourced participants who drop out from a research study.Raquel Benbunan-Fich - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-14.
    This article examines whether a crowdsourced research participant who quits a study before its completion should receive any monetary compensation. The study is focused on participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk, the most widely used crowdsourcing platform, and examines the tensions between participants’ rights and research objectives when online labor markets are used to recruit research participants. The discussion is informed by the recent literature on online research with crowdsourced samples, evidence from human subjects’ practices at top US universities, and (...)
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  15. Between death and suffering: resolving the gamer’s dilemma.Thomas Coghlan & Damian Cox - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-9.
    The gamer’s dilemma, initially proposed by Luck (Ethics and Information Technology 11(1):31–36, 2009) posits a moral comparison between in-game acts of murder and in-game acts of paedophilia within single-player videogames. Despite each activity lacking the obvious harms of their real-world equivalents, common intuitions suggest an important difference between them. Some responses to the dilemma suggest that intuitive responses to the two cases are based on important differences between the acts themselves or their social meaning. Others challenge the fundamental assumptions of (...)
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  16. A systematic review of almost three decades of value sensitive design (VSD): what happened to the technical investigations?Anne Gerdes & Tove Faber Frandsen - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (2):1-16.
    This article presents a systematic literature review documenting how technical investigations have been adapted in value sensitive design (VSD) studies from 1996 to 2023. We present a systematic review, including theoretical and applied studies that either discuss or conduct technical investigations in VSD. This systematic review contributes to the VSD community when seeking to further refine the methodological framework for carrying out technical investigations in VSD.
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  17. Okay, Google, Can I Trust You? An Anti-trust Argument for Antitrust.Trystan S. Goetze - 2023 - In David Collins, Iris Vidmar Jovanović & Mark Alfano (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Trust. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 237-257.
    In this chapter, I argue that it is impossible to trust the Big Tech companies, in an ethically important sense of trust. The argument is not that these companies are untrustworthy. Rather, I argue that the power to hold the trustee accountable is a necessary component of this sense of trust, and, because these companies are so powerful, they are immune to our attempts, as individuals or nation-states, to hold them to account. It is, therefore, literally impossible to trust Big (...)
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  18. Integrating Ethics into Computer Science Education: Multi-, Inter-, and Transdisciplinary Approaches.Trystan S. Goetze - 2023 - Proceedings of the 54Th Acm Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education V. 1 (Sigcse 2023).
    While calls to integrate ethics into computer science education go back decades, recent high-profile ethical failures related to computing technology by large technology companies, governments, and academic institutions have accelerated the adoption of computer ethics education at all levels of instruction. Discussions of how to integrate ethics into existing computer science programmes often focus on the structure of the intervention—embedded modules or dedicated courses, humanists or computer scientists as ethics instructors—or on the specific content to be included—lists of case studies (...)
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  19. Can AlphaGo be apt subjects for Praise/Blame for "Move 37"?Mubarak Hussain - 2023 - Aies '23: Aaai/Acm Conference on Ai, Ethics, and Society, Montréal, Qc, Canada, August.
    This paper examines whether machines (algorithms/programs/ AI systems) are apt subjects for praise or blame for some actions or performances. I consider "Move 37" of AlphaGo as a case study. DeepMind’s AlphaGo is an AI algorithm developed to play the game of Go. The AlphaGo utilizes Deep Neural Networks. As AlphaGo is trained through reinforcement learning, the AI algorithm can improve itself over a period of time. Such AI models can go beyond the intended task and perform novel and unpredictable (...)
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  20. Has Montefiore and Formosa resisted the Gamer’s Dilemma?Morgan Luck - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (2):1-6.
    Montefiore and Formosa (Ethics Inf Technol 24:31, 2022) provide a useful way of narrowing the Gamer’s Dilemma to cases where virtual murder seems morally permissible, but not virtual child molestation. They then resist the dilemma by theorising that the intuitions supporting it are not moral. In this paper, I consider this theory to determine whether the dilemma has been successfully resisted. I offer reason to think that, when considering certain variations of the dilemma, Montefiore and Formosa’s theory may not be (...)
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  21. A Kantian response to the Gamer’s Dilemma.Samuel Ulbricht - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-11.
