Results for 'instrumental'

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  1. Instrumental Reasons.Instrumental Reasons - unknown
    As Kant claimed in the Groundwork, and as the idea has been developed by Korsgaard 1997, Bratman 1987, and Broome 2002. This formulation is agnostic on whether reasons for ends derive from our desiring those ends, or from the relation of those ends to things of independent value. However, desire-based theorists may deny, against Hubin 1999, that their theory is a combination of a principle of instrumental transmission and the principle that reasons for ends are provided by desires. Instead, (...)
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  2. Study Guide for Final Bokulich PH 100.Instrumental Good - unknown
    You should be specific, but also explain the context and relevance of the term. (Each ID is worth 5 points).
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  3.  11
    Imploding the System: Kagel and the Deconstruction of Modernism.Instrumental Predecessors - 2002 - In Judith Irene Lochhead & Joseph Henry Auner (eds.), Postmodern music/postmodern thought. London: Routledge. pp. 4--263.
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  4. Сe beeby.Education as an Instrument Of Change - 1980 - Paideia 8:193.
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  5. John whethamstede, Abbot of st. Alban s, on the.Why Were Astronomical Instruments Or - 2008 - Mediaevalia 29:109.
     
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  6. Work and Instrumental Action: On the Normative Basis of Critical Theory.Axel Honneth - 1982 - Thesis Eleven 5 (1):162-184.
  7.  20
    Goal Slippage: A Mechanism for Spontaneous Instrumental Helping in Infancy?John Michael & Marcell Székely - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):173-183.
    In recent years, developmental psychologists have increasingly been interested in various forms of prosocial behavior observed in infants and young children—in particular comforting, sharing, pointing to provide information, and spontaneous instrumental helping. We briefly review several models that have been proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms underpinning these behaviors. Focusing on spontaneous instrumental helping, we home in on models based upon what Paulus :77–81, 2014) has dubbed ‘goal-alignment’, i.e. the idea that the identification of an agent’s goal leads (...)
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  8.  17
    On G. Lakoff,'Instrumental Adverbs and the Concept of Deep Structure', Foundations of Language 4 (1968), 4-29.Harald Weydt - 1973 - Foundations of Language 10 (4):569-578.
  9.  19
    Distinguishing between intrinsic and instrumental sources of the value of choice.Sean Devine, Kevin da Silva Castanheira, Stephen M. Fleming & A. Ross Otto - 2024 - Cognition 245 (C):105742.
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  10. Against All Reason? Scepticism about the Instrumental Norm.Stephen Finlay - 2010 - In Charles Pigden (ed.), Hume on Is and Ought. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Some of the opponents of desire-based views of normativity seek to undermine them by arguing that even the existence of instrumental normativity (reasons to pursue the means to your ends) entails the existence of a desire-independent rational norm, the instrumental norm. Once we grant the existence of one such norm, there seems to be no principled reason for not allowing others. I clarify this alleged norm, identifying two criteria that any satisfactory candidate must meet: reasonable expectation and possible (...)
     
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  11.  6
    Self-Efficacy Between Previous and Current Mathematics Performance of Undergraduate Students: An Instrumental Variable Approach to Exposing a Causal Relationship.Yusuf F. Zakariya - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    PurposeSelf-efficacy has been argued theoretically and shown empirically to be an essential construct for students’ improved learning outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on its causal effects on performance in mathematics among university students. Meanwhile, it will be erroneous to assume that results from other fields of studies generalize to mathematics learning due to the task-specificity of the construct. As such, attempts are made in the present study to provide evidence for a causal relationship between self-efficacy and performance (...)
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  12.  26
    Pushing Raman spectroscopy over the edge: purported signatures of organic molecules in fossil animals are instrumental artefacts.Julien Alleon, Gilles Montagnac, Bruno Reynard, Thibault Brulé, Mathieu Thoury & Pierre Gueriau - 2021 - Bioessays 43 (4):2000295.
