Results for 'Maarten Dycvank'

586 found
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  1.  36
    The Paradox of Conceptual Novelty and Galileo's Use of Experiments.Maarten Dycvank - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):864-875.
    Starting with a discussion of what I call `Koyré's paradox of conceptual novelty', I introduce the ideas of Damerow et al. on the establishment of classical mechanics in Galileo's work. I then argue that although their view on the nature of Galileo's conceptual innovation is convincing, it misses an essential element: Galileo's use of the experiments described in the first day of the Two New Sciences. I describe these experiments and analyze their function. Central to my analysis is the idea (...)
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  2.  22
    Friedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis as an Example of Diagnostic Reasoning: Maarten C. W. Janssen and Yao-Hua Tan.Maarten C. W. Janssen - 1992 - Economics and Philosophy 8 (1):23-46.
    Many recent developments in artificial intelligence research are relevant for traditional issues in the philosophy of science. One of the developments in AI research we want to focus on in this article is diagnostic reasoning, which we consider to be of interest for the theory of explanation in general and for an understanding of explanatory arguments in economic science in particular. Usually, explanation is primarily discussed in terms of deductive inferences in classical logic. However, in recent AI research it is (...)
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  3. Characterization, Interpolation and Complexity, by Carlos Areces, Patrick Blackburn and Maarten Marx.Patrick Blackburn & Maarten Marx Hybrid Logic - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (3):977-1010.
     
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  4. False Reflections.Maarten Steenhagen - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (5):1227-1242.
    Philosophers and psychologists often assume that mirror reflections are optical illusions. According to many authors, what we see in a mirror appears to be behind it. I discuss two strategies to resist this piece of dogma. As I will show, the conviction that mirror reflections are illusions is rooted in a confused conception of the relations between location, direction, and visibility. This conception is unacceptable to those who take seriously the way in which mirrors contribute to our experience of the (...)
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  5. Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem.Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.) - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    What sets the practice of rigorously tested, sound science apart from pseudoscience? In this volume, the contributors seek to answer this question, known to philosophers of science as “the demarcation problem.” This issue has a long history in philosophy, stretching as far back as the early twentieth century and the work of Karl Popper. But by the late 1980s, scholars in the field began to treat the demarcation problem as impossible to solve and futile to ponder. However, the essays that (...)
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  6.  31
    The Governmentalization of Learning and the Assemblage of a Learning Apparatus.Maarten Simons & Jan Masschelein - 2008 - Educational Theory 58 (4):391-415.
  7. Must Naive Realists Be Relationalists?Maarten Steenhagen - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (4):1002-1015.
    Relationalism maintains that perceptual experience involves, as part of its nature, a distinctive kind of conscious perceptual relation between a subject of experience and an object of experience. Together with the claim that perceptual experience is presentational, relationalism is widely believed to be a core aspect of the naive realist outlook on perception. This is a mistake. I argue that naive realism about perception can be upheld without a commitment to relationalism.
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  8.  1
    Arrow Logic and Multi-Modal Logic.Maarten Marx, Laszls Pslos & Michael Masuch - 1996 - Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications.
    Conceived by Johan van Benthem and Yde Venema, arrow logic started as an attempt to give a general account of the logic of transitions. The generality of the approach provided a wide application area ranging from philosophy to computer science. The book gives a comprehensive survey of logical research within and around arrow logic. Since the natural operations on transitions include composition, inverse and identity, their logic, arrow logic can be studied from two different perspectives, and by two methodologies: modal (...)
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  9.  70
    Philosophy of Technology.Maarten Franssen - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  10.  74
    Terra Incognita: Explanation and Reduction in Earth Science.Maarten G. Kleinhans, Chris J. J. Buskes & Henk W. de Regt - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):289 – 317.
    The present paper presents a philosophical analysis of earth science, a discipline that has received relatively little attention from philosophers of science. We focus on the question of whether earth science can be reduced to allegedly more fundamental sciences, such as chemistry or physics. In order to answer this question, we investigate the aims and methods of earth science, the laws and theories used by earth scientists, and the nature of earth-scientific explanation. Our analysis leads to the tentative conclusion that (...)
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  11.  73
    The Normativity of Artefacts.Maarten Franssen - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):42-57.
