76 found
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  1.  33
    Words, Thoughts, and Theories.Alison Gopnik - 1997 - Cambridge: MIT Press. Edited by Andrew N. Meltzoff.
    Recently, the theory theory has led to much interesting research. However, this is the first book to look at the theory in extensive detail and to systematically contrast it with other theories.
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  2. Why the Child’s Theory of Mind Really Is a Theory.Alison Gopnik & Henry M. Wellman - 1992 - Mind and Language 7 (1-2):145-71.
  3. How we know our minds: The illusion of first-person knowledge of intentionality.Alison Gopnik - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):1-14.
  4. Words, Thoughts, and Theories.Alison Gopnik & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 1999 - Mind 108 (430):395-398.
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  5. A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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  6. Causal learning: psychology, philosophy, and computation.Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.) - 2007 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and (...)
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  7. Explanation as orgasm.Alison Gopnik - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (1):101-118.
    I argue that explanation should be thought of as the phenomenological mark of the operation of a particular kind of cognitive system, the theory-formation system. The theory-formation system operates most clearly in children and scientists but is also part of our everyday cognition. The system is devoted to uncovering the underlying causal structure of the world. Since this process often involves active intervention in the world, in the case of systematic experiment in scientists, and play in children, the cognitive system (...)
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  8.  61
    Conceptual and Semantic Development as Theory Change: The Case of Object Permanence.Alison Gopnik - 1988 - Mind and Language 3 (3):197-216.
  9. The Ontogeny of Common Sense.Lynd Forguson & Alison Gopnik - 1988 - Developing Theories of Mind:226--243.
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  10. The scientist as child.Alison Gopnik - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (4):485-514.
    This paper argues that there are powerful similarities between cognitive development in children and scientific theory change. These similarities are best explained by postulating an underlying abstract set of rules and representations that underwrite both types of cognitive abilities. In fact, science may be successful largely because it exploits powerful and flexible cognitive devices that were designed by evolution to facilitate learning in young children. Both science and cognitive development involve abstract, coherent systems of entities and rules, theories. In both (...)
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  11.  71
    Developing the Idea of Intentionality: Children’s Theories of Mind.Alison Gopnik - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):89-114.
    At least since Augustine, philosophers have constructed developmental just-so stories about the origins of certain concepts. In these just-so stories, philosophers tell us how children must develop these concepts. However, philosophers have by and large neglected the empirical data about how children actually do develop their ideas about the world. At best they have used information about children in an anecdotal and unsystematic, though often illuminating, way.
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  12.  6
    Developing the Idea of Intentionality.Alison Gopnik - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):89-113.
    At least since Augustine, philosophers have constructed developmental just-so stories about the origins of certain concepts. In these just-so stories, philosophers tell us how children must develop these concepts. However, philosophers have by and large neglected the empirical data about how children actually do develop their ideas about the world. At best they have used information about children in an anecdotal and unsystematic, though often illuminating, way.
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  13.  43
    Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation.Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schulz - unknown
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  14. Mechanisms of theory formation in young children.Alison Gopnik - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (8):371-377.
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  15.  66
    When children are better (or at least more open-minded) learners than adults: Developmental differences in learning the forms of causal relationships.Christopher G. Lucas, Sophie Bridgers, Thomas L. Griffiths & Alison Gopnik - 2014 - Cognition 131 (2):284-299.
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  16.  66
    Developing intuitions about free will between ages four and six.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Nadia Chernyak, Elizabeth Seiver & Henry M. Wellman - 2015 - Cognition 138 (C):79-101.
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  17. Whose concepts are they, anyway? The role of philosophical intuition in empirical psychology.Alison Gopnik & Eric Schwitzgebel - 1998 - In M. R. DePaul & William Ramsey (eds.), Rethinking Intuition: The Psychology of Intuition and its Role in Philosophical Inquiry. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 75--91.