    Widespread preservation of fossilized biomolecules in many fossil animals has recently been reported in six studies, based on Raman microspectroscopy. Here, we show that the putative Raman signatures of organic compounds in these fossils are actually instrumental artefacts resulting from intense background luminescence. Raman spectroscopy is based on the detection of photons scattered inelastically by matter upon its interaction with a laser beam. For many natural materials, this interaction also generates a luminescence signal that is often orders of magnitude (...)
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  13.  7
    From the Body Image to the Body Schema, From the Proximal to the Distal: Embodied Musical Activity Toward Learning Instrumental Musical Skills.Jin Hyun Kim - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    A recent paradigm shift in music research has allowed scholars to examine the macro- and micro-processes taking place within musical performance and underlying cognitive processes. Tying in with phenomenological theories of embodied perception and cognition, this paper focuses on bodily musical activity relevant to the acquisition of instrumental musical skills—the process of learning music. Dynamic interaction with musical instruments, accompanied by the interplay of action and passion, involves body image and body schema, whose status oscillates in different phases of (...)
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  14. Against All Reason? Skepticism About the Instrumental Norm.Stephen Finlay - 2010 - In Charles Pigden (ed.), Hume on Is and Ought. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Some of the opponents of desire-based views of normativity seek to undermine them by arguing that even the existence of instrumental normativity (reasons to pursue the means to your ends) entails the existence of a desire-independent rational norm, the instrumental norm. Once we grant the existence of one such norm, there seems to be no principled reason for not allowing others. I clarify this alleged norm, identifying two criteria that any satisfactory candidate must meet: reasonable expectation and possible (...)
     
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  15.  11
    The Question of Lag: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Conductor Gesture and Sonic Response in Instrumental Ensembles.Cory D. Meals - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Group musical performance, especially large instrumental ensembles, present the outward appearance of an asymmetric, temporally immediate stimulus-response relationship between conductor and ensemble. Interestingly, anecdotal reports from both conductors and performers indicate a degree of variability in the timing of orchestral response to the conductor’s gestures. This observation is not present in anecdotal accounts of other instrumental ensemble settings, like wind bands, but commonplace occurrence among orchestral musicians indicates the potential presence of greater complexity in the observed relationship. This (...)
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  16.  43
    An artifact is to use: an introduction to instrumental functions.Jesse Hughes - 2009 - Synthese 168 (1):179-199.
    Because much of the recent philosophical interest in functions has been motivated by their application in biology and other sciences, most of the ensuing discussions have focused on functional explanations to the neglect of the practical role of functional knowledge. This practical role is essential for understanding how users form plans involving artifacts. We introduce the concept of instrumental function which is intended to capture the features of functional claims that are relevant to practical—in particular, instrumental—reasoning. We discuss (...)
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  17.  27
    Transfer of training from differential classical to differential instrumental conditioning.Milton A. Trapold, George W. Lawton & Robert A. Dick - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (4p1):568.
  18. I two approaches to instrumental rationality.Michael E. Bratman - 2009 - In David Sobel & Steven Wall (eds.), Reasons for Action. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 13.
     
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  19. Personal Continuity and Instrumental Rationality in Rawls’ Theory of Justice.Adrian M. S. Piper - 1987 - Social Theory and Practice 13 (1):49-76.
    I want to examine the implications of a metaphysical thesis which is presupposed in various objections to Rawls' theory of justice.Although their criticisms differ in many respects, they concur in employing what I shall refer to as the continuity thesis. This consists of the following claims conjointly: (1) The parties in the original position (henceforth the OP) are, and know themselves to be, fully mature persons who will be among the members of the well-ordered society (henceforth the WOS) which is (...)
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  20. Evidential Support and Instrumental Rationality.Peter Brössel, Anna-Maria A. Eder & Franz Huber - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (2):279-300.
  21.  70
    The Sources of Political Normativity: the Case for Instrumental and Epistemic Normativity in Political Realism.Carlo Burelli & Chiara Destri - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 25 (3):397-413.
    This article argues that political realists have at least two strategies to provide distinctively political normative judgements that have nothing to do with morality. The first ground is instrumental normativity, which states that if we believe that something is a necessary means to a goal we have, we have a reason to do it. In politics, certain means are required by any ends we may intend to pursue. The second ground is epistemic normativity, stating that if something is true, (...)