    Part of the distinction between artefacts, objects made by humans for particular purposes, and natural objects is that artefacts are subject to normative judgements. A drill, say, can be a good drill or a poor drill, it can function well or correctly or it can malfunction. In this paper I investigate how such judgements fit into the domain of the normative in general and what the grounds for their normativity are. Taking as a starting point a general characterization of normativity (...)
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  12.  53
    The Learning Society and Governmentality: An Introduction.Maarten Simons & Jan Masschelein - 2006 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 38 (4):417–430.
    This paper presents an overview of the elements which characterize a research attitude and approach introduced by Michel Foucault and further developed as ?studies of governmentality? into a sub?discipline of the humanities during the past decade, including also applications in the field of education. The paper recalls Foucault's introduction of the notion of ?governmentality? and its relation to the ?mapping of the present? and sketches briefly the way in which the studies of governmentality have been elaborated in general and in (...)
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  13. Modal Logic: Graph. Darst.Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke & Yde Venema - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    This modern, advanced textbook reviews modal logic, a field which caught the attention of computer scientists in the late 1970's.
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  14.  6
    Electrocorticography of Spatial Shifting and Attentional Selection in Human Superior Parietal Cortex.Maarten Schrooten, Eshwar G. Ghumare, Laura Seynaeve, Tom Theys, Patrick Dupont, Wim Van Paesschen & Rik Vandenberghe - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  15. What Makes Weird Beliefs Thrive? The Epidemiology of Pseudoscience.Maarten Boudry, Stefaan Blancke & Massimo Pigliucci - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (8):1177-1198.
    What makes beliefs thrive? In this paper, we model the dissemination of bona fide science versus pseudoscience, making use of Dan Sperber's epidemiological model of representations. Drawing on cognitive research on the roots of irrational beliefs and the institutional arrangement of science, we explain the dissemination of beliefs in terms of their salience to human cognition and their ability to adapt to specific cultural ecologies. By contrasting the cultural development of science and pseudoscience along a number of dimensions, we gain (...)
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  16. The Fake, the Flimsy, and the Fallacious: Demarcating Arguments in Real Life.Maarten Boudry, Fabio Paglieri & Massimo Pigliucci - 2015 - Argumentation 29 (4):10.1007/s10503-015-9359-1.
    Philosophers of science have given up on the quest for a silver bullet to put an end to all pseudoscience, as such a neat formal criterion to separate good science from its contenders has proven elusive. In the literature on critical thinking and in some philosophical quarters, however, this search for silver bullets lives on in the taxonomies of fallacies. The attractive idea is to have a handy list of abstract definitions or argumentation schemes, on the basis of which one (...)
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  17.  31
    Multi-Dimensional Modal Logic.Maarten Marx - 1996 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Over the last twenty years, in all of these neighbouring fields, modal systems have been developed that we call multi-dimensional. (Our definition of multi ...
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  18.  7
    Down to Earth: History and philosophy of geoscience in practice for undergraduate education.Maarten G. Kleinhans - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-15.
    Undergraduate geoscience students are rarely exposed to history and philosophy of science. I will describe the experiences with a short course unfavourably placed in the first year of a bachelor of earth science. Arguments how HPS could enrich their education in many ways are sketched. One useful didactic approach is to develop a broader interest by connecting HPS themes to practical cases throughout the curriculum, and develop learning activities that allow students to reflect on their skills, methods and their field (...)
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  19.  39
    Learning as Investment: Notes on Governmentality and Biopolitics.Maarten Simons - 2006 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 38 (4):523–540.
    The ‘European Space of Higher Education’ could be mapped as an infrastructure for entrepreneurship and a place where the distinction between the social and the economic becomes obsolete. Using Foucault's understanding of biopolitics and discussing the analyses of Agamben and Negri/Hardt it is argued that the actual governmental configuration, i.e. the economisation of the social, also has a biopolitical dimension. Focusing on the intersection between a politicisation and economisation of human life allows us to discuss a kind of ‘bio‐economisation’ , (...)
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  20.  84
    The Hatred of Public Schooling: The School as the Mark of Democracy.Maarten Simons - 2010 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (5-6):666-682.
