Results for 'Cynthia E. Clark'

992 found
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  1.  3
    Institutional Work and Complicit Decoupling across the U.S. Capital Markets.Cynthia E. Clark & Sue Newell - 2013 - Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (1):1-30.
    We focus on the core institution of the capital market and the institu­tional work of professional service firms that provide ratings on corporate issuers, initially in a bid to maintain this institution, which suffered when those involved relied solely on information from the issuers themselves. Through our analysis we identify a new type of decoupling—complicit decoupling. Complicit decoupling evolves over time, beginning with the creation of a new practice, here corporate ratings as a form of policing work, which emerges to (...)
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  2.  5
    How do standard setters define materiality and why does it matter?Cynthia E. Clark - 2021 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 30 (3):378-391.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  3.  29
    Compound Conflicts of Interest in the US Proxy System.Cynthia E. Clark & Harry J. Van Buren - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (2):355-371.
    The current proxy voting system in the United States has become the subject of considerable controversy. Because institutional investment managers have the authority to vote their clients’ proxies, they have a fiduciary obligation to those clients. Frequently, in an attempt to fulfill that obligation, these institutional investors employ proxy advisory services to manage the thousands of votes they must cast. However, many proxy advisory services have conflicts of interest that inhibit their utility to those seeking to discharge their fiduciary duties. (...)
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  4.  10
    Female Representation on Corporate Boards in Europe: The Interplay of Organizational Social Consciousness and Institutions.Cynthia E. Clark, Punit Arora & Patricia Gabaldon - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 180 (1):165-186.
    We examine the role of alignment between organizational social consciousness and the informal and formal institutions of a country in increasing female representation on boards. Using fixed-effects and Hausman Taylor regression methodology for endogenous covariate with panel data for the years 2006–2020, we find that the greater the alignment between organizational social consciousness and certain formal and informal institutions, the more progress there is toward gender representation on corporate boards in Europe. We also find that more socially conscious firms make (...)
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  5.  17
    Masquerading in the U. S. Capital Markets: The Dark Side of Maintaining an Institution.Cynthia E. Clark & Sue Newell - 2013 - Business and Society Review 118 (1):105-134.
    This article examines the work of professional service firms (PSFs) in their relationships with public corporations; work that is designed to ensure that investors and potential investors have information that will enable them to participate in the capital markets. Using an institutional theory lens, we view these efforts by PSFs as institutional maintenance work and specifically analyze their work related to policing (i.e., rating), enabling (i.e., tutoring), and embedding and routinizing (i.e., collaborating) that helps to support the capital market as (...)
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  6.  18
    Institutional Work and Complicit Decoupling across the U.S. Capital Markets.Cynthia E. Clark & Sue Newell - 2013 - Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (1):1-30.
    We focus on the core institution of the capital market and the institu­tional work of professional service firms that provide ratings on corporate issuers, initially in a bid to maintain this institution, which suffered when those involved relied solely on information from the issuers themselves. Through our analysis we identify a new type of decoupling—complicit decoupling. Complicit decoupling evolves over time, beginning with the creation of a new practice, here corporate ratings as a form of policing work, which emerges to (...)
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  7.  11
    Institutional Work and Complicit Decoupling across the U.S. Capital Markets.Cynthia E. Clark & Sue Newell - 2013 - Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (1):1-30.
    We focus on the core institution of the capital market and the institu­tional work of professional service firms that provide ratings on corporate issuers, initially in a bid to maintain this institution, which suffered when those involved relied solely on information from the issuers themselves. Through our analysis we identify a new type of decoupling—complicit decoupling. Complicit decoupling evolves over time, beginning with the creation of a new practice, here corporate ratings as a form of policing work, which emerges to (...)
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  8.  4
    Managing Contradiction: Stockholder and Stakeholder Views of the Firm as Paradoxical Opportunity.Cynthia E. Clark, Erica L. Steckler & Sue Newell - 2016 - Business and Society Review 121 (1):123-159.
    Stockholder and stakeholder perspectives have been positioned in the literature as being in tension, and thus a potential source of innovation and change. However, researchers have overlooked a systematic examination of this presumption in theory and in practice. This study explores the ways that stockholder and stakeholder assumptions are presented by theorists and compares these with expressions of stockholder and stakeholder perspectives used by firms in practice. We argue that theoretical entrenchment dichotomizing these perspectives has disrupted the ability of researchers (...)
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  9.  2
    How do standard setters define materiality and why does it matter?Cynthia E. Clark - 2021 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 30 (3):378-391.
