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Severin Schroeder [72]Steven Schroeder [45]S. Andrew Schroeder [23]Sascha Schroeder [3]
Stephanie Schroeder [3]S. Schroeder [2]Severin Joachim Schroeder [2]Scott R. Schroeder [1]

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S. Andrew Schroeder
Claremont McKenna College
  1. Democratic Values: A Better Foundation for Public Trust in Science.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (2):545-562.
    There is a growing consensus among philosophers of science that core parts of the scientific process involve non-epistemic values. This undermines the traditional foundation for public trust in science. In this article I consider two proposals for justifying public trust in value-laden science. According to the first, scientists can promote trust by being transparent about their value choices. On the second, trust requires that the values of a scientist align with the values of an individual member of the public. I (...)
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  2. Thinking about Values in Science: Ethical versus Political Approaches.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):246-255.
    Philosophers of science now broadly agree that doing good science involves making non-epistemic value judgments. I call attention to two very different normative standards which can be used to evaluate such judgments: standards grounded in ethics and standards grounded in political philosophy. Though this distinction has not previously been highlighted, I show that the values in science literature contain arguments of each type. I conclude by explaining why this distinction is important. Seeking to determine whether some value-laden determination meets substantive (...)
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  3. Rethinking Health: Healthy or Healthier than?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):131-159.
    Theorists of health have, to this point, focused exclusively on trying to define a state—health—that an organism might be in. I argue that they have overlooked the possibility of a comparativist theory of health, which would begin by defining a relation—healthier than—that holds between two organisms or two possible states of the same organism. I show that a comparativist approach to health has a number of attractive features, and has important implications for philosophers of medicine, bioethicists, health economists, and policy (...)
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  4. The Limits of Democratizing Science: When Scientists Should Ignore the Public.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (5):1034-1043.
    Scientists are frequently called upon to “democratize” science, by bringing the public into scientific research. One appealing point for public involvement concerns the nonepistemic values involved in science. Suppose, though, a scientist invites the public to participate in making such value-laden determinations but finds that the public holds values the scientist considers morally unacceptable. Does the argument for democratizing science commit the scientist to accepting the public’s objectionable values, or may she veto them? I argue that there are a limited (...)
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  5. Public Trust in Science: Exploring the Idiosyncrasy-Free Ideal.Marion Boulicault & S. Andrew Schroeder - 2021 - In Kevin Vallier & Michael Weber (eds.), Social Trust. Routledge.
    What makes science trustworthy to the public? This chapter examines one proposed answer: the trustworthiness of science is based at least in part on its independence from the idiosyncratic values, interests, and ideas of individual scientists. That is, science is trustworthy to the extent that following the scientific process would result in the same conclusions, regardless of the particular scientists involved. We analyze this "idiosyncrasy-free ideal" for science by looking at philosophical debates about inductive risk, focusing on two recent proposals (...)
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  6. An Ethical Framework for Presenting Scientific Results to Policy-Makers.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2022 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 32 (1):33-67.
    Scientists have the ability to influence policy in important ways through how they present their results. Surprisingly, existing codes of scientific ethics have little to say about such choices. I propose that we can arrive at a set of ethical guidelines to govern scientists’ presentation of information to policymakers by looking to bioethics: roughly, just as a clinician should aim to promote informed decision-making by patients, a scientist should aim to promote informed decision-making by policymakers. Though this may sound like (...)
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  7. Which values should be built into economic measures?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2019 - Economics and Philosophy 35 (3):521-536.
    Many economic measures are structured to reflect ethical values. I describe three attitudes towards this: maximalism, according to which we should aim to build all relevant values into measures; minimalism, according to which we should aim to keep values out of measures; and an intermediate view. I argue the intermediate view is likely correct, but existing versions are inadequate. In particular, economists have strong reason to structure measures to reflect fixed, as opposed to user-assessable, values. This implies that, despite disagreement (...)
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  8. Consequentializing and its consequences.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1475-1497.
