Results for 'Ruth M. Ford'

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  1.  7
    Exploring social influences on the joint Simon task: empathy and friendship.Ruth M. Ford & Bradley Aberdein - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  2. Early intervention and the growth of children's fluid intelligence: A cognitive developmental perspective.Ruth M. Ford - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):133-134.
    From the stance of cognitive developmental theories, claims that general g is an entity of the mind are compatible with notions about domain-general development and age-invariant individual differences. Whether executive function is equated with general g or fluid g, research into the mechanisms by which development occurs is essential to elucidate the kinds of environmental inputs that engender effective intervention. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  3. Semantic theory.Ruth M. Kempson - 1977 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Semantics is a bridge discipline between linguistics and philosophy; but linguistics student are rarely able to reach that bridge, let alone cross it to inspect and assess the activity on the other side. Professor Kempson's textbook seeks particularly to encourage such exchanges. She deals with the standard linguistic topics like componential analysis, semantic universals and the syntax-semantics controversy. But she also provides for students with no training in philosophy or logic an introduction to such central topics in the philosophy of (...)
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  4. The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality.Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2005 - MIT Press.
    A leading scholar in the psychology of thinking and reasoning argues that the counterfactual imagination—the creation of "if only" alternatives to ...
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  5.  49
    Suppressing valid inferences with conditionals.Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1989 - Cognition 31 (1):61-83.
    Three experiments are reported which show that in certain contexts subjects reject instances of the valid modus ponens and modus tollens inference form in conditional arguments. For example, when a conditional premise, such as: If she meets her friend then she will go to a play, is accompanied by a conditional containing an additional requirement: If she has enough money then she will go to a play, subjects reject the inference from the categorical premise: She meets her friend, to the (...)
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  6.  30
    "I don't like that, it's tricking people too much...": acute informed consent to participation in a trial of thrombolysis for stroke.M. Mangset, R. Forde, J. Nessa, E. Berge & T. B. Wyller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (10):751-756.
    Background: Informed consent is regarded as a contract between autonomous and equal parties and requires the elements of information disclosure, understanding, voluntariness and consent. The validity of informed consent for critically ill patients has been questioned. Little is known about how these patients experience the process of consent.Objective: The aim of this study was to explore critically ill patients’ experience with the principle of informed consent in a clinical trial and their ability to give valid informed consent.Design: 11 stroke patients (...)
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  7.  39
    Can valid inferences be suppressed?Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1991 - Cognition 39 (1):71-78.
  8.  10
    The influence of reward associations on conflict processing in the Stroop task.Ruth M. Krebs, Carsten N. Boehler & Marty G. Woldorff - 2010 - Cognition 117 (3):341-347.
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  9.  72
    Presupposition and the delimitation of semantics.Ruth M. Kempson - 1975 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, first published in 1975, Dr Kempson argues that previous work on presupposition - whether in philosophy or linguistics - has been mistakenly based on a conflation of two different disciplines: semantics, the study of the meanings assigned to the formal system which constitutes a language, and pragmatics, the study of the use of that system in communication. The first part of the book deals generally with the nature of semantics in linguistic theory and its formal representation within (...)
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  10.  23
    Studies in Cognitive Development: Essays in Honour of Jean Piaget.Ruth M. Beard, David Elkind & John H. Flavell - 1970 - British Journal of Educational Studies 18 (1):93.
  11.  20
    Reasoning from Suppositions.Ruth M. J. Byrne, Simon J. Handley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (4):915-944.
    Two experiments investigated inferences based on suppositions. In Experiment 1, the subjects decided whether suppositions about individuals' veracity were consistent with their assertions—for example, whether the supposition “Ann is telling the truth and Beth is telling a lie”, is consistent with the premises: “Ann asserts: I am telling the truth and Beth is telling the truth. Beth asserts: Ann is telling the truth”. It showed that these inferences are more difficult than ones based on factual premises: “Ann asserts: I live (...)
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  12.  8
    The influence of reward associations on conflict processing in the Stroop task.Marty G. Woldorff Ruth M. Krebs, Carsten N. Boehler - 2010 - Cognition 117 (3):341.
  13.  91
    Ambiguity and quantification.Ruth M. Kempson & Annabel Cormack - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (2):259 - 309.