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  22.  28
    Do LGBT-Supportive Corporate Policies Improve Credit Ratings? An Instrumental-Variable Analysis.Pandej Chintrakarn, Sirimon Treepongkaruna, Pornsit Jiraporn & Sang Mook Lee - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 162 (1):31-45.
    We investigate the effect of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender -supportive corporate policies on credit ratings. To the extent that LGBT-friendly policies are beneficial to the firm and therefore improve its expected cash flows, credit rating agencies should assign more favorable credit ratings to the firm. To alleviate endogeneity concerns, we exploit the variations in the LGBT populations across the states in the U.S. as our instrument. Our instrumental-variable analysis reveals that firms that adopt LGBT-supportive corporate policies enjoy better (...)
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  23.  6
    A Few Instrumental Thoughts About Luck, Accidents, and Insurance.Doron Teichman - 2008 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 9 (1):25-32.
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  24.  94
    Evaluating disease management programme effectiveness: an introduction to instrumental variables.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (2):148-154.
  25.  31
    Determinants of international students' adaptation: examining effects of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language proficiency.Baohua Yu & Kevin Downing - 2012 - Educational Studies 38 (4):457-471.
    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation, socio-cultural adaptation and Chinese language proficiency than the Asian student group, who reported a higher level of instrumental motivation. No significant difference was found in academic adaptation between the two groups. Moreover, the relationships between (...)
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  26.  20
    Why nature matters: A systematic review of intrinsic, instrumental, and relational values.A. Himes, B. Muraca, C. B. Anderson, S. Athayde, T. Beery, M. Cantú-Fernández, D. González-Jiménez, R. K. Gould, A. P. Hejnowicz, J. Kenter, D. Lenzi, R. Murali, U. Pascual, C. Raymond, A. Ring, K. Russo, A. Samakov, S. Stålhammar, H. Thorén & E. Zent - 2024 - BioScience 74 (1).
    In this article, we present results from a literature review of intrinsic, instrumental, and relational values of nature conducted for the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, as part of the Methodological Assessment of the Diverse Values and Valuations of Nature. We identify the most frequently recurring meanings in the heterogeneous use of different value types and their association with worldviews and other key concepts. From frequent uses, we determine a core meaning for each value type, which (...)
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  27.  13
    Towards a Transcultural Theory of Democracy for Instrumental Music Education.Leonard Tan - 2014 - Philosophy of Music Education Review 22 (1):61.
    At present, instrumental music education, defined in this paper as the teaching and learning of music through wind bands and symphony orchestras of Western origin, appears embattled. Among the many criticisms made against instrumental music education, critics claim that bands and orchestras exemplify an authoritarian model of teaching that does not foster democracy. In this paper, I propose a theoretical framework by which instrumental music education may be conceived democratically. Since educational bands and orchestras have achieved global (...)
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  28.  3
    The Natural Right to Property as an Instrumental Right.Matěj Křížecký - forthcoming - Human Affairs.
    I argue that Robert Nozick, in his well-known book “Anarchy, State, Utopia”, is working with Locke’s notion of the natural right to property merely instrumentally. I use the term “instrumentally” in the sense that the pieces of the source are not used within the context of the original work but are used atomically to support one’s argument or theory. Instrumental use of Locke’s theory causes incoherence in his theory. This paper introduces the incoherence in the question and explains how (...)
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  29.  31
    Differential Resistance to Extinction Determined by a Small Number of Differential Instrumental Conditioning Trials.James R. Ison & Allen A. Adinolfi - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):350.
  30.  17
    The reinforcement relation as a function of instrumental response base rate.Robert W. Schaeffer - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (4):419.
  31. La moral y sus sombras: la racionalidad instrumental y la evolución de las normas de equidad.Alejandro Rosas - 2005 - Critica 37 (110):79-104.
    Los sociobiólogos han defendido una posición "calvinista" que se resume en la siguiente fórmula: si la selección natural explica las actitudes morales, no hay altruismo genuino en la moral; si la moral es altruista, entonces la selección natural no puede explicarla. En este ensayo desenmascaro los presupuestos erróneos de esta posición y defiendo que el altruismo como equidad no es incompatible con la selección natural. Rechazo una concepción hobbesiana de la moral, pero sugiero su empleo en la interpretación de la (...)
