In China and elsewhere, it is important to predict different lithologies and lithofacies for hydrocarbon exploration in a mixed evaporite-carbonate-siliciclastic system. The lower section of the second member of the Jialingjiang Formation is mainly composed of anhydrite, dolostone, limestone, and siliciclastic rocks, providing a rare opportunity to reconstruct detailed facies in a [Formula: see text] 3D seismic survey with 31 wells. Wireline logs calibrated by core analysis are essential in distinguishing anhydrite, siliciclastics, and carbonates. Although different lithologies are characterized by (...) different acoustic impedance, with certain overlapping, it is still difficult to predict lithology by any single seismic attribute because of the limited seismic resolution in a thinly interbedded formation of multiple lithologies. In our study, principal component analysis was applied to extract lithologic information from selected seismic attributes; the first two principal components were used to predict the content of anhydrite, siliciclastics, and carbonates. Content maps of anhydrite, siliciclastics, and carbonates — created by mixing the represented color — were used to reconstruct lithofacies of the T1j2L submember. It is quite difficult, even with the PCA approach, to uniquely resolve the three lithologies due to the overlapped AI and the limited resolution of the seismic data. However, the workflow that we evaluated dramatically improved the prediction accuracy of lithology and lithofacies. Facies transition during the deposition of the T1j2L submember in the study area was inferred from a paleo-uplift in the southwest to a restricted lagoon and then to an open marine setting in the northeast. (shrink)
Why do logicians develop so many different philosophical logics? All their aims focus on the same question--”What is logic?” Whether they have said it is the aim question which they want answer or not when they are doing logics, this is the presumed motivation for all studies of logics. In other words, the reason for logicians to do logics is try to answer what logic is. This kind of conceptual analysis on logic is the main problem style to be asked (...) in Universal Logic, such as “What is classical propositional logic?”, “What is many‐valued logic?”, “What is paraconsistent logic?”, etc. In this paper, we discuss one of Béziau’s paradoxes, Translation Paradox in Logical Translation, due to this kind of conceptual analysis on logic. Universal Logic is not a new logic, according to Béziau, it is a general theory of logical structures analogy to Universal Algebra, even if we could see it as a new logical activity. It is not to find out a ‘universal’ logic to cover all aims of logical researches. And it is definitely not in the spirit of logical monism, that is there is only one true logic. Develop Universal Logic about 15 years, besides its own motivation and purposes, it increasingly induces to two main stream problems, one is Logical Translation and the other is Combination of Logics which are two new realms in logic research. We find it is an easier way to start with Béziau’s Translation Paradox to get involved into Translation of Logics. (shrink)
This paper uses the Process Dissociation Procedure to explore whether people can acquire unconscious knowledge in the serial reaction time task [Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. . Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 343–350; Wilkinson, L., & Shanks, D. R. . Intentional control and implicit sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 354–369]. Experiment 1 showed that people generated legal sequences above baseline levels under exclusion (...) instructions. Reward moved exclusion performance towards baseline, indicating that the extent of motivation in the test phase influenced the expression of unconscious knowledge. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that even with reward, adding noise to the sequences or shortening training led to above-baseline exclusion performance, suggesting that task difficulty and the amount of training also affected the expression of unconscious knowledge. The results help resolve some current debates about the role of conscious awareness in sequence learning. (shrink)
Past research suggests that spiritual leadership plays a pivotal role in enhancing employee job performance, yet we have little understanding of how and when spiritual leadership enhances employee job performance. The present study explores how and when spiritual leadership promotes job performance by examining relational energy as a mediator and leader integrity and relational energy differentiation as boundary conditions. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 12 months from 497 employees and their supervisors in 108 (...) groups. Results showed that the positive relationship between spiritual leadership and job performance was mediated by relational energy. Moreover, we found that leader integrity amplified the mediated relationship between spiritual leadership and employee job performance via relational energy. In contrast, relational energy differentiation weakened this mediated relationship. (shrink)
“... für die Wißenschaft, der ich von ganzer Seele lebe.” Otto Böhtlingk : Ein Gelehrten- leben rekonstruiert und beschrieben anhand seiner Briefe. By Agnes Stache-Weiske. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2017. Pp. xv + 583. €118. Otto Böhtlingk an Rudolf Roth: Briefe zum Petersburger Wörterbuch 1852–1885. Index. By Agnes Stache-Weiske, Gabriele Zeller, and Frank Köhler. Veröffentlichungen der Helmuth von Glasenapp-Stiftung, vol. 45.2. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2015. Pp. 188. €59.