    In the opening sections of this paper, we defined ambiguity in terms of distinct sentences (for a single sentence-string) with, in particular, distinct sets of truth conditions for the corresponding negative sentence-string. Lexical vagueness was defined as equivalent to disjunction, for under conditions of the negation of a sentence-string containing such an expression, all the relevant more specific interpretations of the string had also to be negated. Yet in the case of mixed quantification sentences, the strengthened, more specific, interpretations of (...)
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  14.  31
    Moral hindsight for good actions and the effects of imagined alternatives to reality.Ruth M. J. Byrne & Shane Timmons - 2018 - Cognition 178 (C):82-91.
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  15.  16
    Illness.Ruth M. Todd - 2009 - Nursing Philosophy 10 (3):225-226.
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  16.  7
    Law and ethics.Ruth M. Todd - 2007 - Nursing Philosophy 8 (4):297–298.
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  17.  57
    Croisade contre la différence: le règne de la "terreur linquistique".Ruth M. Mésavage & Sylvain Massé - 1990 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 2 (1-2):3-22.
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  18. Dialogue and Illusion in Jacques le fataliste in A la mémoire de JR Loy (1918-1985).Ruth M. Mésavage - 1986 - Diderot Studies 22:79-87.
     
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  19.  67
    Mental Representations: The Interface between Language and Reality.Ruth M. Kempson (ed.) - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    This dynamic collection provides an overview of the relationship between linguistic form and interpretation as exemplified by the most influential of these ...
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  20.  55
    Balancing Risks: The Core of Women's Decisions About Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.Ruth M. Farrell, Patricia K. Agatisa, Mary Beth Mercer, Marissa B. Smith & Elliot Philipson - 2015 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 6 (1):42-53.
  21.  36
    Emerging Ethical Issues in Reproductive Medicine: Are Bioethics Educators Ready?.Ruth M. Farrell, Jonathan S. Metcalfe, Michelle L. McGowan, Kathryn L. Weise, Patricia K. Agatisa & Jessica Berg - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (5):21-29.
    Advocates for the professionalization of clinical bioethics argue that bioethics professionals play an important role in contemporary medicine and patient care, especially when addressing complex ethical questions that arise in the delivery of reproductive medicine. For bioethics consultants to serve effectively, they need adequate training in the medical and ethical issues that patients and clinicians will face, and they need skills to facilitate effective dialog among all parties. Because clinical ethics consultation is a “high‐stakes endeavor” that can acutely affect patient (...)
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  22.  26
    Testimony and intellectual virtues in Hume’s epistemology.Ruth M. Espinosa - 2019 - Trans/Form/Ação 42 (4):29-46.
    : In this paper, I consider some issues concerning Hume’s epistemology of testimony. I’ll particularly focus on the accusation of reductivism and individualism brought by scholars against Hume’s view on testimonial evidence, based on the tenth section of his An enquiry concerning human understanding. I first explain the arguments against Hume’s position, and address some replies in the literature in order to offer an alternative interpretation concerning the way such a defense should go. My strategy is closely connected with Hume’s (...)
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  23.  18
    The Source and Significance of "The Jew and the Pagan".Ruth M. Ames - 1957 - Mediaeval Studies 19 (1):37-47.
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  24. In Practice: True North.Ruth M. Farrell - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
     
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  25.  11
    True North.Ruth M. Farrell - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (2):9-10.
  26.  22
    Education, gender and the nature/culture controversy.Ruth M. Jonathan - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):5–20.
    Ruth M Jonathan; Education, Gender and the Nature/Culture Controversy, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 17, Issue 1, 30 May 2006, Pages 5–20, https://.
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  27.  53
    Quantification and pragmatics.Ruth M. Kempson & Annabel Cormack - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (4):607 - 618.
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  28.  27
    Explaining black-box classifiers using post-hoc explanations-by-example: The effect of explanations and error-rates in XAI user studies.Eoin M. Kenny, Courtney Ford, Molly Quinn & Mark T. Keane - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 294 (C):103459.
