Results for 'Models, Psychological'

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  1. Persepsi Terhadap Job Characteristic Model, Psychological Well-Being Dan Performance.Rudy Haryanto & P. Tommy Y. S. Suyasa - 2010 - Phronesis (Misc) 9 (1).
    The objective of this research is to interaction between perception in job characteristic model, psychological well - being, and performance. Job characteristic model are explained by skill variety, task identity, task significan, autonomy, and feedback about the job. Psychological well - being is explained by autonomy, environment mastery, good relationship with others, self acceptance, and personal growth. Performance measured by how employee done their task according their responsibility. Subject of this research are employees of PT. X. The result (...)
     
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  2. Mental Models, Psychology Of.J. M. Loomis, R. L. Klatzky, R. G. Golledge & J. G. CicineIli - 1991 - In Stephen Everson (ed.), Psychology (Companions to Ancient Thought: 2). Cambridge University Press. pp. 56-89.
     
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  3. Models and Mechanisms in Psychological Explanation.Daniel A. Weiskopf - 2011 - Synthese 183 (3):313-338.
    Mechanistic explanation has an impressive track record of advancing our understanding of complex, hierarchically organized physical systems, particularly biological and neural systems. But not every complex system can be understood mechanistically. Psychological capacities are often understood by providing cognitive models of the systems that underlie them. I argue that these models, while superficially similar to mechanistic models, in fact have a substantially more complex relation to the real underlying system. They are typically constructed using a range of techniques for (...)
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  4. Computer Models On Mind: Computational Approaches In Theoretical Psychology.Margaret A. Boden - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is the mind? How does it work? How does it influence behavior? Some psychologists hope to answer such questions in terms of concepts drawn from computer science and artificial intelligence. They test their theories by modeling mental processes in computers. This book shows how computer models are used to study many psychological phenomena--including vision, language, reasoning, and learning. It also shows that computer modeling involves differing theoretical approaches. Computational psychologists disagree about some basic questions. For instance, should the (...)
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  5. Folk Psychology as a Model.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2005 - Philosophers' Imprint 5:1-16.
    I argue that everyday folk-psychological skill might best be explained in terms of the deployment of something like a model, in a specific sense drawn from recent philosophy of science. Theoretical models in this sense do not make definite commitments about the systems they are used to understand; they are employed with a particular kind of flexibility. This analysis is used to dissolve the eliminativism debate of the 1980s, and to transform a number of other questions about the status (...)
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  6. Connectionist Modelling in Psychology: A Localist Manifesto.Mike Page - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):443-467.
    Over the last decade, fully distributed models have become dominant in connectionist psychological modelling, whereas the virtues of localist models have been underestimated. This target article illustrates some of the benefits of localist modelling. Localist models are characterized by the presence of localist representations rather than the absence of distributed representations. A generalized localist model is proposed that exhibits many of the properties of fully distributed models. It can be applied to a number of problems that are difficult for (...)
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  7. Reduction: Models of Cross-Scientific Relations and Their Implications for the Psychology-Neuroscience Interface.Robert McCauley - manuscript
    University Abstract Philosophers have sought to improve upon the logical empiricists’ model of scientific reduction. While opportunities for integration between the cognitive and the neural sciences have increased, most philosophers, appealing to the multiple realizability of mental states and the irreducibility of consciousness, object to psychoneural reduction. New Wave reductionists offer a continuum of comparative goodness of intertheoretic mapping for assessing reductions. Their insistence on a unified view of intertheoretic relations obscures epistemically significant crossscientific relations and engenders dismissive conclusions about (...)
     
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  8.  33
    Psychological Construction in the OCC Model of Emotion.Gerald L. Clore & Andrew Ortony - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (4):335-343.
    This article presents six ideas about the construction of emotion: (a) Emotions are more readily distinguished by the situations they signify than by patterns of bodily responses; (b) emotions emerge from, rather than cause, emotional thoughts, feelings, and expressions; (c) the impact of emotions is constrained by the nature of the situations they represent; (d) in the OCC account (the model proposed by Ortony, Clore, and Collins in 1988), appraisals are psychological aspects of situations that distinguish one emotion from (...)
