6 found
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  1.  30
    Thinking About the Opposite of What Is Said: Counterfactual Conditionals and Symbolic or Alternate Simulations of Negation.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2459-2501.
    When people understand a counterfactual such as “if the flowers had been roses, the trees would have been orange trees,” they think about the conjecture, “there were roses and orange trees,” and they also think about its opposite, the presupposed facts. We test whether people think about the opposite by representing alternates, for example, “poppies and apple trees,” or whether models can contain symbols, for example, “no roses and no orange trees.” We report the discovery of an inference‐to‐alternates effect—a tendency (...)
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  2.  18
    The Suppression of Inferences From Counterfactual Conditionals.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (4):e12827.
    We examine two competing effects of beliefs on conditional inferences. The suppression effect occurs for conditionals, for example, “if she watered the plants they bloomed,” when beliefs about additional background conditions, for example, “if the sun shone they bloomed” decrease the frequency of inferences such as modus tollens (from “the plants did not bloom” to “therefore she did not water them”). In contrast, the counterfactual elevation effect occurs for counterfactual conditionals, for example, “if she had watered the plants they would (...)
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  3.  55
    Activation of end-terms in syllogistic reasoning.Orlando Espino, Carlos Santamaria & Juan A. Garcia-Madruga - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (1):67 – 89.
    We report five experiments showing that the activation of the end-terms of a syllogism is determined by their position in the composite model of the premises. We show that it is not determined by the position of the terms in the rule being applied (Ford, 1994), by the syntactic role of the terms in the premises (Polk & Newell, 1995; Wetherick & Gilhooly, 1990), by the type of conclusion (Chater & Oaksford, 1999), or by the terms from the source premise (...)
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  4.  26
    The Comprehension of Counterfactual Conditionals: Evidence From Eye-Tracking in the Visual World Paradigm.Isabel Orenes, Juan A. García-Madruga, Isabel Gómez-Veiga, Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  5. Early and late processes in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence from eye-movements.Orlando Espino, Carlos Santamaría, Enrique Meseguer & Manuel Carreiras - 2005 - Cognition 98 (1):B1-B9.
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  6.  18
    Theories of reasoning and the representational level: A reply to Oaksford.Carlos Santamaría, Orlando Espino & Juan A. García-Madruga - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):209-213.