    This chapter examines several ways in which philosophical attention to intuition can contribute to empirical scientific psychology. The authors then discuss one prevalent misuse of intuition. An unspoken assumption of much argumentation in the philosophy of mind has been that to articulate our folk psychological intuitions, our ordinary concepts of belief, truth, meaning, and so forth, is itself sufficient to give a theoretical account of what belief, truth, meaning, and so forth, actually are. It is believed that this assumption rests (...)
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  18.  37
    Explaining prompts children to privilege inductively rich properties.Caren M. Walker, Tania Lombrozo, Cristine H. Legare & Alison Gopnik - 2014 - Cognition 133 (2):343-357.
    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy’s causal and non-causal properties to children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved (...)
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  19.  96
    Pretense, Counterfactuals, and Bayesian Causal Models: Why What Is Not Real Really Matters.Deena S. Weisberg & Alison Gopnik - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1368-1381.
    Young children spend a large portion of their time pretending about non-real situations. Why? We answer this question by using the framework of Bayesian causal models to argue that pretending and counterfactual reasoning engage the same component cognitive abilities: disengaging with current reality, making inferences about an alternative representation of reality, and keeping this representation separate from reality. In turn, according to causal models accounts, counterfactual reasoning is a crucial tool that children need to plan for the future and learn (...)
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  20.  53
    Children's causal inferences from indirect evidence: Backwards blocking and Bayesian reasoning in preschoolers.Alison Gopnik - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3):303-333.
    Previous research suggests that children can infer causal relations from patterns of events. However, what appear to be cases of causal inference may simply reduce to children recognizing relevant associations among events, and responding based on those associations. To examine this claim, in Experiments 1 and 2, children were introduced to a “blicket detector”, a machine that lit up and played music when certain objects were placed upon it. Children observed patterns of contingency between objects and the machine’s activation that (...)
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  21.  46
    Children’s imitation of causal action sequences is influenced by statistical and pedagogical evidence.Daphna Buchsbaum, Alison Gopnik, Thomas L. Griffiths & Patrick Shafto - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):331-340.
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  22.  46
    Rational variability in children’s causal inferences: The Sampling Hypothesis.Stephanie Denison, Elizabeth Bonawitz, Alison Gopnik & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2013 - Cognition 126 (2):285-300.
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  23. The theory theory as an alternative to the innateness hypothesis.Alison Gopnik - 2003 - In Louise M. Antony (ed.), Chomsky and His Critics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 238--254.
    This chapter contains section titled: The Theory Theory The Theory Theory vs. Other Empiricist Alternatives Innate Theories and Starting‐state Nativism Phenomenological and Social Objections Universality, Uniformity, and Learning Theory Formation and Language.
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  24. Learning from doing: Intervention and causal inference.Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 67--85.
  25. Bayes and Blickets: Effects of Knowledge on Causal Induction in Children and Adults.Thomas L. Griffiths, David M. Sobel, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Alison Gopnik - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (8):1407-1455.
    People are adept at inferring novel causal relations, even from only a few observations. Prior knowledge about the probability of encountering causal relations of various types and the nature of the mechanisms relating causes and effects plays a crucial role in these inferences. We test a formal account of how this knowledge can be used and acquired, based on analyzing causal induction as Bayesian inference. Five studies explored the predictions of this account with adults and 4-year-olds, using tasks in which (...)
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  26.  52
    Just do it? Investigating the gap between prediction and action in toddlers’ causal inferences.Elizabeth Baraff Bonawitz, Darlene Ferranti, Rebecca Saxe, Alison Gopnik, Andrew N. Meltzoff, James Woodward & Laura E. Schulz - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):104-117.