Yan Fu was the first Chinese person to introduce the teachings of the West to China systematically. Since returning to China from Britain, to which he had been sent to study in 1879, he held an office at the Beiyang Naval College until leaving the institution in 1900. These twenty-some years were precisely the direst moment in the intensifying of China's social crisis, when the imperialists were pressing their aggression toward China and China was being brought to the brink of (...) being partitioned outright. At the time, all the progressive intellectuals in China were worried for the future of the motherland, and pressed on to find what they considered to be the truth of national salvation. The bourgeois reformist faction of the day, with Kang Youwei as its leader, advocated political and legal reform and was tremendously enthusiatic and active in pleading its case throughout China, calling on the intellectuals to respond. Yan Fu, too, at this time, did a large amount of propaganda work for the cause of reform, using the thought of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi as his foundation and employing his own exceptional knowledge of Western things and Western learning, and his understanding of the capitalist world. He founded the Guowen bao and published a number of important political essays, including "Lun shibian zhi ji" , "Yuan qiang" , "Pi Han" and "Jiu wang jue lun" . He also translated a number of the works of Western bourgeois social science, including [Thomas Huxley's] Evolution and Ethics , [Adam Smith's] The Wealth of Nations , [Herbert Spencer's] A Study of Sociology , [John Stuart Mill's] Logic , and Montesquieu's De l'esprit des lois . Furthermore, he carried out an annotated and evaluative reading of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, and in so doing he assimilated Western learning and ideas into the Chinese interpretation of Lao-Zhuang's thought. (shrink)
The conceptual and methodological contributions of Marxist aesthetics from Eastern European countries like Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and East Germany were productive and significant despite various hurdles faced concerning institutionalization, legitimization and differing theoretical abuses. In its mode of inquiry and discursive practices, Eastern European Marxist aesthetics is both similar and dissimilar to its Western, Soviet, Russian and Chinese counterparts. The specificity here is the function of a unique geographical and socio-historical context, as well as interaction with other (...) contemporary paradigms of thought. The innovative impulses of Eastern European Marxist aesthetics affected six scholarly domains: aesthetics of praxis, theory of realism, critique of modernity, semiotics, theory of genre and cultural theory. This paper provides a general survey of the intellectual achievements of Eastern European Marxist aesthetics across these six domains and will show how this theoretical tradition has influenced the modern history of ideas. (shrink)
Fünfundzwanzig arabische Geschäftsdokumente aus dem Rotmeer-Hafen al-Quṣayr al-Qadīm [P.QuseirArab. II]. By Andreas Kaplony. Islamic History and Civilization, vol. 109. Leiden: Brill, 2014. Pp. vii + 208, illus. $120, €93.
Zusammenfassung Im Mittelpunkt des Beitrags steht das bisher ungeklärte Verhältnis praxistheoretischer Ansätze zum Konzept der face-to-face Interaktion. So berücksichtigen praxistheoretische Analysen i. d. R. nicht, ob soziale Praktiken unter den Bedingungen von Anwesenheit und wechselseitiger Wahrnehmung stattfinden oder alleine. Entsprechend findet die Eigengesetzlichkeit der Interaktionsordnung im Rahmen der Praxistheorie bislang keine Anwendung, wodurch sich wiederum bestimmte Einschränkungen bei der Beschreibung und Erklärung sozialer Wirklichkeit ergeben können. Das gilt vor allem für den Bereich des Sports, der tur die Durchführung körperlicher Leistungsvergleiche (...) wie kaum ein anderes soziales Feld auf die gleichzeitige Anwesenheit der Akteure angewiesen ist. Der Beitrag demonstriert am Beispiel des Fußballspiels den Erkenntnisgewinn, den eine interaktionstheoretische Perspektive leisten kann und liefert erste Vorschläge für die Integration des Interaktionsbegriffs in praxistheoretische Analvsen am Beispiel der Theorie der Praxis von Pierre Bourdieu. (shrink)
Drawing upon career construction theory, we examined the mediating effect of deliberate practice on career adaptability and the effects of learning goal orientation and supervisor incompetence accusations as well as career development training on DP. Using data collected from 204 Chinese PhD students in three waves over a period of 2 months, we found that individuals who were inclined to learn new skills and obtain new knowledge were more likely to deliberately practice professional activities in their fields. When a PhD (...) student’s professional competence was questioned by his or her supervisor, the student was more prone to negative emotions and would reduce his or her effort in the development of expertise. CDT – contrary to expectations – negatively predicted DP of professional activities. One possible reason is that the participants in this study have strong autonomy so that those who really struggling are participating in training and seeking help and those who with strong professional abilities are not accessing training programs. Moreover, results showed that DP of professional activities significantly promoted PhD students to adapt to their academic circumstances. Implications for career-related practice within the academic domain are provided. (shrink)
