Results for 'Wybo Wiersma'

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  1. Wybo Houkes.Wybo Houkes - unknown - Wijsgerig Perspectief 50 (3).
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  2.  73
    Actions Versus Functions: A Plea for an Alternative Metaphysics of Artifacts.Wybo Houkes & Pieter Vermaas - 2004 - The Monist 87 (1):52-71.
    The philosophy of artifacts is as marginal as it is one-sided. The majority of contributions to it are asides in works devoted to other subjects and focus on one characteristic feature: that artifacts are objects with functions. Indeed many artifacts, such as screwdrivers and toasters, come in functional kinds. Perhaps for this reason, philosophers elevated functions to the essences of artifacts or have developed general theories of function to describe artifacts along with their main subject: biological items. Most such theories (...)
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  3.  75
    Discriminating Between ‘Meaningful Work’ and the ‘Management of Meaning’.Marjolein Lips-Wiersma & Lani Morris - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S3):491-511.
    The interest in meaningful work has significantly increased over the last two decades. Much of the associated managerial research has focused on researching ways to 'provide and manage meaning' through leadership or organizational culture. This stands in sharp contrast with the literature of the humanities which suggests that meaningfulness does not need to be provided, as the distinct feature of a human being is that he or she has an intrinsic 'will to meaning'. The research that has been done based (...)
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  4.  25
    A Parting of the Ways: Carnap, Cassirer, and Heidegger (Review).Wybo Houkes - 2002 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (4):554-555.
    Wybo Houkes - A Parting of the Ways: Carnap, Cassirer, and Heidegger - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 554-555 Book Review A Parting of the Ways: Carnap, Cassirer, and Heidegger Michael Friedman. A Parting of the Ways: Carnap, Cassirer, and Heidegger. Chicago: Open Court, 2000. Pp. xv + 175. Paper, $24.95. For present-day philosophers, the division between "analytic" and "continental" philosophy is a fact of life. In this elegant little book, (...)
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  5.  16
    Refining the Ethics of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: A Plea for Contextualized Proportionality.Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (2):294-301.
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  6.  29
    Produced to Use.Wybo Houkes & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2009 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 13 (2):123-136.
    In this paper we examine the possibilities of combining two central intuitions about artefacts: that they are functional objects, and that they are non-natural objects. We do so in four steps. First we argue that, contrary to common opinion, functions cannot be the cornerstone of a characterisation of artefacts. Our argument suggests an alternative view, which characterises artefacts as objects embedded in what we call use plans. Second, we show that this plan-centred successor of the function-focused view is at odds (...)
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  7.  53
    Knowledge of Artefact Functions.Wybo Houkes - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):102-113.
    I argue that technological functions warrant specific epistemological attention, which they have not received thus far. From a user’s perspective, knowledge about the possible functions of an artefact is not provided exclusively by beliefs about its physical characteristics; it is primarily provided by know-how related to its use. Analysing the latter shows that standards of practical and not just theoretical reasoning are involved. Moreover, knowledge of the function of artefacts is primarily based on testimony and a social division of labour (...)
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  8.  33
    Measurement of Vessel Traffic Service Operator Performance.E. Wiersma & N. Mastenbroek - 1998 - AI and Society 12 (1-2):78-86.
    To meet the growing demands for yet more efficient and safer traffic, traffic control is deployed in all modes of transportation. In maritime transportation, traffic control is performed by Vessel Traffic Services (VTS). This paper describes research which is focused upon measurement of VTS operator performance. The concept of situation awareness is introduced as a means to describe and quantify VTS operator performance. Situation awareness is tested in a full scale interactive simulator. A scoring system for VTS operator performance accounts (...)
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  9.  24
    Dynamics of Prenatal Screening: New Developments Challenging the Ethical Framework.Wybo Dondorp & Jan Lith - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):ii-iv.
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  10. Dynamics of Prenatal Screening: New Developments Challenging the Ethical Framework.Wybo Dondorp & Jan van Lith - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):ii-iv.
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  11.  59
    The Ontology of Artefacts: The Hard Problem.Wybo Houkes & Anthonie Meijers - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):118-131.
