The elastic vibration of the flexible manipulator is the key problem to be solved before its effective application. The mobile flexible manipulator system, under variable load conditions, is taken as the research object. Based on Lagrange’s principle and the singular perturbation theory, the two-timescale subsystems dynamic models of the MFMS are constructed to set up the system payment function and the Hamiltonian function which correspond to the subsystems states and errors. Then, with the minimization of the system Hamiltonian function, the (...) synchronization optimization of the designed two-timescale optimal observer and the designed optimal state feedback controller is realized, under the premise of the system stability which is verified by the Lyapunov stability criterion. Furthermore, with the contradiction between the control rapidity and the accuracy of the optimal state feedback controller considered, by combining the input shaping technology, the master-slave composite controller for the elastic vibration of the MFMS is constructed. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the designed TSOO and the master-slave composite controller. (shrink)
High-performance work systems -performance research has dominated innovative human resource management studies for two decades. However, mainstream HPWS research has paid little attention to employees’ perceptions of HPWS, or to the relationship between HPWS and corporate social performance. The influence of CSP on employee outcomes such as organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour has thus been similarly neglected. This paper seeks to investigate these missing links in literature using data collected from a sample of 700 employees in China. The findings (...) demonstrate that HPWS is positively related to HPWS satisfaction and employees’ perceptions of CSP. HPWS satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between HPWS and employees’ affective commitment. There are multiple mediators between HPWS and OCB, indicating more complicated mechanisms through which HPWS leads to desired HR outcomes. Employees’ perceived CSP has a significant influence on HPWS satisfaction, AC and OCB, suggesting firms should place a premium on achieving a reputation as being socially responsible. (shrink)
Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
Sandra Field, Jeffrey Flynn, Stephen Macedo, Longxi Zhang, and Martin Powers discussed Powers’ book China and England: The Preindustrial Struggle for Social Justice in Word and Image at the American Philosophical Association’s 2020 Eastern Division meeting in Philadelphia. The panel was sponsored by the APA’s “Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies” and organized by Brian Bruya.
Based on a crowdsourced truth value judgment experiment, we provide empirical evidence challenging two classical views in semantics, and we develop a novel account of counterfactuals that combines ideas from inquisitive semantics and causal reasoning. First, we show that two truth-conditionally equivalent clauses can make different semantic contributions when embedded in a counterfactual antecedent. Assuming compositionality, this means that the meaning of these clauses is not fully determined by their truth conditions. This finding has a clear explanation in inquisitive semantics: (...) truth-conditionally equivalent clauses may be associated with different propositional alternatives, each of which counts as a separate counterfactual assumption. Second, we show that our results contradict the common idea that the interpretation of a counterfactual involves minimizing change with respect to the actual state of affairs. We propose to replace the idea of minimal change by a distinction between foreground and background for a given counterfactual assumption: the background is held fixed in the counterfactual situation, while the foreground can be varied without any minimality constraint. (shrink)
I would like to congratulate James Woodward for another landmark accomplishment, after publishing his Making things happen: A theory of causal explanation. Making things happen gives an elegant interventionist theory for understanding explanation and causation. The new contribution relies on that theory and further makes a big step towards empirical inference of causal relations from non-experimental data. In this paper, I will focus on some of the emerging computational methods for finding causal relations from non-experimental data and attempt to complement (...) Woodward's contribution with discussions on 1) how these methods are connected to the interventionist theory of causality, 2) how informative the output of the methods is, including whether they output directed causal graphs and how they deal with confounders, and 3) the assumptions underlying the asymptotic correctness of the output of the methods about causal relations. Different causal discovery methods may rely on different aspects of the joint distribution of the data, and this discussion aims to provide a technical account of the assumptions. (shrink)
In “Flagpoles anyone? Causal and explanatory asymmetries”, James Woodward supplements his celebrated interventionist account of causation and explanation with a set of new ideas about causal and explanatory asymmetries, which he extracts from some cutting-edge methods for causal discovery from observational data. Among other things, Woodward draws interesting connections between observational causal discovery and interventionist themes that are inspired in the first place by experimental causal discovery, alluding to a sort of unity between observational and experimental causal discovery. In this (...) paper, I make explicit what I take to be the implicated unity. Like experimental causal discovery, observational causal discovery also relies on interventions, albeit interventions that are not carried out by investigators and hence need to be detected as part of the inference. The observational patterns appealed to in observational causal discovery are not only surrogates for would-be interventions, as Woodward sometimes puts it; they also serve to mark relevant interventions that actually happen in the data generating process. (shrink)
Qi is one of the most important concepts in Chinese philosophy and culture, and neo-Confucian Zhang Zai plays a pivotal role in developing the notion. This book provides a thorough and proper understanding of his thoughts.