    Material information is a core aspect of a firm's governance and reporting activities. If corporate information is material, then the firm has a responsibility to disclose it. Currently, firms must judge information as material largely based on a confusing set of standard setters’ definitions. I analyze the particular conditions laid out by each standard setter and explain the ethical implications that result from materiality judgments made by firms using these varied standards. Importantly, this analysis underscores that regulators, firms, and researchers (...)
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  10.  20
    Issues-Driven Shareholder Activism.Cynthia E. Clark & Jennifer J. Griffin - 2012 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 23:221-228.
    Issues-driven shareholder activism suggests that specific issue characteristics brought by shareholders, a group to which firms are obligated to respond, interact in a way that affects the materiality of the issue in the eyes of the modern corporation. Relevant issue characteristics include: issue type, social significance, and issue life cycle stage.
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  11.  28
    Toward a Theoretical Framework of Corporate Social Irresponsibility: Clarifying the Gray Zones Between Responsibility and Irresponsibility.María Iborra, Marta Riera & Cynthia E. Clark - 2022 - Business and Society 61 (6):1473-1511.
    In this conceptual article, we argue that defining corporate social responsibility and corporate social irresponsibility as opposite constructs produces a lack of clarity between responsible and irresponsible acts. Furthermore, we contend that the treatment of the CSR and CSI concepts as opposites de-emphasizes the value of CSI as a stand-alone construct. Thus, we reorient the CSI discussion to include multiple aspects that current conceptualizations have not adequately accommodated. We provide an in-depth exploration of how researchers define CSI and both identify (...)
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  12.  5
    Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosures and Investor Judgments in Difficult Times: The Role of Ethical Culture and Assurance.Andrew C. Stuart, Jean C. Bedard & Cynthia E. Clark - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (3):565-582.
    We conduct an experiment with 459 nonprofessional investors to examine whether they evaluate companies differently based on management’s stated purpose for undertaking corporate social responsibility activities in the presence versus absence of a company-specific negative event. Specifically, we vary whether or not management intends to achieve financial returns from CSR activities in addition to promoting social good. We address investors’ decision processes by investigating whether their judgments are mediated by perceptions of future cash flows and/or the underlying ethical culture of (...)
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  13.  7
    Intellectual Shamans: Management Academics Making a Difference. By Sandra Waddock, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK: December 2014, 372 pages. Paperback: $34.99. [REVIEW]Cynthia E. Clark - 2015 - Business and Society Review 120 (4):637-641.
  14.  18
    Firm Engagement and Social Issue Salience, Consensus, and Contestation.Jennifer J. Griffin, Andrew P. Bryant & Cynthia E. Clark - 2017 - Business and Society 56 (8):1136-1168.
    Facing an increasing number and variety of issues with social salience, firms must determine how to engage with issues that likely have a significant impact on them. Integrating issues management and salience theories, the authors find that firms engage with socially contested issues—where there is a high degree of societal disagreement—in a different manner from issues that have social consensus, or high agreement. Examining social issue resolutions filed by shareholders from 1997 to 2009, the study finds that socially contested issues, (...)
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  15.  11
    Strategic Global Strategy: The Intersection of General Principles, Corporate Responsibility and Economic Value-Added.Laura P. Hartman, Patricia H. Werhane, Cynthia E. Clark, Craig V. Vansandt & Mukesh Sud - 2017 - Business and Society Review 122 (1):71-91.
    An ongoing argument often made by business ethicists is that a singular preoccupation on profitability, will lead, in the long run, to disvalue for all the stakeholders and the communities it affects, and often, economic challenges for the company. On the other hand, we argue, a preoccupation with ethics and CSR as the primary aims of a for-profit company, it is, on its own, like a preoccupation with profitability, unsustainable. Indeed, without economic viability, a company will fail. Both of these (...)
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  16.  45
    Empowering Employee Sustainability: Perceived Organizational Support Toward the Environment.Cynthia E. King, Jennifer Tosti-Kharas & Eric Lamm - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (1):207-220.
    This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion of sustainability behaviors by introducing the construct of perceived organizational support toward the environment. We propose and empirically test an integrated model whereby we test the association of POS-E with employees’ organizational citizenship behaviors toward the environment as well as to job attitudes. Results indicated that POS-E was positively related to OCB-E, job satisfaction, organizational identification, and psychological empowerment, and negatively related to turnover intentions. We also found that psychological empowerment partially mediated the (...)
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  17.  16
    Trust and Expectations of Researchers and Public Health Departments for the Use of HIV Molecular Epidemiology.Cynthia E. Schairer, Sanjay R. Mehta, Staal A. Vinterbo, Martin Hoenigl, Michael Kalichman & Susan J. Little - 2019 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 10 (3):201-213.