    Recently, a number of philosophers have argued that we can and should “consequentialize” non-consequentialist moral theories, putting them into a consequentialist framework. I argue that these philosophers, usually treated as a group, in fact offer three separate arguments, two of which are incompatible. I show that none represent significant threats to a committed non-consequentialist, and that the literature has suffered due to a failure to distinguish these arguments. I conclude by showing that the failure of the consequentializers’ arguments has implications (...)
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  9. Imperfect Duties, Group Obligations, and Beneficence.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (5):557-584.
    There is virtually no philosophical consensus on what, exactly, imperfect duties are. In this paper, I lay out three criteria which I argue any adequate account of imperfect duties should satisfy. Using beneficence as a leading example, I suggest that existing accounts of imperfect duties will have trouble meeting those criteria. I then propose a new approach: thinking of imperfect duties as duties held by groups, rather than individuals. I show, again using the example of beneficence, that this proposal can (...)
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  10. Value Choices in Summary Measures of Population Health.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (2):176-187.
    Summary measures of health, such as the quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life year, have long been known to incorporate a number of value choices. In this paper, though, I show that the value choices in the construction of such measures extend far beyond what is generally recognized. In showing this, I hope both to improve the understanding of those measures by epidemiologists, health economists and policy-makers, and also to contribute to the general debate about the extent to which such (...)
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  11.  18
    Lockdowns, Bioethics, and the Public: Policy‐Making in a Liberal Democracy.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (6):11-17.
    [OPEN ACCESS] Commentaries on the ethics of Covid lockdowns nearly all focus on offering substantive guidance to policy‐makers. Lockdowns, however, raise many ethical questions that admit of a range of reasonable answers. In such cases, policy‐making in a liberal democracy ought to be sensitive to which reasonable views the public actually holds—a topic existing bioethical work on lockdowns has not explored in detail. In this essay, I identify several important questions connected to the kind of influence the public ought to (...)
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  12.  32
    How to Interpret Covid-19 Predictions: Reassessing the IHME’s Model.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2021 - Philosophy of Medicine 1 (2).
    The IHME Covid-19 prediction model has been one of the most influential Covid models in the United States. Early on, it received heavy criticism for understating the extent of the epidemic. I argue that this criticism was based on a misunderstanding of the model. The model was best interpreted not as attempting to forecast the actual course of the epidemic. Rather, it was attempting to make a conditional projection: telling us how the epidemic would unfold, given certain assumptions. This misunderstanding (...)
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  13. Health, Disability, and Well-Being.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
    Much academic work (in philosophy, economics, law, etc.), as well as common sense, assumes that ill health reduces well-being. It is bad for a person to become sick, injured, disabled, etc. Empirical research, however, shows that people living with health problems report surprisingly high levels of well-being - in some cases as high as the self-reported well-being of healthy people. In this chapter, I explore the relationship between health and well-being. I argue that although we have good reason to believe (...)
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  14. Diversifying science: comparing the benefits of citizen science with the benefits of bringing more women into science.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-20.
    I compare two different arguments for the importance of bringing new voices into science: arguments for increasing the representation of women, and arguments for the inclusion of the public, or for “citizen science”. I suggest that in each case, diversifying science can improve the quality of scientific results in three distinct ways: epistemically, ethically, and politically. In the first two respects, the mechanisms are essentially the same. In the third respect, the mechanisms are importantly different. Though this might appear to (...)
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  15.  12
    Wittgenstein.Severin Schroeder - 2010 - In Timothy O'Connor & Constantine Sandis (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Action. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 554–561.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Voluntary Action Reasons and Causes References.
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  16.  77
    Wittgenstein on aesthetics and philosophy.Severin Schroeder - 2019 - Revista de Historiografía 32:11-21.