    The Gamer’s Dilemma consists of three intuitively plausible but conflicting assertions: (i) Virtual murder is morally permissible. (ii) Virtual child molestation is morally forbidden. (iii) There is no relevant moral difference between virtual murder and virtual child molestation in computer games. Numerous attempts to resolve (or dissolve) the Gamer’s Dilemma line the field of computer game ethics. Mostly, the phenomenon is approached using expressivist argumentation: Reprehensible virtual actions express something immoral in their performance but are not immoral by themselves. Consequentialists, (...)
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  22. Oggetti buoni: Per una tecnologia sensibile ai valori.Steven Umbrello - 2023 - Rome: Fandango.
    Non possiamo immaginare un mondo senza le nostre tecnologie e i nostri strumenti. In molti modi, le nostre tecnologie sono ciò che ci definisce come esseri umani, separandoci dal resto del regno animale. Tuttavia, pensare alle nostre tecnologie come semplici strumenti, strumenti che possono essere usati nel bene o nel male, ci rende vulnerabili agli effetti sistemici e duraturi che le tecnologie hanno sulla nostra società, sui comportamenti, e sulle generazioni future. Oggetti Buoni esplora come le tecnologie incarnano i valori (...)
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  23. Moral autonomy of patients and legal barriers to a possible duty of health related data sharing.Anton Vedder & Daniela Spajić - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-11.
    Informed consent bears significant relevance as a legal basis for the processing of personal data and health data in the current privacy, data protection and confidentiality legislations. The consent requirements find their basis in an ideal of personal autonomy. Yet, with the recent advent of the global pandemic and the increased use of eHealth applications in its wake, a more differentiated perspective with regards to this normative approach might soon gain momentum. This paper discusses the compatibility of a moral duty (...)
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  24. Design for values and conceptual engineering.Herman Veluwenkamp & Jeroen van den Hoven - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-12.
    Politicians and engineers are increasingly realizing that values are important in the development of technological artefacts. What is often overlooked is that different conceptualizations of these abstract values lead to different design-requirements. For example, designing social media platforms for deliberative democracy sets us up for technical work on completely different types of architectures and mechanisms than designing for so-called liquid or direct forms of democracy. Thinking about Democracy is not enough, we need to design for the proper conceptualization of these (...)
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  25. Cybercrime and Online Safety: Addressing the Challenges and Solutions Related to Cybercrime, Online Fraud, and Ensuring a Safe Digital Environment for All Users— A Case of African States (10th edition).Emmanuel N. Vitus - 2023 - Tijer- International Research Journal 10 (9):975-989.
    The internet has made the world more linked than ever before. While taking advantage of this online transition, cybercriminals target flaws in online systems, networks, and infrastructure. Businesses, government organizations, people, and communities all across the world, particularly in African countries, are all severely impacted on an economic and social level. Many African countries focused more on developing secure electricity and internet networks; yet, cybersecurity usually receives less attention than it should. One of Africa's major issues is the lack of (...)
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  26. Specifying a principle of cryptographic justice as a response to the problem of going dark.Michael Wilson - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-15.
    Over the past decade, the Five Eyes Intelligence community has argued cryptosystems with end-to-end encryption (E2EE) are disrupting the acquisition and analysis of digital evidence. They have labelled this phenomenon the ‘problem of going dark’. Consequently, several jurisdictions have passed ‘responsible encryption’ laws that limit access to E2EE. Based upon a rhetorical analysis (Cunningham in Understanding rhetoric: a guide to critical reading and argumentation, BrownWalker Press, Boca Raton, 2018) of official statements about ‘going dark’, it is argued there is a (...)
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  27. Tracing app technology: an ethical review in the COVID-19 era and directions for post-COVID-19.Saleh Afroogh, Amir Esmalian, Ali Mostafavi, Ali Akbari, Kambiz Rasoulkhani, Shahriar Esmaeili & Ehsan Hajiramezanali - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3):1-15.
    We conducted a systematic literature review on the ethical considerations of the use of contact tracing app technology, which was extensively implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid and extensive use of this technology during the COVID-19 pandemic, while benefting the public well-being by providing information about people’s mobility and movements to control the spread of the virus, raised several ethical concerns for the post-COVID-19 era. To investigate these concerns for the post-pandemic situation and provide direction for future events, we (...)