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  18.  16
    Ethical Issues When Graduate Students Act as Mentors.Cynthia E. Brown - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (8):688-702.
    The field of ethics in psychology has devoted a great deal of attention to the ethical issues that arise when students and faculty develop mentor–mentee relationships. However, little attention has been given to examining the role of graduate students acting as mentors. Graduate students often supervise and evaluate undergraduates as a part of research and teaching responsibilities, and may act as mentors to more junior graduate students. This article discusses the unique qualities and ethical considerations of graduate students in mentoring (...)
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  19.  23
    The donor is in the details.Cynthia E. Cryder, George Loewenstein & Richard Scheines - unknown
    Recent research finds that people respond more generously to individual victims described in detail than to equivalent statistical victims described in general terms. We propose that this “identified victim effect” is one manifestation of a more general phenomenon: a positive influence of tangible information on generosity. In three experiments, we find evidence for an “identified intervention effect”; providing tangible details about a charity’s interventions significantly increases donations to that charity. Although previous work described sympathy as the primary mediator between tangible (...)
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  20.  3
    American Children in Chronic Poverty: Complex Risks, Benefit-Cost Analyses, and Untangling the Knot.Cynthia E. Lamy - 2012 - Lexington Books.
    A growing body of research informs us that an effective, efficient fight against chronic American poverty, producing benefits far exceeding costs, is possible. It begins by protecting children from developmental risks. This book describes those risks, along with the programs and policies we know protect children and families. A policy framework for the pursuit of an intrepid new goal – the purposeful protection of America’s most vulnerable children on a large scale – would end chronic poverty as we know it.
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  21. Qualitative comparison of students' constructions of science.Cynthia E. Ledbetter - 1993 - Science Education 77 (6):611-624.
     
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  22.  5
    Case Study: Genetic Testing in Assisted Reproduction.Cynthia E. Fruchtman & Caroline Lieber - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (6):11.
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  23.  4
    Genetic testing in assisted reproduction.Cynthia E. Fruchtman & Caroline Lieber - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (6):11.
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  24.  52
    Unconscious activation of visual cortex in the damaged right hemisphere of a parietal patient with extinction.Geraint Rees, E. Wojciulik, Karen Clarke, Masud Husain, Christopher D. Frith & Julia Driver - 2000 - Brain 123 (8):1624-1633.
  25.  3
    Some Aspects of Current Christology.Thomas E. Clarke - 1961 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 36 (3):325-343.
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  26.  10
    Increased functional connectivity in intrinsic neural networks in individuals with aniridia.Jordan E. Pierce, Cynthia E. Krafft, Amanda L. Rodrigue, Anastasia M. Bobilev, James D. Lauderdale & Jennifer E. McDowell - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  27.  64
    Neural correlates of conscious and unconscious vision in parietal extinction.Geraint Rees, E. Wojciulik, Karen Clarke, Masud Husain & Christopher D. Frith - 2002 - Neurocase 8 (5):387-393.
  28.  24
    Pronouncing “the” as “thee” to signal problems in speaking.Jean E. Fox Tree & Herbert H. Clark - 1997 - Cognition 62 (2):151-167.
  29.  2
    Learning Progressions and Science Practices.Ashlyn E. Pierson, Douglas B. Clark & Gregory J. Kelly - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (8):833-841.
  30.  31
    Using critical realism in nursing and health research: promise and challenges.Jan E. Angus & Alexander M. Clark - 2012 - Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):1-3.
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  31.  7
    Cancer Pain and Coping.Sara E. Appleyard & Chris Clarke - 2019 - In Marc A. Russo, Joletta Belton, Bronwyn Lennox Thompson, Smadar Bustan, Marie Crowe, Deb Gillon, Cate McCall, Jennifer Jordan, James E. Eubanks, Michael E. Farrell, Brandon S. Barndt, Chandler L. Bolles, Maria Vanushkina, James W. Atchison, Helena Lööf, Christopher J. Graham, Shona L. Brown, Andrew W. Horne, Laura Whitburn, Lester Jones, Colleen Johnston-Devin, Florin Oprescu, Marion Gray, Sara E. Appleyard, Chris Clarke, Zehra Gok Metin, John Quintner, Melanie Galbraith, Milton Cohen, Emma Borg, Nathaniel Hansen, Tim Salomons & Grant Duncan (eds.), Meanings of Pain: Volume 2: Common Types of Pain and Language. Springer Verlag. pp. 185-207.