    This article takes up a text that Rancière published shortly after The Ignorant School Master appeared in French, 'École, production, égalité'[School, Production, Equality] (1988), in which he sketched the school as being preeminently the place of equality. In this vein, and opposed to the story of the school as the place where inequality is reproduced and therefore in need of reform, the article wants to recount the story of the school as the invention of a site of equality and as (...)
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  21.  46
    Artefact Kinds: Ontology and the Human-Made World.Maarten Franssen, Peter Kroes, Pieter Vermaas & Thomas A. C. Reydon (eds.) - 2013 - Synthese Library.
    One way to address such questions about artifact kinds is to look for clues in the available literature on parallel questions that have been posed with respect to kinds in the natural domain. Philosophers have long been concerned with the ...
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  22.  39
    Uncertainty and Exploration in a Restless Bandit Problem.Maarten Speekenbrink & Emmanouil Konstantinidis - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):351-367.
    Decision making in noisy and changing environments requires a fine balance between exploiting knowledge about good courses of action and exploring the environment in order to improve upon this knowledge. We present an experiment on a restless bandit task in which participants made repeated choices between options for which the average rewards changed over time. Comparing a number of computational models of participants’ behavior in this task, we find evidence that a substantial number of them balanced exploration and exploitation by (...)
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  23.  60
    Rationalizing Focal Points.Maarten C. W. Janssen - 2001 - Theory and Decision 50 (2):119-148.
    Focal points seem to be important in helping players coordinate their strategies in coordination problems. Game theory lacks, however, a formal theory of focal points. This paper proposes a theory of focal points that is based on individual rationality considerations. The two principles upon which the theory rest are the Principle of Insufficient Reason (IR) and a Principle of Individual Team Member Rationality. The way IR is modelled combines the classic notion of description symmetry and a new notion of pay-off (...)
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  24.  1
    Philosophy and Learning Universities in the Middle Ages.Maarten J. F. M. Hoenen, J. H. Jakob Hans Josef Schneider & Georg Wieland - 1995 - Brill.
    The present collection deals with philosophical thinking at the medieval university from the threefold perspective of Institution and Career, Organizational Forms and Literary Genres, and School Formation and School Conflict.
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  25.  21
    Sahlqvist's Theorem for Boolean Algebras with Operators with an Application to Cylindric Algebras.Maarten De Rijke & Yde Venema - 1995 - Studia Logica 54 (1):61 - 78.
    For an arbitrary similarity type of Boolean Algebras with Operators we define a class of Sahlqvist identities. Sahlqvist identities have two important properties. First, a Sahlqvist identity is valid in a complex algebra if and only if the underlying relational atom structure satisfies a first-order condition which can be effectively read off from the syntactic form of the identity. Second, and as a consequence of the first property, Sahlqvist identities are canonical, that is, their validity is preserved under taking canonical (...)
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  26. The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors.Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their func- tionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adapta- tions, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In (...)
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  27.  25
    Diagnosing Pseudoscience – by Getting Rid of the Demarcation Problem.Maarten Boudry - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (2):83-101.
    For a long time, philosophers of science have expressed little interest in the so-called demarcation project that occupied the pioneers of their field, and most now concur that terms like “pseudoscience” cannot be defined in any meaningful way. However, recent years have witnessed a revival of philosophical interest in demarcation. In this paper, I argue that, though the demarcation problem of old leads to a dead-end, the concept of pseudoscience is not going away anytime soon, and deserves a fresh look. (...)
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  28. How Not to Attack Intelligent Design Creationism: Philosophical Misconceptions About Methodological Naturalism. [REVIEW]Maarten Boudry, Stefaan Blancke & Johan Braeckman - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (3):227-244.
    In recent controversies about Intelligent Design Creationism (IDC), the principle of methodological naturalism (MN) has played an important role. In this paper, an often neglected distinction is made between two different conceptions of MN, each with its respective rationale and with a different view on the proper role of MN in science. According to one popular conception, MN is a self-imposed or intrinsic limitation of science, which means that science is simply not equipped to deal with claims of the supernatural (...)
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  29.  2
    Leveled Domestic Politics. Comparing Institutional Reform and Ethnonational Conflicts in Canada and Belgium (1960–89).Maarten Theo Jans - 2001 - Res Publica 43 (1):37-58.