  29.  41
    Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
    This article presents a fundamental advance in the theory of mental models as an explanation of reasoning about facts, possibilities, and probabilities. It postulates that the meanings of compound assertions, such as conditionals (if) and disjunctions (or), unlike those in logic, refer to conjunctions of epistemic possibilities that hold in default of information to the contrary. Various factors such as general knowledge can modulate these interpretations. New information can always override sentential inferences; that is, reasoning in daily life is defeasible (...)
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  30.  30
    Education in a destitute time[1]. (A heideggarian approach to the problem of education in the age of modern technology).Ruth M. Jonathan - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):21–33.
    Michael Bonnett; Education in a Destitute Time[1], Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 17, Issue 1, 30 May 2006, Pages 21–33, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1.
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  31.  7
    Has mysticism a moral value?Ruth M. Gordon - 1920 - International Journal of Ethics 31 (1):66-83.
  32.  3
    Has Mysticism a Moral Value?Ruth M. Gordon - 1920 - International Journal of Ethics 31 (1):66-83.
  33.  1
    Dynamics of Hierarchy in African Thought.Ruth M. Lucier - 1989 - Listening 24 (1):29-40.
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  34.  34
    Science, Stewardship, and Earth.Ruth M. Lucier - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:71-75.
    In this paper I discuss two views that focus on the natural environment, namely (1) a western or “W” view (hereafter W) basedloosely on the kind of liberal outlook offered by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice and (2) a primal or “P” view (hereafter, P) stemming from environmental teachings of primal peoples. I suggest that while the W tradition has produced many truly helpful and comfortable amenities, it is nevertheless oriented toward commitments to resource acquisition and “detached” objectivity (...)
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  35.  25
    Two concepts of education? A reply to D. J. O'Connor.Ruth M. Jonathan - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 16 (2):147–154.
    Ruth M Jonathan; Two Concepts of Education? A reply to D. J. O’Connor, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 16, Issue 2, 30 May 2006, Pages 147–154, https.
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  36.  66
    Spontaneous counterfactual thoughts and causal explanations.Alice McEleney & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):235 – 255.
    We report two Experiments to compare counterfactual thoughts about how an outcome could have been different and causal explanations about why the outcome occurred. Experiment 1 showed that people generate counterfactual thoughts more often about controllable than uncontrollable events, whereas they generate causal explanations more often about unexpected than expected events. Counterfactual thoughts focus on specific factors, whereas causal explanations focus on both general and specific factors. Experiment 2 showed that in their spontaneous counterfactual thoughts, people focus on normal events (...)
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  37.  5
    Does mindfulness reduce negative interpretation bias?Audrey Gibb, Jenna M. Wilson, Cameron Ford & Natalie J. Shook - 2022 - Cognition and Emotion 36 (2):284-299.
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  38. Semantics, Pragmatics, and Natural-Language Interpretation.Ruth M. Kempson - 1996 - In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell. pp. 561--598.
  39. Semifactual ''even if'' thinking.Rachel McCloy & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2002 - Thinking and Reasoning 8 (1):41 – 67.
    Semifactual thinking about what might have been the same, e.g., ''even if Philip had not chosen the chocolate ice-cream sundae, he would have developed an allergic reaction'' has been neglected compared to counterfactual thinking about what might have been different, e.g., ''if only Philip had not chosen the chocolate ice-cream sundae, he would not have developed an allergic reaction''. We report the first systematic comparison of the two sorts of thinking in two experiments. The first experiment showed that counterfactual ''if (...)
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  40.  76
    Philosophy of linguistics.Ruth M. Kempson, Tim Fernando & Nicholas Asher (eds.) - 2012 - Boston: North Holland.
    Philosophy of Linguistics investigates the foundational concepts and methods of linguistics, the scientific study of human language. This groundbreaking collection, the most thorough treatment of the philosophy of linguistics ever published, brings together philosophers, scientists and historians to map out both the foundational assumptions set during the second half of the last century and the unfolding shifts in perspective in which more functionalist perspectives are explored. The opening chapter lays out the philosophical background in preparation for the papers that follow, (...)
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  41.  62
    Regulatory Misconception Muddies the Ethical Waters: Challenges to a Qualitative Study.Kimberly M. Yee & Paul J. Ford - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (3):217-220.