    Receiving a diagnosis of cancer can be devastating. Cancer continues to be one of the most feared diagnoses, and experiencing pain is a major fear for people diagnosed with cancer. Cancer pain is complex in aetiology and can be acute or chronic and can be caused by various compression, ischaemic, neuropathic or inflammatory processes. Many people with cancer will experience excruciating pain, which is often underreported and undertreated. The reasons for this are complex and include various factors including fears and (...)
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  32. Values and Policy in American Society.Russell E. Bayliff, Eugene Clark, Loyd Easton, Blaine E. Grimes, David H. Jennings & Norman H. Leonard - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (1):66-66.
     
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  33.  5
    Sedimentation of Modeling Practices.Ashlyn E. Pierson & Douglas B. Clark - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (8):897-925.
    In light of recent emphasis on K-12 scientific modeling, it is important to understand how students’ models and beliefs about modeling shape shared classroom practices, and how, in turn, shared classroom practices influence individual students’ practices. We use co-operative action to consider the ways in which sedimented practices and artifacts become part of the substrate for students’ later actions ). Lemke :273–290, 2000) and Goodwin describe and provide illustrative examples of the accumulative nature of transformation of materials and practices. However, (...)
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  34.  47
    Trust diffusion: The effect of interpersonal trust on structure, function, and organizational transparency.Cynthia Clark Williams - 2005 - Business and Society 44 (3):357-368.
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  35.  61
    Courting Shareholders.Cynthia Clark Williams & Lori Verstegen Ryan - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (4):669-688.
    The relationship between corporate executives and shareholders has riveted the attention of business ethicists since the inception of the field. Most ethicists agree that corporate executives owe their investors the duties of loyalty, candor, and care. These fiduciary duties undergird the promises made to shareholders at the time of incorporation, placing on executives moral obligations to engage in fair dealing and to avoid conflicts of interest.We concur that executives owe all of their existing shareholders both promise-keeping and fiduciary duties and (...)
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  36.  34
    Courting Shareholders.Cynthia Clark Williams & Lori Verstegen Ryan - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (4):669-688.
    The relationship between corporate executives and shareholders has riveted the attention of business ethicists since the inception of the field. Most ethicists agree that corporate executives owe their investors the duties of loyalty, candor, and care. These fiduciary duties undergird the promises made to shareholders at the time of incorporation, placing on executives moral obligations to engage in fair dealing and to avoid conflicts of interest.We concur that executives owe all of their existing shareholders both promise-keeping and fiduciary duties and (...)
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  37.  38
    Meanings of Pain: Volume 2: Common Types of Pain and Language.Marc A. Russo, Joletta Belton, Bronwyn Lennox Thompson, Smadar Bustan, Marie Crowe, Deb Gillon, Cate McCall, Jennifer Jordan, James E. Eubanks, Michael E. Farrell, Brandon S. Barndt, Chandler L. Bolles, Maria Vanushkina, James W. Atchison, Helena Lööf, Christopher J. Graham, Shona L. Brown, Andrew W. Horne, Laura Whitburn, Lester Jones, Colleen Johnston-Devin, Florin Oprescu, Marion Gray, Sara E. Appleyard, Chris Clarke, Zehra Gok Metin, John Quintner, Melanie Galbraith, Milton Cohen, Emma Borg, Nathaniel Hansen, Tim Salomons & Grant Duncan - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    Experiential evidence shows that pain is associated with common meanings. These include a meaning of threat or danger, which is experienced as immediately distressing or unpleasant; cognitive meanings, which are focused on the long-term consequences of having chronic pain; and existential meanings such as hopelessness, which are more about the person with chronic pain than the pain itself. This interdisciplinary book - the second in the three-volume Meanings of Pain series edited by Dr Simon van Rysewyk - aims to better (...)
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  38.  9
    ‘The ethics approval took 20 months on a trial which was meant to help terminally ill cancer patients. In the end we had to send the funding back’: a survey of views on human research ethics reviews.Anna Mae Scott, Iain Chalmers, Adrian Barnett, Alexandre Stephens, Simon E. Kolstoe, Justin Clark & Paul Glasziou - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e90-e90.
    BackgroundWe conducted a survey to identify what types of health/medical research could be exempt from research ethics reviews in Australia.MethodsWe surveyed Australian health/medical researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members. The survey asked whether respondents had previously changed or abandoned a project anticipating difficulties obtaining ethics approval, and presented eight research scenarios, asking whether these scenarios should or should not be exempt from ethics review, and to provide comments. Qualitative data were analysed thematically; quantitative data in R.ResultsWe received 514 responses. (...)