    Wittgenstein offers three objections to the idea of aesthetics as a branch of psychology: (i) Statistical data about people’s preferences have no normative force. (ii) Artistic value is not instrumental value, a capacity to produce independently identifiable – and scientifically measurable – psychological effects. (iii) While psychological investigations may bring to light the causes of aesthetic preferences, they fail to provide reasons for them. According to Wittgenstein, aesthetic explanations (unlike scientific explanations) are poignant synoptic representations of aspects of a work, (...)
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  17.  52
    Mathematics and Forms of Life.Severin Schroeder - 2015 - Nordic Wittgenstein Review 4:111-130.
    According to Wittgenstein, mathematics is embedded in, and partly constituting, a form of life. Hence, to imagine different, alternative forms of elementary mathematics, we should have to imagine different practices, different forms of life in which they could play a role. If we tried to imagine a radically different arithmetic we should think either of a strange world or of people acting and responding in very peculiar ways. If such was their practice, a calculus expressing the norms of representation they (...)
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  18.  2
    Wittgenstein.Severin Schroeder - 2010 - In Timothy O'Connor & Constantine Sandis (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Action. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 554–561.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Voluntary Action Reasons and Causes References.
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  19.  10
    You don’t have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.T. Richter, S. Schroeder & B. Wöhrmann - 2009 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (3):538–58.
    In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant (...)
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  20.  54
    The Influence of Values on Medical Research.S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mainstream views of medical research tell us it should be a fact-based, value-free endeavor: what a scientist (or her funding source) wants or cares about should not influence her findings. At the same time, we also sometimes criticize medical research for failing to embody certain values, e.g. when we criticize pharmaceutical companies for largely ignoring the diseases that affect the global poor. This chapter seeks to reconcile these perspectives by distinguishing appropriate from inappropriate influences of values on medical research. It (...)
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  21.  68
    Analytic truths and grammatical propositions.Severin Schroeder - 2009 - In P. M. S. Hacker, Hans-Johann Glock & John Hyman (eds.), Wittgenstein and Analytic Philosophy: Essays for P. M. S. Hacker. Oxford University Press. pp. 83-108.
  22.  61
    A Tale of two problems: Wittgenstein's discussion of aspect perception.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  23.  10
    Informing, transforming, inquiring: Approaches to elementary social studies in methods course syllabi.Stephanie Schroeder, Natasha C. Murray-Everett, Jacob Gates & Sarah B. Shear - 2021 - Journal of Social Studies Research 45 (2):102-117.
    This study investigated approaches to the elementary social studies methods syllabus from instructors of courses across the United States. Using qualitative content analysis, we explored 48 methods syllabi using a deductive framework of Information Based Systems d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:3: 18:E: there is no attribute "volume" d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:3: 29:E: there is no attribute "issue" d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:3: 32:E: element "MetaIssue" undefined d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:4: 9:E: element "Provider" undefined d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:4: 9: open elements: MetaIssue d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:5: 4:E: element "TOC" undefined d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:5: 4: open elements: MetaIssue d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:6: 11:E: element "TocSection" undefined d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:6: 11: open elements: MetaIssue TOC d:\Sarjeet_Work\2023\Apr-2023\15apr\lot1\j-saib0004-20492\ssr_2014_38_1\spssr_38_1_meta_issue.xml:7: 8:E: element "Heading" undefined (...)
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  24.  48
    Schopenhauer and Hume on will and causation.Severin Schroeder - 2018 - In Robert L. Wicks (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Schopenhauer. Oxford University Press.
  25.  21
    Schopenhauer’s Influence on Wittgenstein.Severin Schroeder - 2012 - In Bart Vandenabeele (ed.), A Companion to Schopenhauer. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 367-385.
    This chapter contains sections titled: I II III IV V Notes References.
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  26.  60
    How Many Have Died?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2020 - Issues in Science and Technology.
    I look at the two main approaches used to count COVID-19 deaths and show how each of those approaches can appear to both overcount COVID deaths (including deaths it should exclude) and undercount COVID deaths (excluding deaths it should include). I trace this to the fact - well-known to philosophers - that causal attribution is interest-relative. Which deaths we should attribute to COVID (as opposed to other causes) will depend on our particular interests and values. Contrary to what many journalists (...)