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  9. Comments on Previous Psychological Tai-Chi Models: Jun-Zi Self-Cultivation Model.Jin Xu, Nam-Sat Chang, Ya-Fen Hsu & Yung-Jong Shiah - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    In this article we describe four previous Tai-Chi models based on the I-Ching and their limitations. The I-Ching, the most important ancient source of information on traditional Chinese culture and cosmology, provides the metaphysical foundation for this culture, especially Confucian ethics and Taoist morality. To overcome the limitations of the four previous Tai-Chi models, we transform I-Ching cultural system into a psychological theory by applying the cultural system approach. Specifically, we propose the Jun-zi Self-Cultivation Model, which argues that an (...)
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  10.  14
    Psychological Models and Neural Mechanisms: An Examination of Reductionism in Psychology.Austen Clark - 1980 - Oxford University Press.
  11.  21
    Models of Temporal Discounting 1937–2000: An Interdisciplinary Exchange Between Economics and Psychology.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2015 - Science in Context 28 (4):675-713.
    ArgumentToday's models of temporal discounting are the result of multiple interdisciplinary exchanges between psychology and economics. Although these exchanges did not result in an integrated discipline, they had important effects on all disciplines involved. The paper describes these exchanges from the 1930s onwards, focusing on two episodes in particular: an attempted synthesis by psychiatrist George Ainslie and others in the 1970s; and the attempted application of this new discounting model by a generation of economists and psychologists in the 1980s, which (...)
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  12.  81
    Cognitive Models of Psychological Time.Richard A. Block (ed.) - 1990 - Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Models of psychological time / Richard A. Block -- Implicit and explicit representations of time / John A. Michon -- The evasive art of subjective time...
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  13.  27
    Psychological Versus Economic Models of Bounded Rationality.Don Ross - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (4):411-427.
    That the rationality of individual people is ‘bounded’ – that is, finite in scope and representational reach, and constrained by the opportunity cost of time – cannot reasonably be controversial as an empirical matter. In this context, the paper addresses the question as to why, if economics is an empirical science, economists introduce bounds on the rationality of agents in their models only grudgingly and partially. The answer defended in the paper is that most economists are interested primarily in markets (...)
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  14. Minds, Models and Mechanisms: A New Perspective on Intentional Psychology.Eric Hochstein - 2012 - Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 24 (4):547-557.
    In this article, I argue that intentional psychology (i.e. the interpretation of human behaviour in terms of intentional states and propositional attitudes) plays an essential role in the sciences of the mind. However, this role is not one of identifying scientifically respectable states of the world. Rather, I argue that intentional psychology acts as a type of phenomenological model, as opposed to a mechanistic one. I demonstrate that, like other phenomenological models in science, intentional psychology is a methodological tool with (...)
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  15. Bayesian Models of Cognition Revisited: Setting Optimality Aside and Letting Data Drive Psychological Theory.Sean Tauber, Daniel J. Navarro, Amy Perfors & Mark Steyvers - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (4):410-441.
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  16.  33
    Choice Models and Realistic Ontologies: Three Challenges to Neuro-Psychological Modellers.Roberto Fumagalli - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (1):145-164.
    Choice modellers are frequently criticized for failing to provide accurate representations of the neuro-psychological substrates of decisions. Several authors maintain that recent neuro-psychological findings enable choice modellers to overcome this alleged shortcoming. Some advocate a realistic interpretation of neuro-psychological models of choice, according to which these models posit sub-personal entities with specific neuro-psychological counterparts and characterize those entities accurately. In this article, I articulate and defend three complementary arguments to demonstrate that, contrary to emerging consensus, even (...)
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  17.  6
    Positive Psychological Coaching Definitions and Models: A Systematic Literature Review.Llewellyn E. van Zyl, Lara C. Roll, Marius W. Stander & Stefanie Richter - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  18. Psychological and Computational Models of Language Comprehension: In Defense of the Psychological Reality of Syntax.David Pereplyotchik - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):31-72.
    In this paper, I argue for a modified version of what Devitt calls the Representational Thesis. According to RT, syntactic rules or principles are psychologically real, in the sense that they are represented in the mind/brain of every linguistically competent speaker/hearer. I present a range of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for the claim that the human sentence processing mechanism constructs mental representations of the syntactic properties of linguistic stimuli. I then survey a range of psychologically plausible computational models of comprehension (...)
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  19. Mental Models and the Mind: Current Developments in Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind.Carsten Held, Markus Knauff & Gottfried Vosgerau (eds.) - 2006 - Elsevier.