    We examine to what extent an adequate ontology of technical artefacts can be based on existing general accounts of the relation between higher-order objects and their material basis. We consider two of these accounts: supervenience and constitution. We take as our starting point the thesis that artefacts have a ‘dual nature’, that is, that they are both material bodies and functional objects. We present two criteria for an adequate ontology of artefacts, ‘Underdetermination’ and ‘Realizability Constraints’ , which address aspects of (...)
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  12. Robust! -- Handle with Care.Wybo Houkes & Krist Vaesen - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (3):1-20.
  13.  22
    Artefacts in Analytic Metaphysics.Wybo Houkes & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2009 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 13 (2):74-81.
    In this paper we examine the possibilities of combining two central intuitions about artefacts: that they are functional objects, and that they are non-natural objects. We do so in four steps. First we argue that, contrary to common opinion, functions cannot be the cornerstone of a characterisation of artefacts. Our argument suggests an alternative view, which characterises artefacts as objects embedded in what we call use plans. Second, we show that this plan-centred successor of the function-focused view is at odds (...)
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  14.  13
    Status, Respect, and Stigma: A Qualitative Study of Non-financial Interests in Medicine.Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge & Wendy Lipworth - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):203-216.
    Conflicts of interest in health and medicine have been the source of considerable public and professional debate. Much of this debate has focused on financial, rather than non-financial COI, which is a significant lacuna because non-financial COI can be just as influential as financial COI. In an effort to explore the nature and effects of non-financial, as well as financial COI, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eleven Australian medical professionals regarding their experiences of, and attitudes towards, COI. We found that (...)
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  15.  8
    Dangers of Neglecting Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest in Health and Medicine.Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge & Wendy Lipworth - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):319-322.
    Non-financial interests, and the conflicts of interest that may result from them, are frequently overlooked in biomedicine. This is partly due to the complex and varied nature of these interests, and the limited evidence available regarding their prevalence and impact on biomedical research and clinical practice. We suggest that there are no meaningful conceptual distinctions, and few practical differences, between financial and non-financial conflicts of interest, and accordingly, that both require careful consideration. Further, a better understanding of the complexities of (...)
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  16.  93
    Ascribing Functions to Technical Artefacts: A Challenge to Etiological Accounts of Functions.Pieter E. Vermaas & Wybo Houkes - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):261-289.
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate etiological accounts of functions for the domain of technical artefacts. Etiological theories ascribe functions to items on the basis of the causal histories of those items; they apply relatively straightforwardly to the biological domain, in which neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory provides a well-developed and generally accepted background for describing the causal histories of biological items. Yet there is no well-developed and generally accepted theory for describing the causal history of artefacts, so the application (...)
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  17.  6
    Symposium Lead Essay—Conflict of Interest: Opening Up New Territories.Miriam Wiersma, Wendy Lipworth, Paul Komesaroff & Ian Kerridge - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):169-172.
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  18.  69
    Technical Functions: A Drawbridge Between the Intentional and Structural Natures of Technical Artefacts.Pieter E. Vermaas & Wybo Houkes - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):5-18.
    In this paper we present an action-theoretic account of artefact using and designing and describe our ICE-theory of function ascriptions to technical artefacts. By means of this account and theory we analyse the thesis of the dual nature of technical artefacts according to which descriptions of technical artefacts draw on structural and intentional conceptualisations. We show that the ascription of technical functions to technical artefacts can connect the intentional and structural parts of descriptions of artefacts, but also separate these parts. (...)
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  19.  26
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation—Response to César Palacios-González.Wybo Dondorp, David Shaw & Guido de Wert - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):227-228.
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  20.  13
    The Effect of Fairness, Responsible Leadership and Worthy Work on Multiple Dimensions of Meaningful Work.Marjolein Lips-Wiersma, Jarrod Haar & Sarah Wright - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (1):35-52.
    The present study extends the meaningful work and ethics literature by comparing three ethics-related antecedents. The second contribution of this paper is that in using a multi-dimensional MFW construct we offer a more fine-tuned understanding of the impact of ethical antecedents on different dimensions of MFW, such as expressing full potential and integrity with self. Using an international data set from 879 employees and structural equation modelling, we confirmed an updated seven-dimension Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale. The structural model found that (...)
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  21.  27
    Creating Human Organs in Chimaera Pigs: An Ethical Source of Immunocompatible Organs?David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp, Niels Geijsen & Guido de Wert - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (12):970-974.