    In “Potential Subjects’ Responses to an Ethics Questionnaire in a Phase I Study of Deep-Brain Stimulation in Early Parkinson’s Disease,” Finder, Bliton, Gill, Davis, Konrad, and Charles undertake informed consent research on what they describe as a Phase I trial of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease. We argue that the authors should have more carefully characterized the nature of the DBS study at the start of their clinical study.
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  42.  54
    Conditionals: A theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference.Philip Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):646-678.
    The authors outline a theory of conditionals of the form If A then C and If A then possibly C. The 2 sorts of conditional have separate core meanings that refer to sets of possibilities. Knowledge, pragmatics, and semantics can modulate these meanings. Modulation can add information about temporal and other relations between antecedent and consequent. It can also prevent the construction of possibilities to yield 10 distinct sets of possibilities to which conditionals can refer. The mental representation of a (...)
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  43.  17
    An Index of References to Claims in Spinoza’s Ethics.Ruth M. Mattern - 1979 - Philosophy Research Archives 5:259-274.
    This index gives the location of each reference in Spinoza's Ethics to every axiom, definition, corollary, scholium, and proposition in that work.
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  44.  7
    Montaigne, Des boyteux and the Question of Causality.Ruth M. Calder - 1983 - Bibliothèque d'Humanisme Et Renaissance 45 (3):445-460.
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  45.  31
    Thinking About the Opposite of What Is Said: Counterfactual Conditionals and Symbolic or Alternate Simulations of Negation.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2459-2501.
    When people understand a counterfactual such as “if the flowers had been roses, the trees would have been orange trees,” they think about the conjecture, “there were roses and orange trees,” and they also think about its opposite, the presupposed facts. We test whether people think about the opposite by representing alternates, for example, “poppies and apple trees,” or whether models can contain symbols, for example, “no roses and no orange trees.” We report the discovery of an inference‐to‐alternates effect—a tendency (...)
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  46.  44
    How people think “if only …” about reasons for actions.Clare R. Walsh & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (4):461 – 483.
    When people think about how a situation might have turned out differently, they tend to imagine counterfactual alternatives to their actions. We report the results of three experiments which show that people imagine alternatives to actions differently when they know about a reason for the action. The first experiment ( n = 36) compared reason - action sequences to cause - effect sequences. It showed that people do not imagine alternatives to reasons in the way they imagine alternatives to causes: (...)
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  47.  11
    Considering Reprogenomics in the Ethical Future of Fetal Therapy Trials.Marsha Michie & Ruth M. Farrell - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (3):71-73.
    Much has changed in maternal-fetal medicine since the early 2000s, when the previous ethical frameworks for fetal therapy trials were established. We applaud Hendriks and colleagues for taking on t...
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  48.  12
    “If only” counterfactual thoughts about cooperative and uncooperative decisions in social dilemmas.Stefania Pighin, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Katya Tentori - 2022 - Thinking and Reasoning 28 (2):193-225.
    We examined how people think about how things could have turned out differently after they made a decision to cooperate or not in three social interactions: the Prisoner’s dilemma (Experiment 1), the Stag Hunt dilemma (Experiment 2), and the Chicken game (Experiment 3). We found that participants who took part in the game imagined the outcome would have been different if a different decision had been made by the other player, not themselves; they did so whether the outcome was good (...)
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  49.  41
    Counterfactual and semi-factual thoughts in moral judgements about failed attempts to harm.Mary Parkinson & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (4):409-448.
    People judge that an individual who attempts to harm someone but fails should be blamed and punished more when they imagine how things could have turned out worse, compared to when they imagine how things could have turned out the same, or when they think only about what happened. This moral counterfactual amplification effect occurs when people believe the protagonist had no reason for the attempt to harm, and not when the protagonist had a reason, as Experiment 1 shows. It (...)
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  50.  18
    The Suppression of Inferences From Counterfactual Conditionals.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (4):e12827.
    We examine two competing effects of beliefs on conditional inferences. The suppression effect occurs for conditionals, for example, “if she watered the plants they bloomed,” when beliefs about additional background conditions, for example, “if the sun shone they bloomed” decrease the frequency of inferences such as modus tollens (from “the plants did not bloom” to “therefore she did not water them”). In contrast, the counterfactual elevation effect occurs for counterfactual conditionals, for example, “if she had watered the plants they would (...)
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