    The article analyses ethnonational conflicts in Belgium and Canada during the period 1960-1989. Using the most similar case design, it is argued that the different policy performances in Belgium and Canada can be accounted for by the institutional context in which the conflicts occurred. The institutional setup in Canada and Belgium created different modes of joint decision making. Through an analysis of three joint decision variables, namely, decision rules, preferences and default conditions, two empirical cases are scrutinized. The Canadian Pension (...)
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  30. Prove It! The Burden of Proof Game in Science Vs. Pseudoscience Disputes.Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (2):487-502.
    The concept of burden of proof is used in a wide range of discourses, from philosophy to law, science, skepticism, and even in everyday reasoning. This paper provides an analysis of the proper deployment of burden of proof, focusing in particular on skeptical discussions of pseudoscience and the paranormal, where burden of proof assignments are most poignant and relatively clear-cut. We argue that burden of proof is often misapplied or used as a mere rhetorical gambit, with little appreciation of the (...)
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  31.  61
    Disbelief in Belief: On the Cognitive Status of Supernatural Beliefs.Maarten Boudry & Jerry Coyne - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):601-615.
    Religious people seem to believe things that range from the somewhat peculiar to the utterly bizarre. Or do they? According to a new paper by Neil Van Leeuwen, religious “credence” is nothing like mundane factual belief. It has, he claims, more in common with fictional imaginings. Religious folk do not really “believe”—in the ordinary sense of the word—what they profess to believe. Like fictional imaginings, but unlike factual beliefs, religious credences are activated only within specific settings. We argue that Van (...)
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  32.  27
    From Schools to Learning Environments: The Dark Side of Being Exceptional.Maarten Simons & Jan Masschelein - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (3-4):687-704.
    Schools and classrooms, as well as the work place and the Internet, are considered today as learning environments . People are regarded as learners and the main target of school education has become 'learning' pupils and students how to learn. The roles of teachers and lecturers are redefined as instructors, designers of (powerful) learning environments and facilitators or coaches of learning processes. The aim of this paper is to argue that the current self-understanding in terms of learning environments is not (...)
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  33. Natural Selection Does Care About Truth.Maarten Boudry & Michael Vlerick - 2014 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):65-77.
    True beliefs are better guides to the world than false ones. This is the common-sense assumption that undergirds theorizing in evolutionary epistemology. According to Alvin Plantinga, however, evolution by natural selection does not care about truth: it cares only about fitness. If our cognitive faculties are the products of blind evolution, we have no reason to trust them, anytime or anywhere. Evolutionary naturalism, consequently, is a self-defeating position. Following up on earlier objections, we uncover three additional flaws in Plantinga's latest (...)
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  34.  34
    Minimum Presentation Time for Masked Facial Expression Discrimination.Maarten Milders, Arash Sahraie & Sarah Logan - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (1):63-82.
  35.  8
    Learning in a Changing Environment.Maarten Speekenbrink & David R. Shanks - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (2):266-298.
  36. The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors.Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their functionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adaptations, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In particular, the (...)
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  37. Modal Logic.Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke & Yde Venema - 2001 - Studia Logica 76 (1):142-148.
     
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  38.  10
    Maarten Derksen. Histories of Human Engineering: Tact and Technology. Vii + 270 Pp., Notes, Bibl., Index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. £85 . ISBN 9781107057432. [REVIEW]Ruud Abma - 2019 - Isis 110 (1):147-148.
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  39. How Convenient! The Epistemic Rationale of Self-Validating Belief Systems.Maarten Boudry & Johan Braeckman - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (3):341-364.
    This paper offers an epistemological discussion of self-validating belief systems and the recurrence of ?epistemic defense mechanisms? and ?immunizing strategies? across widely different domains of knowledge. We challenge the idea that typical ?weird? belief systems are inherently fragile, and we argue that, instead, they exhibit a surprising degree of resilience in the face of adverse evidence and criticism. Borrowing from the psychological research on belief perseverance, rationalization and motivated reasoning, we argue that the human mind is particularly susceptible to belief (...)