    "Cognitive psychology," "cognitive neuroscience," and "philosophy of mind" are names for three very different scientific fields, but they label aspects of the same scientific goal: to understand the nature of mental phenomena. Today, the three disciplines strongly overlap under the roof of the cognitive sciences. The book's purpose is to present views from the different disciplines on one of the central theories in cognitive science: the theory of mental models. Cognitive psychologists report their research on the representation and processing of (...)
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  20. Virtue Ethics, Positive Psychology, and a New Model of Science and Engineering Ethics Education.Hyemin Han - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):441-460.
    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students’ moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by (...)
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  21.  38
    Normative Models in Psychology Are Here to Stay.Keith E. Stanovich - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):268-269.
    Elqayam & Evans (E&E) drive a wedge between Bayesianism and instrumental rationality that most decision scientists will not recognize. Their analogy from linguistics to judgment and decision making is inapt. Normative models remain extremely useful in the progressive research programs of the judgment and decision making field.
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  22. Evolutionary Psychology, Human Universals, and the Standard Social Science Model.Neil Levy - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):459-72.
    Proponents of evolutionary psychology take the existence of humanuniversals to constitute decisive evidence in favor of their view. Ifthe same social norms are found in culture after culture, we have goodreason to believe that they are innate, they argue. In this paper Ipropose an alternative explanation for the existence of humanuniversals, which does not depend on them being the product of inbuiltpsychological adaptations. Following the work of Brian Skyrms, I suggestthat if a particular convention possesses even a very small advantageover (...)
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  23.  14
    The Psychological Veracity of Zaller's Model.Cindy D. Kam - 2012 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 24 (4):545-567.
    Zaller's model of public-opinion formation portrays the average citizen as an automaton who responds unthinkingly to elite cues. That is, once people have received information from political elites, they tend to abide by whatever their respective cue-givers dictate, since rejecting information is more cognitively costly than simply accepting it. Empirical research in psychology on priming supports this view of the citizen as a passive receiver of information. For example, people are likely to be unconsciously influenced by subtle cues and they (...)
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  24.  10
    Psychological Plausibility of the Theory of Probabilistic Mental Models and the Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Michael R. Dougherty, Ana M. Franco-Watkins & Rick Thomas - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):199-211.
  25.  14
    Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation Between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences.Han L. J. van der Maas, Dylan Molenaar, Gunter Maris, Rogier A. Kievit & Denny Borsboom - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (2):339-356.
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  26.  70
    Combining Psychological Models with Machine Learning to Better Predict People’s Decisions.Avi Rosenfeld, Inon Zuckerman, Amos Azaria & Sarit Kraus - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):81-93.
    Creating agents that proficiently interact with people is critical for many applications. Towards creating these agents, models are needed that effectively predict people's decisions in a variety of problems. To date, two approaches have been suggested to generally describe people's decision behavior. One approach creates a-priori predictions about people's behavior, either based on theoretical rational behavior or based on psychological models, including bounded rationality. A second type of approach focuses on creating models based exclusively on observations of people's behavior. (...)
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  27. Social Psychological Models of Interpersonal Communication.Robert M. Krauss & Susan R. Fussell - 1996 - In E. E. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. Guilford. pp. 655--701.
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  28.  75
    Folk Psychology Without Principles: An Alternative to the Belief–Desire Model of Action Interpretation.Leon C. de Bruin & Derek W. Strijbos - 2010 - Philosophical Explorations 13 (3):257-274.
    In this paper, we take issue with the belief?desire model of second- and third-person action interpretation as it is presented by both theory theories and cognitivist versions of simulation theory. These accounts take action interpretation to consist in the (tacit) attribution of proper belief?desire pairs that mirror the structure of formally valid practical inferences. We argue that the belief?desire model rests on the unwarranted assumption that the interpreter can only reach the agent's practical context of action through inference. This assumption (...)
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  29.  41
    Evolutionary Psychology -- Towards a More Integrative Model.Frederick Toates - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):305-328.
    Aspects of the history of behavioural science are reviewed, pointing to its fragmented and faction-ridden nature. The emergence of evolutionary psychology (EP) is viewed in this context. With the help of a dual-layered model of behavioural control, the case is made for a more integrative perspective towards EP. The model's application to both behaviour and complex human information processing is described. Similarities in their control are noted. It is suggested that one layer of control (‘on-line’) corresponds to the encapsulated modules (...)