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  22.  4
    Wiersma and Voutsaki Social Change in Aegean Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2017. Pp. Xx + 184. £36. 9781785702198.Carole Gillis - 2018 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 138:283-286.
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  23.  4
    A New Framework for Teaching Scientific Reasoning to Students From Application-Oriented Sciences.Wybo Houkes & Krist Vaesen - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (2):1-16.
    About three decades ago, the late Ronald Giere introduced a new framework for teaching scientific reasoning to science students. Giere’s framework presents a model-based alternative to the traditional statement approach—in which scientific inferences are reconstructed as explicit arguments, composed of premises and a conclusion. Subsequent research in science education has shown that model-based approaches are particularly effective in teaching science students how to understand and evaluate scientific reasoning. One limitation of Giere’s framework, however, is that it covers only one type (...)
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  24.  3
    The Effect of Fairness, Responsible Leadership and Worthy Work on Multiple Dimensions of Meaningful Work.Marjolein Lips-Wiersma, Jarrod Haar & Sarah Wright - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (1):35-52.
    The present study extends the meaningful work and ethics literature by comparing three ethics-related antecedents. The second contribution of this paper is that in using a multi-dimensional MFW construct we offer a more fine-tuned understanding of the impact of ethical antecedents on different dimensions of MFW, such as expressing full potential and integrity with self. Using an international data set from 879 employees and structural equation modelling, we confirmed an updated seven-dimension Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale. The structural model found that (...)
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  25.  49
    Pluralism on Artefact Categories: A Philosophical Defence.Wybo Houkes & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):543-557.
    In this paper we use our work in the philosophy of technology to formulate a pluralist view on artefact categories and categorisation principles, as studied in cognitive science. We argue, on the basis of classifications derived by philosophical reconstruction, that artefacts can be clustered in more than one way, and that each clustering may be taken as defining psychological artefact categories. We contrast this pluralism with essentialism and super-minimalism on artefact categories and we argue that pluralism is coherent with experimental (...)
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  26.  20
    Just Choice: A Danielsian Analysis of the Aims and Scope of Prenatal Screening for Fetal Abnormalities.Greg Stapleton, Wybo Dondorp, Peter Schröder-Bäck & Guido de Wert - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):545-555.
    Developments in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing and cell-free fetal DNA analysis raise the possibility that antenatal services may soon be able to support couples in non-invasively testing for, and diagnosing, an unprecedented range of genetic disorders and traits coded within their unborn child’s genome. Inevitably, this has prompted debate within the bioethics literature about what screening options should be offered to couples for the purpose of reproductive choice. In relation to this problem, the European Society of Human Genetics and American Society (...)
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  27.  6
    Contemporary Engineering and the Metaphysics of Artefacts: Beyond the Artisan Model.Wybo Houkes & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2009 - The Monist 92 (3):403-419.
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  28.  38
    Dual-Nature and Collectivist Frameworks for Technical Artefacts: A Constructive Comparison.Wybo Houkes, Peter Kroes, Anthonie Meijers & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):198-205.
    This paper systematically compares two frameworks for analysing technical artefacts: the Dual-Nature approach, exemplified by the contributions to Kroes and Meijers , and the collectivist approach advocated by Schyfter , following Kusch . After describing the main tenets of both approaches, we show that there is significant overlap between them: both frameworks analyse the most typical cases of artefact use, albeit in different terms, but to largely the same extent. Then, we describe several kinds of cases for which the frameworks (...)
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  29. Boekbesprekingen - The Rehabilitation of Virtue. [REVIEW]Wybo Dondorp - 1995 - Filosofie En Praktijk 17:47-55.
     
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  30.  49
    Review of A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology. [REVIEW]Wybo Houkes - 2010 - Techne 14 (3):270-272.
  31.  92
    Tales of Tools and Trees: Phylogenetic Analysis and Explanation in Evolutionary Archaeology.Wybo Houkes - 2010 - In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. pp. 89--100.
    In this paper, I study the application of phylogenetic analysis in evolutionary archaeology. I show how transfer of this apparently general analytic tool is affected by salient differences in disciplinary context. One is that archaeologists, unlike many biologists, do not regard cladistics as a tool for classification, but are primarily interested in explanation. The other is that explanation is traditionally sought in terms of individual-level rather than population-level mechanisms. The latter disciplinary difference creates an ambiguity in the application and interpretation (...)