Fingerprint recognition is the most widely used identification method at present. However, it still falls short in terms of cross-platform and algorithmic complexity, which exerts a certain effect on the migration of fingerprint data and the development of the system. The conventional image recognition methods require offline standard databases constructed in advance for image access efficiency. The database can provide a pre-processed image via a specific method that probably is compatible merely with the specific recognition algorithm. Then, the specific recognition (...) algorithm starts the process of retrieving these specific pre-proessing images for recognition and inevitably will be blocked from other datasets. The proposed method in this research designed an embedded image processing algorithm based on a Siamese neural network in the recognition method that allows the proposed method to recognize images from any source without constructing a database for image storage in advance. In this research, the proposed method was applied to fingerprint recognition and evaluation of the proposed method was evaluated. The results showed that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm was up to 92%, and its F1 score was up to 0.87. Compared with the conventional fingerprint matching methods, its significant advantage in the FRR, FAR, and CR jointly indicated the remarkable correct recognition rate of the proposed method. (shrink)
Recent advances in differential topology single out four-dimensions as being special, allowing for vast varieties of exotic smoothness structures, distinguished by their handlebody decompositions, even as the coarser algebraic topology is fixed. Should the spacetime we reside in takes up one of the more exotic choices, and there is no obvious reason why it shouldn’t, apparent pathologies would inevitably plague calculus-based physical theories assuming the standard vanilla structure, due to the non-existence of a diffeomorphism and the consequent lack of a (...) suitable portal through which to transfer the complete information regarding the exotic physical dynamics into the vanilla theories. An obvious plausible consequence of this deficiency would be the uncertainty permeating our attempted description of the microscopic world. We tentatively argue here, that a re-inspection of the key ingredients of the phenomenological particle models, from the perspective of exotica, could possibly yield interesting insights. Our short and rudimentary discussion is qualitative and speculative, because the necessary mathematical tools have only just began to be developed. (shrink)
Semiotic studies in South Korea have a relatively short history; nevertheless, they enjoy a rapid development from a high starting point, so their research scale and insightful perspectives should not be underestimated. The introduction of “structuralist theory” in the late 1960s paved the way for Korean semiotics to enter the academic arena ideologically and theoretically. In the process of following the international trend of semiotic research, Korean semiotics has also formed its own characteristics. After over 40 years of development, it (...) has become an important part of the world’s semiotic studies. It has experienced three historical stages, namely, the budding period, the steady development period, and the comprehensive advancement period. The current Korean semiotics presents obvious new trends as follows: conducting cross-regional integration research, highlighting the national characteristic culture, and focusing on the current application of research. First, Korean scholars switched their focus to East Asia, and emphasized the presentness and application of related research while focusing on the combination of semiotics with traditional cultural classics and cultural heritage. Second, in terms of the field of study, Korean semiotics has expanded across multiple fields such as linguistics, literature, aesthetics, philosophy, communication and traditional culture, music, dance, film, architecture, design, and so forth. Finally, in terms of studying the application of semiotics, it has already reached a considerable scale and depth. Although semiotic research in Korea still needs continuous efforts in enhancing theoretical depth and rigor, it has created a wide development space and displayed unlimited potential in terms of innovation of research perspectives and novelty of ideas. (shrink)
Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang, 1877-1969) Zhang Junmai (Chang Chun-mai, 1877-1969), also known as Carsun Chang, was an important twentieth-century Chinese thinker and a representative of modern Chinese philosophy. Zhang’s participation in “The Debate between Metaphysicians and Scientists” of 1923, in which he defended his Neo-Confucian views against those of Chinese progressives and scientists, made a […].