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  32.  58
    Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning.Robert A. Rescorla & Richard L. Solomon - 1967 - Psychological Review 74 (3):151-182.
  33.  2
    The Animal: Between the Sublime and Instrumental Rationality.Polona Tratnik - 2023 - In María Antonia González Valerio & Polona Tratnik (eds.), Through the Scope of Life: Art and (Bio)Technologies Philosophically Revisited. Springer Verlag. pp. 2147483647-2147483647.
    The chapter deals with three species, the axolotl, Proteus anguinus, and Vampyroteuthis Infernalis, their habitats, and man’s relations with these animals, whose habitats are very different from that of man, but which at the same time inhabit the same planet on which we live together in interdependence. The author examines the human approach to these animals, which ranges from fear of the unknown, of the “power of Nature” and theoretical admiration, to the exercise of human dominance, whether in the form (...)
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  34.  8
    Is there a need to distinguish instrumental copying behavior from traditions?Thomas R. Zentall - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e274.
    The authors make a distinction between instrumental copying behavior in which there is a clear reward for the copying behavior and social copying (traditions) in which the rewards for copying are less clear. However, I see no reason to distinguish between the two. We are social animals, for whom copying traditions have important rewards, those of affiliation.
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  35.  49
    Do Corporate Customers Prefer Socially Responsible Suppliers? An Instrumental Stakeholder Theory Perspective.Ran Tao, Jian Wu & Hong Zhao - 2023 - Journal of Business Ethics 185 (3):689-712.
    This paper studies the way supplier firms’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) affects their likelihood of being selected as new suppliers. Using a large sample of US public firms with detailed supply chain and CSR data, we provide empirical evidence that corporate customers prefer socially responsible suppliers, and that the effect is more prominent when the supplier industry is more competitive, the customer’s own CSR performance is better, or the supplier and the customer have more similar CSR focuses. Our paper contributes (...)
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  36.  30
    Reasoned Ethical Engagement: Ethical Values of Consumers as Primary Antecedents of Instrumental Actions Towards Multinationals.Maxwell Chipulu, Alasdair Marshall, Udechukwu Ojiako & Caroline Mota - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (1):221-238.
    Consumer actions towards multinationals encompass not just expressions of dissatisfaction and ethical identity but also what are problematically termed ‘instrumental actions’ entailing perceived purposes and likely impacts. This term may seem inappropriate where insufficient information exists for instrumentally linking means to ends, yet we consider it useful for describing purposive consumer action in its subjective aspect because it reflects the psychological reality whereby complexity-reducing social constructions give consumer actions instrumentally rational form for purposes of meaningful understanding and justification. This (...)
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  37.  27
    Rules, magic, and instrumental reason: A critical interpretation of Peter Winch's philosophy of the social studies.Duncan Richter - 2005 - Philosophia 32 (1-4):435-441.
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  38.  24
    A Counterfactual Argument for Environmentalists to Endorse Non-Instrumental Value in Nature.Lars Samuelsson & Niclas Lindström - unknown
    Environmentalists care about nature. Often, they reason and act as if they consider nature to be valuable for its own sake, i.e., to have non-instrumental value. Yet, there is a rather widespread reluctance, even among environmentalists, to explicitly ascribe such value to nature. One important explanation of this is probably the thought that it would be mysterious in one way or another if nature possessed such value. In addition, Bryan Norton’s influential convergence hypothesis states that, from a practical point (...)
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  39.  29
    Plato’s Rejection of the Instrumental Account of Friendship in the Lysis.Howard J. Curzer - 2014 - Polis 31 (2):352-368.
    In the Lysis, Socrates argues that friendship is driven by a desire to use others for one’s own gain. Some commentators take Socrates to be speaking for Plato on this point. By contrast, I shall argue that the Lysis is a reductio ad absurdum of this instrumental account of friendship. First, three arguments in the Lysis reach counterintuitive conclusions which may be avoided by abandoning the common premise that friendship is instrumental. Second, the dramatic context includes counterexamples to (...)