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  40. Fictional Creations.Maarten Steenhagen - 2021 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
    Many people assume that fictional entities are encapsulated in the world of fiction. I show that this cannot be right. Some works of fiction tell us about pieces of poetry, music, or theatre written by fictional characters. Such creations are fictional creations, as I will call them. Their authors do not exist. But that does not take away that we can perform, recite, or otherwise generate actual instances of such works. This means we can bring such individuals actually into existence, (...)
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  41. Immunizing Strategies and Epistemic Defense Mechanisms.Maarten Boudry & Johan Braeckman - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (1):145-161.
    An immunizing strategy is an argument brought forward in support of a belief system, though independent from that belief system, which makes it more or less invulnerable to rational argumentation and/or empirical evidence. By contrast, an epistemic defense mechanism is defined as a structural feature of a belief system which has the same effect of deflecting arguments and evidence. We discuss the remarkable recurrence of certain patterns of immunizing strategies and defense mechanisms in pseudoscience and other belief systems. Five different (...)
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  42. Multi-Dimensional Modal Logic.Maarten Marx & Yde Venema - 2000 - Studia Logica 65 (2):278-282.
     
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  43. An Impossibility Theorem for Verisimilitude.Sjoerd Zwart & Maarten Franssen - 2007 - Synthese 158 (1):75-92.
    In this paper, we show that Arrow’s well-known impossibility theorem is instrumental in bringing the ongoing discussion about verisimilitude to a more general level of abstraction. After some preparatory technical steps, we show that Arrow’s requirements for voting procedures in social choice are also natural desiderata for a general verisimilitude definition that places content and likeness considerations on the same footing. Our main result states that no qualitative unifying procedure of a functional form can simultaneously satisfy the requirements of Unanimity, (...)
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  44. Why Machine-Information Metaphors Are Bad for Science and Science Education.Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (5-6):471.
    Genes are often described by biologists using metaphors derived from computa- tional science: they are thought of as carriers of information, as being the equivalent of ‘‘blueprints’’ for the construction of organisms. Likewise, cells are often characterized as ‘‘factories’’ and organisms themselves become analogous to machines. Accordingly, when the human genome project was initially announced, the promise was that we would soon know how a human being is made, just as we know how to make airplanes and buildings. Impor- tantly, (...)
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  45. Artefacts and Normativity.Maarten Franssen - 2009 - In Anthonie W. M. Meijers (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. pp. 9--923.
     
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  46. Rancire, Public Education and the Taming of Democracy.Maarten Simons & Jan Masschelein (eds.) - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Rancière, Public Education and the Taming of Democracy_ introduces the political and educational ideas of Jacques Rancière, a leading philosopher increasingly important in educational theory. In light of his ideas, the volume explores the current concern for democracy and equality in relation to education. The book introduces and discusses the works of Jacques Rancière, a leading philosopher increasingly important in the field of educational theory and philosophy The volume will have a broad appeal to those in the field of education (...)
     
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  47.  59
    Ethical Design in the Internet of Things.Gianmarco Baldini, Maarten Botterman, Ricardo Neisse & Mariachiara Tallacchini - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (3):905-925.
    Even though public awareness about privacy risks in the Internet is increasing, in the evolution of the Internet to the Internet of Things these risks are likely to become more relevant due to the large amount of data collected and processed by the “Things”. The business drivers for exploring ways to monetize such data are one of the challenges identified in this paper for the protection of Privacy in the IoT. Beyond the protection of privacy, this paper highlights the need (...)
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  48. Loki's Wager and Laudan's Error: On Genuine and Territorial Demarcation.Maarten Boudry - 2013 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 79--98.
  49.  5
    Ethics of Nuclear Energy in Times of Climate Change: Escaping the Collective Action Problem.Simon Friederich & Maarten Boudry - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-27.
    In recent years, there has been an intense public debate about whether and, if so, to what extent investments in nuclear energy should be part of strategies to mitigate climate change. Here, we address this question from an ethical perspective, evaluating different strategies of energy system development in terms of three ethical criteria, which will differentially appeal to proponents of different normative ethical frameworks. Starting from a standard analysis of climate change as arising from an intergenerational collective action problem, we (...)
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  50.  50
    Burghers Into Citizens: Urban and National Citizenship in the Netherlands During the Revolutionary Era (C. 1800). [REVIEW]Maarten Prak - 1997 - Theory and Society 26 (4):403-420.
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