We examine the performance of some standard causal discovery algorithms, both constraint-based and score-based, from the perspective of how robust they are against failures of the Causal Faithfulness Assumption. For this purpose, we make only the so-called Triangle-Faithfulness assumption, which is a fairly weak consequence of the Faithfulness assumption, and otherwise allows unfaithful distributions. In particular, we allow violations of Adjacency-Faithfulness and Orientation-Faithfulness. We show that the PC algorithm, a representative constraint-based method, can be made more robust against unfaithfulness by (...) incorporating elements of the GES algorithm, a representative score-based method; similarly, the GES algorithm can be made less error-prone by incorporating elements of the conservative PC algorithm. As our simulations demonstrate, the increased robustness seems to matter even when faithfulness is not exactly violated, for with only finite sample, distributions that are not exactly unfaithful may be sufficiently close to being unfaithful to make trouble. (shrink)
Ben shu tong guo yin ru xi fang xian dai yu yan zhe xue, mei xue de fang fa yu Zhongguo chuan tong wen hua zhi si zhan dui hua yu jiao liu, shi jie, wen xue de ben zhi guan lian ru shou, jie shi chu xing cheng yan yu yi zhi jian mao dun yu zhang li de ben yuan: cun zai ben shen zi xing xian xian bing zi xing yin ni de te xing, shi ta (...) zai xian xiang shang yong yuan cheng xian chu you yu wu de dong tai yun dong, er zhe zhong yun dong ben shen qia qia you gou cheng le yan yu yi de yong heng dong neng he zhang li. (shrink)
Entry of new organizations, including multinational enterprises from emerging markets, raises the ethical question of will they benefit society. The concept of legitimacy answers this question because it is the overall assessment of the appropriateness of organizational ends and means. Moreover, gaining legitimacy enables EMNEs to succeed in new host countries. Past work examined collective level indicators of the legitimacy of MNEs, but recent research recognizes the importance of individuals’ perceptions as the micro-foundation of legitimacy. This study first uses new (...) pragmatism, deontology, and utilitarianism to demonstrate that legitimacy is fundamentally an ethical concept—a perspective that has been overlooked in management research. Second, this study uses a seven-step procedure to develop and validate a measure of individuals’ perceptions of the legitimacy of Chinese EMNEs operating in The Netherlands, a developed country. Six dimensions of legitimacy were identified. The study also finds support for this legitimacy judgment process linking the dimensions: validating knowledge → propriety judgments → generalized judgment. This work provides additional micro-foundations to research on legitimacy and contributes to the ongoing process of construct validation. Future research could use the validated measure in other settings and use specific ethical theories in depth to refine the concept of legitimacy. (shrink)
This article assumes that a profession is a number of individuals in the same occupation voluntarily organized to earn a living by openly serving a moral ideal in a morally-permissible way beyond what law, market, morality, and public opinion would otherwise require. Our question is whether the concept of profession may have a far wider range than the term, so that, for example, pointing out that a certain language lacks a word for “profession” in our sense, is not enough to (...) show that those who speak the language also lack the concept. We believe the survey of 71 Chinese reported here begins to answer that question. This article has four parts. The first describes who was interviewed, how, when, and so on. The second describes some important features of the survey’s questions, explaining how the questions track the concept of profession. The third part reports and interprets the results relevant to our question. The forth defends a tentative answer to the question with which we began—arguing the survey supports the claim that China has a profession of engineering. This article should serve as a “proof of concept”, that is, a model for similar studies around the world both of engineering and of other occupations thought to be professions. (shrink)
Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place in (...) socialist countries. We might also hope to face new challenges posed in the future. (shrink)
In service marketing, AI assistants and self-service technology have become popular. As a result, it is critical to enrich the understanding of whether consumers react differently in the artificial intelligence service context in comparison with the human service context. This study examines the effect of assistant type on consumers’ decision-making. Through three experiments, this research finds that variety seeking will be higher when consumers are making decision in AI service environment. Furthermore, we tested uncertainty as the underlying mechanism. Moreover, we (...) demonstrated that this pattern is moderated by situational involvement. Specifically, in consumption contexts of high involvement, the consumers are less likely to seek variety, and in consumption contexts of low involvement, they prefer more variety. This research offers service providers new insights by revealing how, why, and when the interaction of AI technology influences consumers’ decision-making in service marketing. (shrink)
Music education is frequently growing around the globe and needs emotional attachments and adoption innovation for the attractive music education that needs researcher’s emphasis. Thus, the current article investigates the impact of lack of emotional experience and resistance to innovation on unattractive music education in China. The current research also investigates the mediating impact of dissatisfied musicians among the association of lack of emotional experience, resistance to innovation, and unattractive music education in China. The study has used the primary data (...) collected using questionnaires. The current article examines the validity and reliability using the measurement assessment model and also tests the hypotheses using the structural assessment model with the help of smart-PLS. The results indicated that the lack of emotional experience and resistance to innovation has a positive and significant impact on unattractive music education in China. The findings also revealed that dissatisfied musicians significantly mediate among lack of emotional experience, resistance to innovation, and unattractive music education in China. This article helps policymakers establish policies about making music education attractive for musicians by adopting innovation. (shrink)