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  39. Mechanisms of Adaptive Behavior: Clark L. Hull's Theoretical Papers, with Commentary.Clark L. Hull, A. Amsel & M. E. Rashotte - 1985 - Behaviorism 13 (2):171-182.
  40.  19
    Disclosure Strategies.Cynthia Clark Williams - 2005 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:234-239.
    This paper explores the effect of structurally enacted governance, such as board membership rules, versus process enacted governance, such as disclosure practices, on investor trust. Certain organizational factors are proposed due to their ability to inform trust propensity and transparency enactment. Regulatory oversight, organizational structure and investor salience are considered in light of their effect on relational and transactional approaches to a company’s investors.
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  41.  19
    Influences on the Scope of Corporate Disclosure Programs: Preliminary Findings.Cynthia Clark Williams - 2007 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:118-120.
    This paper provides a framework for beginning the discussion of how and why corporate disclosure programs vary in their scope. It posits that managerial agency along with certain external forces, such as disclosure regulations, will affect the scope and managerial commitment to a broad or narrow disclosure program scope. Preliminary findings are presented in brief form.
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  42.  27
    Authenticity and Corporate Governance.Erica Steckler & Cynthia Clark - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (4):951-963.
    Although personal attributes have gained recognition as an important area of effective corporate governance, scholarship has largely overlooked the value and implications of individual virtue in governance practice. We explore how authenticity—a personal and morally significant virtue—affects the primary monitoring and strategy functions of the board of directors as well as core processes concerning director selection, cultivation, and enactment by the board. While the predominant focus in corporate governance research has been on structural factors that influence firm financial outcomes, this (...)
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  43.  5
    Certainty, Science, and the Brain-Based Definition of Death.Dominique E. Martin, Cynthia Forlini & Emma Tumilty - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):279-282.
    Nair-Collins and Joffe (2023) highlight the complexities inherent to the clinical diagnosis of death by neurologic criteria and inconsistencies between legal, scientific, and clinical standards for...
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  44.  25
    Multinational Corporations and Governance Effectiveness: Toward a More Integrative Board.Cynthia Clark & Jill A. Brown - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (3):565-577.
    Multinational corporations dominate the global business arena, but new expectations for MNC boards call to question how they might effectively manage global stakeholder relationships in this new era of accountability. Uniting political behavior theory, which describes a board’s international political orientation, and global operating governance systems outlining a set of board behaviors, we develop a typology of four types of boards. We then provide recommendations for the development of an integrative governance structure, taking into account the mechanisms, structure, endorsements, and (...)
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  45.  8
    No Small Change. [REVIEW]Cynthia Clark Williams - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (1):138-140.
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  46.  11
    No Small Change. [REVIEW]Cynthia Clark Williams - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (1):138-140.
  47.  49
    Reflections on the reproductive sciences in agriculture in the UK and US, ca. 1900–2000+.Adele E. Clarke - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (2):316-339.
    This paper provides a brief comparative overview of the development of the reproductive sciences especially in agriculture in the UK and the US. It begins with the establishment by F. H. A. Marshall in 1910 of the boundaries that framed the reproductive sciences as distinct from genetics and embryology. It then examines how and where the reproductive sciences were taken up in agricultural research settings, focusing on the differential development of US and UK institutions. The reproductive sciences were also pursued (...)
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  48.  28
    Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation.Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schulz - unknown
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  49.  7
    Reframing Sociocultural Research on Literacy: Identity, Agency, and Power.Cynthia Lewis, Patricia E. Enciso & Elizabeth Birr Moje (eds.) - 2007 - Routledge.
    This landmark volume articulates and develops the argument that new directions in sociocultural theory are needed in order to address important issues of identity, agency, and power that are central to understanding literacy research and literacy learning as social and cultural practices. With an overarching focus on the research process as it relates to sociocultural research, the book is organized around two themes: conceptual frameworks and knowledge sources. *Part I, “Rethinking Conceptual Frameworks,” offers new theoretical lenses for reconsidering key concepts (...)
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  50.  14
    The Efficacy of Regulation as a Function of Psychological Fit: Reexamining the Hard Law/soft Law Continuum.Cynthia A. Williams & Deborah E. Rupp - 2011 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 12 (2):581-602.
    Much of the legal literature discusses regulation and regulatory forms with a seemingly implicit assumption that "those to be influenced" are inherently self-interested and thus motivated to comply with legal structures only when there are sufficient external incentives to do so. This view of the person is inconsistent with recent perspectives in the field of psychology. A law and morality perspective, coupled with insights from the field of psychology, asserts that influence, compliance, and motivation are far more complex than this (...)
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