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  28. A framework for the application of socio-technical design methodology.Adnan Ahmad, Brian Whitworth & Elisa Bertino - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (4):1-20.
    Socio-technical systems (STS) have become prominent platforms for online social interactions. Yet, they are still struggling to incorporate basic social ideas for many different and new online activities. This has resulted in unintended exposure of users’ personal data and a rise in online threats as users have now become a desirable target for malicious activities. To address such challenges, various researchers have argued that STS should support user-oriented configurations to protect their users from online social abuse. Some methodologies have also (...)
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  29. The video gamer’s dilemmas.Rami Ali - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    The gamer’s dilemma offers three plausible but jointly inconsistent premises: (1) Virtual murder in video games is morally permissible. (2) Virtual paedophelia in video games is not morally permissible. (3) There is no morally relevant difference between virtual murder and virtual paedophelia in video games. In this paper I argue that the gamer’s dilemma can be understood as one of three distinct dilemmas, depending on how we understand two key ideas in Morgan Luck’s (2009) original formulation. The two ideas are (...)
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  30. Quantum of Wisdom.Colin Allen & Brett Karlan - 2022 - In Greg Viggiano (ed.), Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Computing: Social, Economic, and Policy Impacts. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 157-166.
    Practical quantum computing devices and their applications to AI in particular are presently mostly speculative. Nevertheless, questions about whether this future technology, if achieved, presents any special ethical issues are beginning to take shape. As with any novel technology, one can be reasonably confident that the challenges presented by "quantum AI" will be a mixture of something new and something old. Other commentators (Sevilla & Moreno 2019), have emphasized continuity, arguing that quantum computing does not substantially affect approaches to value (...)
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  31. Mind the Gap: Autonomous Systems, the Responsibility Gap, and Moral Entanglement.Trystan S. Goetze - 2022 - Proceedings of the 2022 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT ’22).
    When a computer system causes harm, who is responsible? This question has renewed significance given the proliferation of autonomous systems enabled by modern artificial intelligence techniques. At the root of this problem is a philosophical difficulty known in the literature as the responsibility gap. That is to say, because of the causal distance between the designers of autonomous systems and the eventual outcomes of those systems, the dilution of agency within the large and complex teams that design autonomous systems, and (...)
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  32. Vices in Gaming: Virtue Ethics and Endorsement View.Deniz A. Kaya - 2022 - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-17.
    Can video games or the playing of such games be morally objectionable? Many attempts to justify our intuitions about the morality of certain games or game activities are either unsuccessful or fall short. This is mainly due to a normative gap between reality and virtuality that classical approaches to moral philosophy cannot bridge. I am investigating to what extent an accurate action analysis can help us to justify our intuitions that, in some cases, something is ethically wrong with video games. (...)
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  33. Resisting the Gamer’s Dilemma.Thomas Montefiore & Paul Formosa - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3):1-13.
    Intuitively, many people seem to hold that engaging in acts of virtual murder in videogames is morally permissible, whereas engaging in acts of virtual child molestation is morally impermissible. The Gamer’s Dilemma (Luck in Ethics Inf Technol 11:31–36, 2009) challenges these intuitions by arguing that it is unclear whether there is a morally relevant difference between these two types of virtual actions. There are two main responses in the literature to this dilemma. First, attempts to resolve the dilemma by defending (...)
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  34. Ethical Digital Technology in Practice.Simon Rogerson - 2022 - New York, NY, USA: Auerbach Publications, Taylor & Francis Group.
    Digital technology is about people. It is about those who plan, develop and implement applications which other people use and are affected by. It is about the impact on all these people as well as on the world at large. Ethical Digital Technology in Practice takes a real-world perspective to explore these impacts over time and discover ways in which to promote ethical digital technology through good practice. It draws upon the author’s published articles in trade magazines, professional journals and (...)
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  35. Engineering responsibility.Nicholas Sars - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3):1-10.
    Many optimistic responses have been proposed to bridge the threat of responsibility gaps which artificial systems create. This paper identifies a question which arises if this optimistic project proves successful. On a response-dependent understanding of responsibility, our responsibility practices themselves at least partially determine who counts as a responsible agent. On this basis, if AI or robot technology advance such that AI or robot agents become fitting participants within responsibility exchanges, then responsibility itself might be engineered. If we have good (...)