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  40.  17
    Correction: Incalculable Instrumental Value in the Endangered Species Act.Ian A. Smith - 2022 - Philosophia 51 (1):455-455.
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  41.  20
    Finish what you started : 2-year-olds motivated by a preference for completing others' unfinished actions in instrumental helping contexts.John Michael, Alexander Green, Barbora Siposova, Keith Jensen & Sotaro Kita - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (6).
    A considerable body of research has documented the emergence of what appears to be instrumental helping behavior in early childhood. The current study tested the hypothesis that one basic psychological mechanism motivating this behavior is a preference for completing unfinished actions. To test this, a paradigm was implemented in which 2-year-olds (n = 34, 16 female/18 male, mostly White middle-class children) could continue an adult’s action when the adult no longer wanted to complete the action. The results showed that (...)
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  42.  35
    The disunity of Pavlovian and instrumental values.Sean B. Ostlund & Bernard W. Balleine - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):456-457.
    A central theme of the unified framework for addiction advanced by Redish et al. is that there exists a common value or incentive process controlling Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. Here we briefly review evidence from a variety of sources demonstrating that these incentive processes are in fact independent. Clearly the influence of Pavlovian predictors and goal values on choice offer distinct potential targets for pathologies of decision-making.
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  43. A New Argument for the Non-Instrumental Value of Truth.Veli Mitova - 2021 - Erkenntnis 88 (5):1911-1933.
    Many influential philosophers have claimed that truth is valuable, indeed so valuable as to be the ultimate standard of correctness for intellectual activity. Yet most philosophers also think that truth is only instrumentally valuable. These commitments make for a strange pair. One would have thought that an ultimate standard would enjoy more than just instrumental value. This paper develops a new argument for the non-instrumental value of truth: (1) inquiry is non-instrumentally valuable; and (2) truth inherits some of (...)
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  44.  14
    Mean amount of reinforcement and instrumental response strength.Stewart H. Hulse & Robert J. Firestone - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (5):417.
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  45.  14
    Sociedade de consumidores e o desinteresse pela esfera pública: escravização invisível e a política instrumental em Hannah Arendt.Kelly Janaína Souza da Silva - 2019 - Griot : Revista de Filosofia 19 (2):218-229.
    Erigir o aumento da riqueza e da abundância como um objetivo primordial para a vita activa já se desenhava como premissa axiomática da economia política clássica, além do sonho idealizado dos pobres e despossuídos. Havia, no entanto, certa esperança utópica de que, ao viver em uma sociedade com maior abastança, as pessoas cidadãs buscariam mais plenamente o desenvolvimento de apropriada abstenção consciente do trabalho e do consumo em seu tempo livre, ou seja: que isento da dor e do esforço de (...)
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  46.  20
    Effect of punishment duration and intensity on the extinction of an instrumental response.Erling E. Boe - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):125.
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  47.  18
    Negative emotional appraisal selectively disrupts retrieval of expected outcome values required for goal-directed instrumental choice.Tanya L. Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann & Lee Hogarth - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (4):843-851.
    Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer tests. Concurrently during (...)
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  48.  33
    Transfer of eyelid conditioning from instrumental to classical reinforcement and vice versa.David A. Grant, Neal E. A. Kroll, Barry Kantowitz, Michael J. Zajano & Kenneth B. Solberg - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):503.
  49.  46
    La profundización de la racionalidad instrumental como estrategia de Los poderosos frente al cambio ambiental global en mendoza–argentina.Jorge Daniel Ivars - 2012 - Astrolabio: Nueva Época 9.
    En el presente artículo nos proponemos describir la racionalidad subyacente a las estrategias de adaptación al cambio ambiental global de los agentes poderosos de la vitivinicultura en Mendoza, Argentina. En términos estrictamente físicos, el Cambio Ambiental Global se presenta como un aumento de las temperaturas promedio a nivel global, las repercusiones de este cambio serán diferentes según sea la zona geográfica del planeta que se considere. En el oasis norte de la Provincia de Mendoza se espera una reducción en los (...)
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  50.  19
    A comparison of transfer effects during acquisition and extinction of two instrumental responses.Alvin M. Liberman - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (3):192.
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