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  30.  20
    Psychological Theories of Categorizations as Probabilistic Models.David Danks - unknown
    David Danks. Psychological Theories of Categorizations as Probabilistic Models.
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  31.  3
    Psychological Predictors of Precautionary Behaviors in Response to COVID-19: A Structural Model.Martha Frías-Armenta, Nadia Saraí Corral-Frías, Victor Corral-Verdugo & Marc Yancy Lucas - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The first lines of defense during an epidemic are behavioral interventions, including stay-at-home measures or precautionary health training, aimed at reducing contact and disease transmission. Examining the psychosocial variables that may lead to greater adoption of such precautionary behaviors is critical. The present study examines predictors of precautionary practices against coronavirus disease 2019 in 709 Mexican participants from 24 states. The study was conducted via online questionnaire between the end of March and the beginning of April 2020, when the pandemic (...)
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  32.  4
    Minds And Mechanisms: Philosophical Psychology And Computational Models.Margaret A. Boden - 1981 - Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  33. Psychological Models and Neural Mechanisms.Austen Clark - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (2):230-234.
     
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  34.  8
    Can Psychological Expectation Models Be Adapted for Placebo Research?Winfried Rief & Keith J. Petrie - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  35.  1
    The Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 Home Confinement and Physical Activity: A Structural Equation Model Analysis.Xuehui Sang, Rashid Menhas, Zulkaif Ahmed Saqib, Sajid Mahmood, Yu Weng, Sumaira Khurshid, Waseem Iqbal & Babar Shahzad - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    BackgroundCOVID-19 break out has created panic and fear in society. A strict kind of lockdown was imposed in Wuhan, Hubei province of China. During home confinement due to lockdown, people face multidimensional issues. The present study explored the psychological impacts of COVID-19 home confinement during the lockdown period and Wuhan’s residents’ attitude toward physical activity.MethodsA cross-sectional online survey was conducted to collect the primary data according to the study objectives. The population was Wuhan residents who were in home confinement. (...)
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  36.  1
    A Structural Model of Teacher Self-Efficacy, Emotion Regulation, and Psychological Wellbeing Among English Teachers.Shen Xiyun, Jalil Fathi, Naser Shirbagi & Farnoosh Mohammaddokht - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Because of the exacting nature of teaching, identifying factors affecting teachers’ mental health and psychological wellbeing are of paramount importance. Parallel with this line of inquiry, the goal of this project was to test a model of psychological wellbeing based on teacher self-efficacy and emotion regulation in an EFL context. To this end, 276 Iranian English teachers participated in this survey. First, the measurement models for the three latent constructs were verified through performing Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Then Structural (...)
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  37.  8
    Can Psychology Provide a Coherent Account of Human Behavior? A Proposed Multiexplanation-Model Theory.Sam S. Rakover - 1997 - Behavior and Philosophy 25 (1):43 - 76.
    Human behavior cannot be understood by using only models of explanation utilized in the natural sciences. Multiple models of explanation, which are not consistent with, or reducible to each other, are required and are in fact used in psychology to explain human actions. This situation, called "Multiexplanation," could cause a problem of developing a justified correspondence between psychological phenomena and multiple models of explanation. Unless this problem is solved, the explanatory capability of a psychological theory seems inconsistent and (...)
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  38. Evolutionary Psychology and the Selectionist Model of Neural Development: A Combined Approach.Bence Nanay - 2002 - Evolution and Cognition 8:200-206.
    Evolutionary psychology and the selectionist theories of neural development are usually regarded as two unrelated theories addressing two logically distinct questions. The focus of evolutionary psychology is the phylogeny of the human mind, whereas the selectionist theories of neural development analyse the ontogeny of the mind. This paper will endeavour to combine these two approaches in the explanation of the human mind. Doing so might help in overcoming some of the criticisms of both theories. The first part of the paper (...)
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  39.  37
    A Psychological Model That Integrates Ethics in Engineering Education.Susan Magun-Jackson - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):219-224.
    Ethics has become an increasingly important issue within engineering as the profession has become progressively more complex. The need to integrate ethics into an engineering curriculum is well documented, as education does not often sufficiently prepare engineers for the ethical conflicts they experience. Recent research indicates that there is great diversity in the way institutions approach the problem of teaching ethics to undergraduate engineering students; some schools require students to take general ethics courses from philosophical or religious perspectives, while others (...)