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  36. Ethical issues in computational pathology.Tom Sorell, Nasir Rajpoot & Clare Verrill - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (4):278-284.
    This paper explores ethical issues raised by whole slide image-based computational pathology. After briefly giving examples drawn from some recent literature of advances in this field, we consider some ethical problems it might be thought to pose. These arise from the tension between artificial intelligence research—with its hunger for more and more data—and the default preference in data ethics and data protection law for the minimisation of personal data collection and processing; the fact that computational pathology lends itself to kinds (...)
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  37. Data and the Good?Daniel Susser - 2022 - Surveillance and Society 20 (3):297-301.
    Surveillance studies scholars and privacy scholars have each developed sophisticated, important critiques of the existing data-driven order. But too few scholars in either tradition have put forward alternative substantive conceptions of a good digital society. This, I argue, is a crucial omission. Unless we construct new “sociotechnical imaginaries,” new understandings of the goals and aspirations digital technologies should aim to achieve, the most surveillance studies and privacy scholars can hope to accomplish is a less unjust version of the technology industry’s (...)
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  38. Ethics of Computer Gaming: A Groundwork.Samuel Ulbricht - 2022 - Berlin: Springer Berlin: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Despite the increasing number of gamers worldwide, the moral classification of computer gaming marks an as yet unsolved riddle of philosophical ethics. In view of the explosive nature of the topic in everyday life (as seen in various debates about rampages), it is obvious that a differentiated professional clarification of the phenomenon is needed: Can playing computer games be immoral? -/- To answer this question, the author first discusses what we do at all when we play computer games: What kind (...)
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  39. The ethical use of artificial intelligence in human resource management: a decision-making framework.Sarah Bankins - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):841-854.
    Artificial intelligence is increasingly inputting into various human resource management functions, such as sourcing job applicants and selecting staff, allocating work, and offering personalized career coaching. While the use of AI for such tasks can offer many benefits, evidence suggests that without careful and deliberate implementation its use also has the potential to generate significant harms. This raises several ethical concerns regarding the appropriateness of AI deployment to domains such as HRM, which directly deal with managing sometimes sensitive aspects of (...)
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  40. The Claire covid-19 initiative: Approach, experiences and recommendations.Gianluca Bontempi, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Hans eD Canck, Emanuela Girardi, Holger Hoos, Iarla Kilbane-Dawe, Tonio Ball, Ann Nowé, Jose Sousa, Davide Bacciu, Marco Aldinucci, Manlio eD Domenico, Alessandro Saffiotti & Marco Maratea - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):127-133.
    A volunteer effort by Artificial Intelligence researchers has shown it can deliver significant research outcomes rapidly to help tackle COVID-19. Within two months, CLAIRE’s self-organising volunteers delivered the World’s first comprehensive curated repository of COVID-19-related datasets useful for drug-repurposing, drafted review papers on the role CT/x-ray scan analysis and robotics could play, and progressed research in other areas. Given the pace required and nature of voluntary efforts, the teams faced a number of challenges. These offer insights in how better to (...)
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  41. Responsible innovation in synthetic biology in response to COVID-19: the role of data positionality.Koen Bruynseels - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (1):117-125.
    Synthetic biology, as an engineering approach to biological systems, has the potential to disruptively innovate the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Data accessibility and differences in data-usage capabilities are important factors in shaping this innovation landscape. In this paper, the data that underpin synthetic biology responses to the COVID-19 pandemic are analyzed as positional information goods—goods whose value depends on exclusivity. The positionality of biological data impacts the ability to guide innovations toward societally preferred goals. From both an ethical (...)
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  42. Improving ethical attitudes to animals with digital technologies: the case of apes and zoos.Simon Coghlan, Sarah Webber & Marcus Carter - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):825-839.
    This paper examines how digital technologies might be used to improve ethical attitudes towards nonhuman animals, by exploring the case study of nonhuman apes kept in modern zoos. The paper describes and employs a socio-ethical framework for undermining anti-ape prejudice advanced by philosopher Edouard Machery which draws on classic anti-racism strategies from the social sciences. We also discuss how digital technologies might be designed and deployed to enable and enhance rather than impede the three anti-prejudice strategies of contact and interaction, (...)