Was besagt Whiteheads berühmte Charakterisierung der europäischen Philosophietradition als eine Reihe von "Fußnoten zu Platon"? Whiteheads Organismusphilosophie tritt mit dem Anspruch auf, Grundpositionen der Philosophiegeschichte von Aristoteles bis Kant kritisch zu reflektieren und die in ihnen nur defizitär umgesetzte platonische Programmatik mit einer hypothetischen Metaphysik zu erfüllen. Was besagt Whiteheads berühmte Charakterisierung der europäischen Philosophietradition als eine Reihe von "Fußnoten zu Platon"? Welches Platon-Bild liegt der Fußnoten-These zugrunde? Wie verhält sich die Fußnoten-These zu Whiteheads sonstigen philosophiegeschichtlichen Analysen und zu seiner (...) eigenen philosophischen Kosmologie? Im Vordergrund der Untersuchung stehen Whiteheads philosophiegeschichtliche und historiographische Grundpositionen. Dabei zeigt sich, daß er der platonischen Philosophie sowohl inhaltlich als auch methodologisch einen Prinzipienstatus zuschreibt: Inhaltlich rekonstruiert er bei Platon ein grundlegendes Repertoire metaphysischer Grundbegriffe, methodologisch ein dort erstmals greifbares Ensemble von Spekulationskriterien sowie das Ideal eines mehr fragenden als dogmatisch behauptenden Philosophierens. Whitehead entnimmt der platonischen Philosophie eine Programmatik, der die nachfolgenden Traditionen - insbesondere die Fußnoten-Beiträge von Aristoteles, Descartes, Newton, Locke, Leibniz, Hume und Kant - allenfalls ansatzweise gerecht werden. Insofern für diese Denker aus Whiteheads Sicht u.a. ein wesentlich statisches Substanz-Qualitäts-Schema maßgeblich ist, entfernen sich ihre Konzeptionen von dem genuin platonischen Paradigma eines prozeßhaften Naturgeschehens. Whiteheads Organismusphilosophie tritt mit dem Anspruch auf, Grundpositionen der Philosophiegeschichte von Aristoteles bis Kant kritisch zu reflektieren und die in ihnen nur defizitär umgesetzte platonische Programmatik mit einer hypothetischen Metaphysik zu erfüllen, die, ausgehend von der Kosmologie des Timaios, Platons Verständnis vom Sein als Werden Rechnung trägt und zugleich ein geeignetes Erklärungsmodell unserer Gesamterfahrung anbietet. (shrink)
As an important component to promote the development of affective brain–computer interfaces, the study of emotion recognition based on electroencephalography has encountered a difficult challenge; the distribution of EEG data changes among different subjects and at different time periods. Domain adaptation methods can effectively alleviate the generalization problem of EEG emotion recognition models. However, most of them treat multiple source domains, with significantly different distributions, as one single source domain, and only adapt the cross-domain marginal distribution while ignoring the joint (...) distribution difference between the domains. To gain the advantages of multiple source distributions, and better match the distributions of the source and target domains, this paper proposes a novel multi-source joint domain adaptation network. We first map all domains to a shared feature space and then align the joint distributions of the further extracted private representations and the corresponding classification predictions for each pair of source and target domains. Extensive cross-subject and cross-session experiments on the benchmark dataset, SEED, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, where more significant classification results are obtained on the more difficult cross-subject emotion recognition task. (shrink)
Conventional wisdom suggests that aesthetic experiences - those moments when the senses come to life - are important only after more basic needs have been met. In this inspiring wealth of provocative ideas, Yi-Fu Tuan demonstrates that feeling and beauty are essential parts of life and society. The aesthetic is shown to be not merely one aspect of culture but its central core - both its driving force and its ultimate goal. Beginning with the individual and the physical world, the (...) author's exploration progresses from the simple to the complex. Tuan starts by examining the building blocks of aesthetic experience - sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste - and gradually expands his analysis to include the most elaborate of human constructs, including art, architecture, literature, philosophy, music, and landscape. This leads him to the realm of politics, where he grapples with the fundamental question of the relationship between goodness and beauty, and of how the aesthetic can become a moral force within society. To guide the reader along this journey, the author describes how the aesthetic operates in four widely disparate cultures: Australian aboriginal, Chinese, medieval European, and modern American. Yi-Fu Tuan, one of our most influential and original thinkers, brilliantly conveys the profound fascination of multisensory reality, and in so doing enables us to make connections among even the most diffuse elements of our lives. While Tuan does not ignore human folly, Passing Strange and Wonderful is a celebration of the world around us, our experiences, and our creations. (shrink)