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  40.  24
    Hypothesizing From Introspections: A Model for the Role of Mental Entities in Psychological Explanation.Sam S. Rakover - 1983 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 13 (2):211–230.
  41. Models of Desire : René Girard and the Psychology of Mimesis.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    To some, Rene Girard is best known for his views on sacred myth and ritual. To others, he is the eminent structuralist critic who offers challenging readings of major literary works. Still others know him for his analyses of the Bible. Central to all aspects of Girard's work is his theory of mimesis, a basic hypothesis about the structures of human motivation, Yet nowhere in his writings does Girard offer a systematic presentation of the mimetic theory. In fact, key terminology (...)
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  42.  24
    A Psychologically Plausible Logical Model of Conceptualization.Hong-Gee Kim - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (2):249-267.
    This paper discusses how we understand and use a concept or the meaningof a general term to identify the objects falling under the term. There aretwo distinct approaches to research on the problems of concepts and meaningthe psychological approach and the formal (or logical) approach. My majorconcern is to consider the possibility of reconciling these two differentapproaches, and for this I propose to build a psychologically plausibleformal system of conceptualization. That is, I will develop a theory-basedaccount of concepts and (...)
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  43.  1
    Modelling the psychological structure of reasoning.M. A. Winstanley - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (2):1-27.
    Mathematics and logic are indispensable in science, yet how they are deployed and why they are so effective, especially in the natural sciences, is poorly understood. In this paper, I focus on the how by analysing Jean Piaget’s application of mathematics to the empirical content of psychological experiment; however, I do not lose sight of the application’s wider implications on the why. In a case study, I set out how Piaget drew on the stock of mathematical structures to model (...)
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  44. Evolutionary Psychology and Standard Social Science Model.M. Popper - 2003 - Filozofia 58 (1):10-22.
    The paper focuses on exploring sources and aims of evolutionary psychology, on how its representatives devlope their own approaches in opposition to the Standard social science model. Evolutionary psychology is in favor of functionally specia_lized and/or domain-specific mechanisms in the architecture of the human mind as it evolved in the course of evolution. Such evolution is the point emphasized by evolutionary psychology. Attention is also given to the implications the domain-specific architecture might have for culture. In the final section the (...)
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  45.  41
    Psychology and Nihilism: A Genealogical Critique of the Computational Model of Mind.Robert Hollinger - 1996 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 13 (13):54-57.
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  46.  16
    Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):1 - 3.
    (2013). Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 1-3. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2013.767559.
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  47.  35
    Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational and Psychological Approaches.Rahul Banerjee & Bikas K. Chakrabarti (eds.) - 2008 - Elsevier.
    The phenomenon of consciousness has always been a central question for philosophers and scientists. Emerging in the past decade are new approaches to the understanding of consciousness in a scientific light. This book presents a series of essays by leading thinkers giving an account of the current ideas prevalent in the scientific study of consciousness. The value of the book lies in the discussion of this interesting though complex subject from different points of view ranging from physics, computer science to (...)
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  48.  4
    Active inference models do not contradict folk psychology.Ryan Smith, Maxwell J. D. Ramstead & Alex Kiefer - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-37.
    Active inference offers a unified theory of perception, learning, and decision-making at computational and neural levels of description. In this article, we address the worry that active inference may be in tension with the belief–desire–intention model within folk psychology because it does not include terms for desires at the mathematical level of description. To resolve this concern, we first provide a brief review of the historical progression from predictive coding to active inference, enabling us to distinguish between active inference formulations (...)
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  49.  1
    Folk Psychological Models and the Metaphysics of Belief. A Reply to Curry.Krzysztof Poslajko - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-13.
    The aim of this paper is to show that Curry’s recent defence of the interpretivist approach to beliefs is unsuccessful. Curry tries to argue that his version of interpretivism, which is based on the model-theoretic approach to folk-psychological attributions, is well-suited to resisting the epistemological argument that is directed at interpretivism. In this paper, I argue that even if Curry’s defence is successful in this case, his theory does not have enough resources to solve the metaphysical problems of interpretivism. (...)
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    A Model to Predict Psychological- and Health-Related Adjustment in Men with Prostate Cancer: The Role of Post Traumatic Growth, Physical Post Traumatic Growth, Resilience and Mindfulness.Deirdre M. J. Walsh, Todd G. Morrison, Ronan J. Conway, Eamonn Rogers, Francis J. Sullivan & AnnMarie Groarke - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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