Behavioral psychology is increasingly important in relationship marketing. As key factors of emotional interactions between buyer and seller, psychological contracts and opportunistic behaviors play a critical role in interorganizational relationships which are based on personal relationships of boundary spanners and top management. Most of the existing research mainly focus on positive performance of cooperation but ignoring the dark side of relationships. This study introduces the psychological contract into the exploration of why formal contracts cannot completely avoid opportunistic behaviors. It mainly (...) investigates whether psychological contracts in relationships can reduce the occurrence of opportunistic behaviors. The results show that psychological contract has a significant positive effect on the relationship quality, and negatively affect opportunistic behavior through trust and commitment. The positive relationship between psychological contracts and relationship quality is moderated by dependence. This study enriches and expands the domestic and foreign research on psychological contracts and opportunistic behaviors in relationship marketing. (shrink)
Technostress as an antecedent factor exploring knowledge hiding continues to be seldomly discussed in the digital era. Based on the job demand-resource theory, this article introduces work exhaustion as a mediator variable and constructs a model that the five sub-dimensions of technostress affect knowledge hiding for R&D employees. Similarly, this study analyzes the moderation of workplace friendship as the resource buffering effect. Based on data from the 254 questionnaires of the two-stage survey, empirical results show that: Techno-invasion, techno-insecurity, and techno-complexity (...) have significant positive effects on work exhaustion, and techno-invasion has the greatest effect. However, techno-overload and techno-uncertainty have no significant relationship with work exhaustion. Work exhaustion plays a mediating role in the relationships between the three aspects of technostress and knowledge hiding; However, its mediating effects are insignificant in the relationships between the two aspects of technostress and knowledge hiding. Workplace friendship negatively moderates the relationships between the two aspects of technostress and work exhaustion, leading to less knowledge hiding. Nonetheless, its negative moderation for the relationships between the two aspects of technostress and work exhaustion are insignificant. Empirical results further show that workplace friendship positively moderates the relationship between techno-complexity and work exhaustion. (shrink)
The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the planned behavior theory model and TPB-6 model of enhanced physical exercise in college students, and to explore the role of exercise commitment in the relationship between exercise intention and behavior, so as to provide theoretical and empirical support for college students to promotion exercise. The study participants were 581 college students are investigated with Theory of Planned Behavior Scale, Exercise Commitment Scale, and Physical Activity Rating Scale. Results showed (...) that the explanatory power of the TPB to exercise intention and exercise behavior is 0.70 and 0.52, respectively, and exercise intention was the primary factor to predict exercise behavior of college students. The Model fit of TPB-6 model is acceptable, compared with TPB 5-factor model, the predictive power of TPB-6 on behavioral intention increases from 70.0 to 75.0%, and the predictive power towards behavior raises from 52.0 to 59.0%. Exercise commitment has a partial mediating effect between exercise intention and behavior, which accounts for 26.89% of the total effect, but it has no moderating effect. In conclusion, this research demonstrates the TPB-5 model has good applicability among the college students, with exercise commitment variables, exercise intention can better predict college students’ exercise behavior, which can be used as the theoretical basis for the intervention on their exercise behavior. (shrink)
This paper aimed at examining the related studies on the relationship between teacher empathy and learner engagement in English as a Foreign Language learning contexts. The positive and significant relationship between teacher empathy and learner engagement has been verified in the literature. Studies have shown the positive influence of teacher-learner rapport on learner engagement. Moreover, studies indicated that teacher empathy leads to learner self-confidence in educational contexts. The literature review has also shown that teachers’ provision of a positive environment through (...) empathy, sympathy, and kindness can trigger learner motivation and engagement. Moreover, teachers’ empathy can reduce the stress level which, in turn, positively affects learners’ engagement level. Eventually, the pedagogical implications to engage learners and teachers in academic contexts have been provided. However, some suggestions have been offered to expand the insights over the associations between positive psychological constructs and teachers’ emotions. (shrink)
More recently, the computation of seismic fault attribute that may be significant in seismic interpretation is that seismic fault detection is treated as an image segmentation problem using different deep learning architectures. For doing this, the researchers have been concentrated on applying cutting-edge DL architectures in computing seismic fault attribute. To explore the factors that may affect the accuracy of seismic fault attribute, we compare the computed fault probability using DL architectures under different scenarios. The designed scenarios aim to highlight (...) the leading factors that may affect the accuracy and resolution of seismic image segmentation. The discussed factors include the dimension and size of training data, training data preparation, ensemble learning, batch size in deep learning. The proposed comparisons are applied to one marine seismic survey from New Zealand and one land seismic survey from China. The results demonstrate that properly preparing training data is far more important than choosing a cutting-edge DL architecture in computing seismic fault attribute. We also propose a practical workflow that can include real seismic data and corresponding interpreted fault sticks in training data for a specific seismic survey. (shrink)