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  43. Understanding responsibility in Responsible AI. Dianoetic virtues and the hard problem of context.Mihaela Constantinescu, Cristina Voinea, Radu Uszkai & Constantin Vică - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):803-814.
    During the last decade there has been burgeoning research concerning the ways in which we should think of and apply the concept of responsibility for Artificial Intelligence. Despite this conceptual richness, there is still a lack of consensus regarding what Responsible AI entails on both conceptual and practical levels. The aim of this paper is to connect the ethical dimension of responsibility in Responsible AI with Aristotelian virtue ethics, where notions of context and dianoetic virtues play a grounding role for (...)
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  44. May Kantians commit virtual killings that affect no other persons?Tobias Flattery - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):751-762.
    Are acts of violence performed in virtual environments ever morally wrong, even when no other persons are affected? While some such acts surely reflect deficient moral character, I focus on the moral rightness or wrongness of acts. Typically it’s thought that, on Kant’s moral theory, an act of virtual violence is morally wrong (i.e., violate the Categorical Imperative) only if the act mistreats another person. But I argue that, on Kant’s moral theory, some acts of virtual violence can be morally (...)
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  45. A principlist framework for cybersecurity ethics.Paul Formosa, Michael Wilson & Deborah Richards - 2021 - Computers and Security 109.
    The ethical issues raised by cybersecurity practices and technologies are of critical importance. However, there is disagreement about what is the best ethical framework for understanding those issues. In this paper we seek to address this shortcoming through the introduction of a principlist ethical framework for cybersecurity that builds on existing work in adjacent fields of applied ethics, bioethics, and AI ethics. By redeploying the AI4People framework, we develop a domain-relevant specification of five ethical principles in cybersecurity: beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, (...)
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  46. Bigger Isn’t Better: The Ethical and Scientific Vices of Extra-Large Datasets in Language Models.Trystan S. Goetze & Darren Abramson - 2021 - WebSci '21: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (Companion Volume).
    The use of language models in Web applications and other areas of computing and business have grown significantly over the last five years. One reason for this growth is the improvement in performance of language models on a number of benchmarks — but a side effect of these advances has been the adoption of a “bigger is always better” paradigm when it comes to the size of training, testing, and challenge datasets. Drawing on previous criticisms of this paradigm as applied (...)
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  47. Using technological frames as an analytic tool in value sensitive design.Christiane Grünloh - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (1):53-57.
    This article proposes the use of technological frames (TF) as an analytical tool to support the investigations within value sensitive design. TF can help to identify values that are consistent or conflicting within and between stakeholders, which is exemplified with a case of patient accessible electronic health records in Sweden. The article concludes that TF can help to identify values, which may then help to understand and address possible concerns in the design process.
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  48. Was Snowden virtuous?Clive Harfield - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):373-383.
    Professor Shannon Vallor’s theoretical framework of technomoral virtue ethics identifies character traits that can be cultivated to foster a future worth wanting in an environment of emerging technologies. Such technologies and increased citizen participation in the new digital environment have reconfigured what is possible in policing and intelligence-gathering more quickly, perhaps, than sober and sensible policy reflection and formulation can keep pace with. Sensational and dramatic, seismic and devastating, the Snowden disclosures represent a particular expression of dissent against American intelligence (...)
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  49. Ethical Analysis on the Application of Neurotechnology for Human Augmentation in Physicians and Surgeons.Soaad Hossain & Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed - 2021 - In Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor & Rahul Bhatia (eds.), Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (FTC) 2020. Switzerland: pp. 78-99.
    With the shortage of physicians and surgeons and increase in demand worldwide due to situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a growing interest in finding solutions to help address the problem. A solution to this problem would be to use neurotechnology to provide them augmented cognition, senses and action for optimal diagnosis and treatment. Consequently, doing so can negatively impact them and others. We argue that applying neurotechnology for human enhancement in physicians and surgeons can cause injustices, and (...)
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  50. Ethics in the COVID-19 pandemic: myths, false dilemmas, and moral overload.Georgy Ishmaev, Matthew Dennis & M. Jeroen van den Hoven - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (1):19-34.
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