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  32.  31
    Transfer and Templates in Scientific Modelling.Wybo Houkes & Sjoerd D. Zwart - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 77:93-100.
    The notion of template has recently been discussed in relation to cross-disciplinary transfer of modeling efforts and in relation to the representational content of models. We further develop and disambiguate the notion of template and find that, suitably developed, it is useful in distinguishing and analyzing different types of transfer, none of which supports a non-representationalist view of models. We illustrate our main findings with the modeling of technology substitution with Lotka-Volterra Competition equations.
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  33. Actions Versus Functions: A Plea for an Alternative Metaphysics of Artifacts.Wybo Houkespieter Vermaas - 2004 - The Monist 87 (1):52-71.
    The philosophy of artifacts is as marginal as it is one-sided. The majority of contributions to it are asides in works devoted to other subjects and focus on one characteristic feature: that artifacts are objects with functions. Indeed many artifacts, such as screwdrivers and toasters, come in functional kinds. Perhaps for this reason, philosophers elevated functions to the essences of artifacts or have developed general theories of function to describe artifacts along with their main subject: biological items. Most such theories (...)
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  34.  31
    Population Thinking and Natural Selection in Dual-Inheritance Theory.Wybo Houkes - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):401-417.
    A deflationary perspective on theories of cultural evolution, in particular dual-inheritance theory, has recently been proposed by Lewens. On this ‘pop-culture’ analysis, dual-inheritance theorists apply population thinking to cultural phenomena, without claiming that cultural items evolve by natural selection. This paper argues against this pop-culture analysis of dual-inheritance theory. First, it focuses on recent dual-inheritance models of specific patterns of cultural change. These models exemplify population thinking without a commitment to natural selection of cultural items. There are grounds, however, for (...)
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  35.  10
    Review of A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology. [REVIEW]Wybo Houkes - 2010 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 14 (3):270-272.
  36.  18
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation.David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):573-578.
    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human (...)
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  37. Normativity in Quine's Naturalism: The Technology of Truth-Seeking? [REVIEW]Wybo Houkes - 2002 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (2):251-267.
    In this paper, I review Quine's response to the normativity charge against naturalized epistemology. On this charge, Quine's naturalized epistemology neglects the essential normativity of the traditional theory of knowledge and hence cannot count as its successor. According to Quine, normativity is retained in naturalism as ‘the technology of truth-seeking’. I first disambiguate Quine's naturalism into three programs of increasing strength and clarify the strongest program by means of the so-called Epistemic Skinner Box. Then, I investigate two ways in which (...)
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  38.  19
    Disruption, Diversity, and Global Biobanking.Edwina Light, Miriam Wiersma, Lisa Dive, Ian Kerridge, Christine Critchley & Wendy Lipworth - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):45-47.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 45-47.
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  39.  19
    Complexity and Technological Evolution: What Everybody Knows?Krist Vaesen & Wybo Houkes - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1245-1268.
    The consensus among cultural evolutionists seems to be that human cultural evolution is cumulative, which is commonly understood in the specific sense that cultural traits, especially technological traits, increase in complexity over generations. Here we argue that there is insufficient credible evidence in favor of or against this technological complexity thesis. For one thing, the few datasets that are available hardly constitute a representative sample. For another, they substantiate very specific, and usually different versions of the complexity thesis or, even (...)
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  40.  1
    The Role of Religion in the Political Debate on Embryo Research in the Netherlands.Wybo J. Dondorp & Guido M. W. R. de Wert - 2020 - In Mirjam Weiberg-Salzmann & Ulrich Willems (eds.), Religion and Biopolitics. Springer Verlag. pp. 257-279.
    Until the late twentieth century, there were three main political currents in the Netherlands: Christian, Labor, and Liberal, giving Christian party politics a stronger position than in European countries with a binary division between conservative and progressive. The history of the debate about embryo research coincides with the end of this period. Whereas in the 1980s the Christian Democrat party still had strong religiously motivated views about embryo protection, it has since lost both the power and the drive to pursue (...)