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  27. Minds, bodies, and persons: Young children's understanding of the self and others as reflected in imitation and theory of mind research.Alison Gopnik & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 1994 - In S. T. Parker, R. Mitchell & M. L. Boccia (eds.), Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
  28. Causal learning across domains.Alison Gopnik - unknown
    Five studies investigated (a) children’s ability to use the dependent and independent probabilities of events to make causal inferences and (b) the interaction between such inferences and domain-specific knowledge. In Experiment 1, preschoolers used patterns of dependence and independence to make accurate causal inferences in the domains of biology and psychology. Experiment 2 replicated the results in the domain of biology with a more complex pattern of conditional dependencies. In Experiment 3, children used evidence about patterns of dependence and independence (...)
     
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  29.  17
    The child as scientist.Alison Gopnik - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (4):485-514.
    This paper argues that there are powerful similarities between cognitive development in children and scientific theory change. These similarities are best explained by postulating an underlying abstract set of rules and representations that underwrite both types of cognitive abilities. In fact, science may be successful largely because it exploits powerful and flexible cognitive devices that were designed by evolution to facilitate learning in young children. Both science and cognitive development involve abstract, coherent systems of entities and rules, theories. In both (...)
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  30. Data-mining probabilists or experimental determinists.Thomas Richardson, Laura Schulz & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 208--230.
  31.  11
    Children are more exploratory and learn more than adults in an approach-avoid task.Emily G. Liquin & Alison Gopnik - 2022 - Cognition 218 (C):104940.
  32.  22
    Shake it baby, but only when needed: Preschoolers adapt their exploratory strategies to the information structure of the task.Azzurra Ruggeri, Nora Swaboda, Zi Lin Sim & Alison Gopnik - 2019 - Cognition 193 (C):104013.
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  33.  24
    11 Theories and modules; creation myths, developmental realities, and Neurath's boat.Alison Gopnik - 1996 - In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press. pp. 169.
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  34.  35
    Causal maps and Bayes nets: A cognitive and computational account of theory-formation.Alison Gopnik & Clark Glymour - 2002 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 117--132.
  35.  45
    Linguistic and cognitive abilities in infancy: when does language become a tool for categorization?Thierry Nazzi & Alison Gopnik - 2001 - Cognition 80 (3):B11-B20.
  36.  53
    Inferring Hidden Causal Structure.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
    We used a new method to assess how people can infer unobserved causal structure from patterns of observed events. Participants were taught to draw causal graphs, and then shown a pattern of associations and interventions on a novel causal system. Given minimal training and no feedback, participants in Experiment 1 used causal graph notation to spontaneously draw structures containing one observed cause, one unobserved common cause, and two unobserved independent causes, depending on the pattern of associations and interventions they saw. (...)
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  37.  35
    Psychopsychology.Alison Gopnik - 1993 - Consciousness and Cognition 2 (4):264-280.
  38.  36
    Culture moderates the relationship between self-control ability and free will beliefs in childhood.Xin Zhao, Adrienne Wente, María Fernández Flecha, Denise Segovia Galvan, Alison Gopnik & Tamar Kushnir - 2021 - Cognition 210 (C):104609.
    We investigate individual, developmental, and cultural differences in self-control in relation to children's changing belief in “free will” – the possibility of acting against and inhibiting strong desires. In three studies, 4- to 8-year-olds in the U.S., China, Singapore, and Peru (N = 441) answered questions to gauge their belief in free will and completed a series of self-control and inhibitory control tasks. Children across all four cultures showed predictable age-related improvements in self-control, as well as changes in their free (...)
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  39.  33
    How to Help Young Children Ask Better Questions?Azzurra Ruggeri, Caren M. Walker, Tania Lombrozo & Alison Gopnik - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    In this paper, we investigate the informativeness of 4- to 6-year-old children’s questions using a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Children were presented with a hierarchical version of the 20-questions game, in which they were given an array of objects that could be organized into three category levels based on shared features. We then tested whether it is possible to scaffold children’s question-asking abilities without extensive training. In particular, we supported children’s categorization performance by providing the object-related features needed to (...)
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  40. Could David Hume Have Known about Buddhism?: Charles François Dolu, the Royal College of La Flèche, and the Global Jesuit Intellectual Network.Alison Gopnik - 2009 - Hume Studies 35 (1-2):5-28.