As an important corporate governance mechanism, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance is theoretically associated with corporate financialization because it directly affects incentive constraints and risk preference of enterprise managers. However, whether there is a causal relationship in fact has not been sufficiently empirically investigated. Using a sample of Chinese non-financial listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen A-shares from 2008 to 2020, this paper empirically analyzes how corporate subscription to directors’ and officers’ liability insurance affects corporate financialization and examines the mediating (...) role played by risk-taking, financing constraints, and audit quality. The study finds that corporate subscription to D&O insurance increases corporate financialization. In terms of the influential mechanism, subscription to D&O insurance promotes financialization by increasing risk-taking, alleviating financing constraints, and improving audit quality. In addition, the results in the heterogeneity analysis suggest that the promotion of financialization by subscribing to D&O insurance is more significant in state-owned enterprises, growth and decline stage enterprises, and non-dual-employment enterprises. (shrink)
It is commonly held that implicit learning is based largely on familiarity. It is also commonly held that familiarity is not affected by intentions. It follows that people should not be able to use familiarity to distinguish strings from two different implicitly learned grammars. In two experiments, subjects were trained on two grammars and then asked to endorse strings from only one of the grammars. Subjects also rated how familiar each string felt and reported whether or not they used familiarity (...) to make their grammaticality judgment. We found subjects could endorse the strings of just one grammar and ignore the strings from the other. Importantly, when subjects said they were using familiarity, the rated familiarity for test strings consistent with their chosen grammar was greater than that for strings from the other grammar. Familiarity, subjectively defined, is sensitive to intentions and can play a key role in strategic control. (shrink)
Leaders are critical to a team or organization, their behavior affects employees’ psychology and their work effort, and then affects the efficiency and innovation of the team or organization. Previous studies have focused on the role model of leaders, ignoring the guiding role of leaders with different efforts. This paper introduces leader decision-making into the game of public goods to investigate the exemplary role of leaders in behavior decision-making. It divides them into three types by setting the investment amount of (...) leaders to explore the mechanism of leaders’ influence in behavior decision-making and behavior change of team members when facing the transformation of leaders with different investment types. This research can provide a significant reference value for enterprises and social organizations on how to play the role of leaders. (shrink)
This paper investigates the conscious status of both the knowledge that an item is legal and the knowledge of why it is legal in sequence learning. We compared ability to control use of knowledge with stated awareness of the knowledge as measures of the conscious status of knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that when people could control use of judgment knowledge they were indeed conscious of having that knowledge according to their own statements. Yet Experiment 2 showed that people could exert (...) such control over the use of judgment knowledge when claiming they had no structural knowledge: i.e. conscious judgment knowledge could be based on unconscious structural knowledge. Further implicit learning research should be clear over whether judgment or structural knowledge is claimed to be unconscious as the two dissociate in sequence learning. (shrink)
H. L. A Hart complained about the ambiguity of legal positivism, and proposed a definition that refers to particular explications of the concept of law, to certain theories of legal interpretation, to particular views on the moral problem of a duty to obey the law, and to a sceptical position with regard to the meta-ethical issue of the possibility of moral knowledge. It is said to be restricted to the Thesis of Separation — the contention that there is no necessary (...) connection between law and morals. In this chapter, the Separation Thesis is discussed even further, and has three shortcomings identified: first, that it has been vacillating between object-level contentions about moral qualities of the law; that the precise logical relation between both levels has never been properly accounted for; and that the question of necessary relations between morality and law hinges crucially on the presupposition that the very concept of law itself does not unravel into different sets of convenient stipulations from different epistemological angles, each of which renders the question of such necessary relations trivial. The Separation Thesis is also identified as having two versions: the Fallibility Law and the Neutrality Law. (shrink)