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  41.  12
    Developing Essential Competencies of Sustainability Educators.Patricia Grant, Marjo Lips-Wiersma & Vidayana Soebagio - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 14:241-259.
    Sustainability education entails transforming values and habits as well as developing skills. Much progress has been made in developing the appropriate teaching and learning strategies which not only impart knowledge but shape attitudes and behaviour. However little attention has been given to the education of the educators who often are teaching and learning at the same time. A particularly important but also challenging competency to teach is systems thinking. This paper is based on the teaching and learning experience of two (...)
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  42.  11
    The Aims of Expanded Universal Carrier Screening: Autonomy, Prevention, and Responsible Parenthood.Sanne van der Hout, Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (5):568-576.
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  43.  23
    Artefacts in Analytic Metaphysics: Introduction.Wybo Houkes & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2009 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 13 (2):74-81.
    In this paper we examine the possibilities of combining two central intuitions about artefacts: that they are functional objects, and that they are non-natural objects. We do so in four steps. First we argue that, contrary to common opinion, functions cannot be the cornerstone of a characterisation of artefacts. Our argument suggests an alternative view, which characterises artefacts as objects embedded in what we call use plans. Second, we show that this plan-centred successor of the function-focused view is at odds (...)
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  44. Modelling the Truth of Scientific Beliefs with Cultural Evolutionary Theory.Krist Vaesen & Wybo Houkes - 2014 - Synthese 191 (1).
    Evolutionary anthropologists and archaeologists have been considerably successful in modelling the cumulative evolution of culture, of technological skills and knowledge in particular. Recently, one of these models has been introduced in the philosophy of science by De Cruz and De Smedt (Philos Stud 157:411–429, 2012), in an attempt to demonstrate that scientists may collectively come to hold more truth-approximating beliefs, despite the cognitive biases which they individually are known to be subject to. Here we identify a major shortcoming in that (...)
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  45.  5
    Defense of the Wiersma-Kennedy Concept of the Command Neuron.Paul S. G. Stein - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):33-34.
  46.  23
    Balancing Animal Welfare and Assisted Reproduction: Ethics of Preclinical Animal Research for Testing New Reproductive Technologies.Verna Jans, Wybo Dondorp, Ellen Goossens, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings & Guido de Wert - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):537-545.
    In the field of medically assisted reproduction, there is a growing emphasis on the importance of introducing new assisted reproductive technologies only after thorough preclinical safety research, including the use of animal models. At the same time, there is international support for the three R’s, and the European Union even aims at the full replacement of animals for research. The apparent tension between these two trends underlines the urgency of an explicit justification of the use of animals for the development (...)
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  47.  15
    A Capabilities Approach to Prenatal Screening for Fetal Abnormalities.Greg Stapleton, Wybo Dondorp, Peter Schröder-Bäck & Guido de Wert - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (4):309-321.
    International guidelines recommend that prenatal screening for fetal abnormalities should only be offered within a non-directive framework aimed at enabling women in making meaningful reproductive choices. Whilst this position is widely endorsed, developments in cell-free fetal DNA based Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing are now raising questions about its continued suitability for guiding screening policy and practice. This issue is most apparent within debates on the scope of the screening offer. Implied by the aim of enabling meaningful reproductive choices is the idea (...)
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  48.  40
    Functions and the Aesthetics of Technical Artefacts.Wybo Houkes - 2019 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 96 (1):37-55.
    In this paper, it is examined to what extent functions, as analysed in the philosophy of technical artefacts, can serve a role in explaining the aesthetic appreciation of these objects. The main conclusion is that, despite first appearances, so-called ‘Functional Beauty’ accounts cannot derive strength from analyses of artefact functions; on the contrary, these analyses constrain the possibilities for developing a suitable, function-based account of aesthetic appreciation. The paper follows a conceptual-engineering approach. After presenting desiderata for an account of aesthetic (...)
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  49.  8
    The Aims of Expanded Universal Carrier Screening: Autonomy, Prevention, and Responsible Parenthood.Sanne Hout, Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (5):568-576.
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  50.  10
    Limiting Religious Contributions – a Response to Schuklenk.Miriam Wiersma, Narcyz Ghinea & Wendy Lipworth - 2019 - Developing World Bioethics 19 (3):126-127.
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