    Philosophers and Buddhist scholars have noted the affinities between David Hume's empiricism and the Buddhist philosophical tradition. I show that it was possible for Hume to have had contact with Buddhist philosophical views. The link to Buddhism comes through the Jesuit scholars at the Royal College of La Fleche. Charles Francois Dolu was a Jesuit missionary who lived at the Royal College from 1723-1740, overlapping with Hume's stay. He had extensive knowledge both of other religions and cultures and of scientific (...)
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  41.  41
    The early emergence and puzzling decline of relational reasoning: Effects of knowledge and search on inferring abstract concepts.Caren M. Walker, Sophie Bridgers & Alison Gopnik - 2016 - Cognition 156 (C):30-40.
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  42.  61
    Theories and illusions.Alison Gopnik - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):90-100.
  43.  40
    What Does “Mind‐Wandering” Mean to the Folk? An Empirical Investigation.Zachary C. Irving, Aaron Glasser, Alison Gopnik, Verity Pinter & Chandra Sripada - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (10):e12908.
    Although mind‐wandering research is rapidly progressing, stark disagreements are emerging about what the term “mind‐wandering” means. Four prominent views define mind‐wandering as (a) task‐unrelated thought, (b) stimulus‐independent thought, (c) unintentional thought, or (d) dynamically unguided thought. Although theorists claim to capture the ordinary understanding of mind‐wandering, no systematic studies have assessed these claims. Two large factorial studies present participants (N = 545) with vignettes that describe someone's thoughts and ask whether her mind was wandering, while systematically manipulating features relevant to (...)
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  44.  36
    Which Counterfactuals Matter? A Response to Beck.Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Alison Gopnik - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):257-259.
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  45. Young children infer causal strength from probabilities and interventions.Alison Gopnik - unknown
    Word count (excluding abstract and references): 2,498 words. Address for correspondence: T. Kushnir, Psychology Department, University of California, 3210 Tolman Hall #1650, Berkeley, CA 94720-1650. Phone: 510-205-9847. Fax: 510-642- 5293. E-mail: [email protected].
     
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  46. Causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schultz - unknown
    We outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously represented by the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Human causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learnig causal Bayes nets and for predicting with (...)
     
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  47.  20
    Discriminating relational and perceptual judgments: Evidence from human toddlers.Caren M. Walker & Alison Gopnik - 2017 - Cognition 166 (C):23-27.
    The ability to represent same-different relations is an important condition for abstract thought. However, there is mixed evidence for when this ability develops, both ontogenetically and phylogenetically. Apparent success in relational reasoning may be evidence for genuine conceptual understanding or may be the result of low-level, perceptual strategies. We introduce a method to discriminate these possibilities by pitting two conditions that are perceptually matched but conceptually different: in a "fused" condition, same and different objects are joined, creating single objects that (...)
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  48.  27
    Sticking to the Evidence? A Behavioral and Computational Case Study of Micro‐Theory Change in the Domain of Magnetism.Elizabeth Bonawitz, Tomer D. Ullman, Sophie Bridgers, Alison Gopnik & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (8):e12765.
    Constructing an intuitive theory from data confronts learners with a “chicken‐and‐egg” problem: The laws can only be expressed in terms of the theory's core concepts, but these concepts are only meaningful in terms of the role they play in the theory's laws; how can a learner discover appropriate concepts and laws simultaneously, knowing neither to begin with? We explore how children can solve this chicken‐and‐egg problem in the domain of magnetism, drawing on perspectives from computational modeling and behavioral experiments. We (...)
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  49.  60
    Reply to commentators.Alison Gopnik - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (4):552-561.
  50. Cognition and explanation.Herbert A. Simon, Discovering Explanations, Clark Glymour, Andy Clark, Twisted Tales, Alison Gopnik & Explanation as Orgasm - 1998 - Cognition 8 (1).
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