ABSTRACT The ongoing Sino-U.S. trade dispute between the world’s two largest economies has since 2018 attracted much attention from the international media. This study used the approach of corpus-assisted discourse studies to compare how leading English-language newspapers from each side—The New York Times and China Daily — discursively constructed this issue. The findings indicated that while NYT tended to profile the trade conflict as a ‘war’ in line with mainstream hard-line ideologies that emphasize China’s presumed threat to national security of (...) the U.S., CD sought to dial down the rhetoric and showed a preference for defining the matter as a ‘friction’, consistent with the tenet of ‘pragmatic nationalism’ endorsed by the Communist Party of China. Accordingly, the two newspapers framed the causes, moral evaluation/consequences, and treatment of the issue in congruence with their respective dominant metaphors by means of various linguistic patterns. These differences are interpreted with regard to each side’s underlying ideologies and national interests. (shrink)
This study examines the impact of various factors on ethical behavior of 507 employees working for three state-owned Chinese firms. Regulation of one’s emotions had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Organizational commitment also had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of the respondents. Among various facets of job satisfaction, satisfaction with promotion, coworker, and supervision had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Among control variables, age of the employee had a significant negative (...) impact on ethical behavior, which indicated that the young employees showed a better ethical behavior than the old employees. (shrink)
This study examines factors impacting organizational commitment of 214 employees working at a Chinese state-owned steel company. Ethical behavior of peers and ethical behavior of successful managers had a significant impact on organizational commitment. The four facets of job satisfaction (pay, coworker, supervision, and work itself) had a significant impact on organizational commitment. Respondent’s age also significantly impacted organizational commitment. Perceptions of ethical behavior of successful managers, satisfaction with work, and gender were significantly correlated with social desirability bias.
EDITOR’S ABSTRACTIn this article, Huang stresses the important role played by the Chinese cultural context in the historical process of translation of Western concepts. Huang exemplifies this point through an analysis of Yan Fu’s translation of “individualism.”.
This research uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among caring climate, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance of 476 employees working in a Chinese insurance company. The SEM result showed that caring climate had a significant direct impact on job satisfaction, organizational command, and job performance. Caring climate also had a significant indirect impact on organizational commitment through the mediating role of job satisfaction, and on job performance through the mediating role of job (...) satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, job satisfaction had significant direct impact on organizational commitment, through which it also had a significant indirect impact on job performance. Finally, organizational commitment had a significant direct impact on job performance. (shrink)
Background Financial relationships between physicians and industry are extensive and public reporting of industry payments to physicians is now occurring. Our objectives were to describe physician recipients of large total payments from these seven companies, and to examine discrepancies between these payments and conflict of interest (COI) disclosures in authors’ concurrent publications. Methods The investigative journalism organization, ProPublica, compiled the Dollars for Docs database of payments to individuals from publically available data from seven US pharmaceutical companies during the period 2009 (...) to 2010. We examined the cohort of 373 physicians in this database who each received USD $100,000 or more in the reporting period 2009 to 2010. Results These physicians received a total of $52,600,624 during this period (mean payment per physician $141,020). The predominant specialties were internal medicine and psychiatry. 147 of these physicians authored a total of 134 publications in the first quarter of 2011 and 77% (103) of these publications provided a COI disclosure. 69% of the 103 publications did not contain disclosures of the payment listed in the Dollars for Docs database. Conclusions With increased public reporting of industry payments to physicians, it is apparent that large sums are being paid for services such as consulting and peer education. In over two-thirds of publications where COI disclosures were provided, the disclosures by physician authors did not include industry payments that were documented in the Dollars for Docs database. (shrink)
This paper offers a short history of Agnes Heller’s relationship to China through three aspects: imaginative aesthetic enjoyment, real encounters with Chinese cultural spectacles and actual audiences, and the construction of an academic community through creative dialogue. These discussions suggest that Heller felt at home in China. Although Heller has passed away, a home for us remains in her work through remembering her and engaging further with her writings.