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  27.  91
    The tightrope Walker.Severin Schroeder - 2007 - Ratio 20 (4):442-463.
    Contrary to a widespread interpretation, Wittgenstein did not regard credal statements as merely metaphorical expressions of an attitude towards life. He accepted that Christian faith involves belief in God's existence. At the same time he held that although as a hypothesis, God's existence is extremely implausible, Christian faith is not unreasonable. Is that a consistent view? According to Wittgenstein, religious faith should not be seen as a hypothesis, based on evidence, but as grounded in a proto‐religious attitude, a way of (...)
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  28.  48
    Is consistency overrated?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):199-200.
    In their insightful article, ‘The Disvalue of Death in the Global Burden of Disease’, Solberg et al argue that there is a potential incoherence in the way disability-adjusted life years are calculated. Morbidity is measured in years lived with disability in a way quite unlike the way mortality is measured in years of life lost. This potentially renders them incommensurable, like apples and oranges, and makes their aggregate—DALYs—conceptually unsound. The authors say that it is ‘vital’ to address this problem, that (...)
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  29.  95
    The Concept of Trying.Severin Schroeder - 2001 - Philosophical Investigations 24 (3):213-227.
    It is widely held that whenever someone φs, that person tries to do φ. I examine arguments by B. O’Shaughnessy and J. Hornsby, and considerations by P. Grice in support of that thesis. I argue that none of them are convincing. The remainder of the paper defends an analysis of the concept of trying along the lines opposed by Grice et al. By speaking of someone’s trying to φ the speaker leaves the room for failure or the possibility of failure. (...)
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  30.  68
    ‘Too ridiculous for words’: Wittgenstein on scientific aesthetics.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  31.  64
    Are reasons causes?Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  32.  32
    Private language and private experience.Severin Schroeder - 2001 - In Hans-Johan Glock (ed.), Wittgenstein: A Critical Reader. Blackwell. pp. 174-198.
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  33.  20
    The Concept of Trying.Severin Schroeder - 2001 - Philosophical Investigations 24 (3):213-227.
    It is widely held that whenever someone φs, that person tries to do φ. I examine arguments by B. O’Shaughnessy and J. Hornsby, and considerations by P. Grice in support of that thesis. I argue that none of them are convincing. The remainder of the paper defends an analysis of the concept of trying along the lines opposed by Grice et al. By speaking of someone’s trying to φ the speaker leaves the room for failure or the possibility of failure. (...)
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  34.  98
    Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions.Nir Eyal, Samia A. Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.) - 2020 - New York, USA: Oup Usa.
    The Global Burden of Disease Study is one of the largest-scale research collaborations in global health, producing critical data for researchers, policy-makers, and health workers about more than 350 diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Such an undertaking is, of course, extremely complex from an empirical perspective. But it also raises complex ethical and philosophical questions. In this volume, a group of leading philosophers, economists, epidemiologists, and policy scholars identify and discuss these philosophical questions. Better appreciating the philosophical dimensions of a (...)
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  35.  23
    Mathematical propositions as rules of grammar.Severin Schroeder - 2014 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 89 (1):23-38.
  36.  50
    On some standard objections to mathematical conventionalism.Severin Schroeder - 2017 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual 30:83-98.
    According to Wittgenstein, mathematical propositions are rules of grammar, that is, conventions, or implications of conventions. So his position can be regarded as a form of conventionalism. However, mathematical conventionalism is widely thought to be untenable due to objections presented by Quine, Dummett and Crispin Wright. It has also been argued that only an implausibly radical form of conventionalism could withstand the critical implications of Wittgenstein’s rule-following considerations. In this article I discuss those objections to conventionalism and argue that none (...)
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  37.  59
    Wittgenstein on grammar and grammatical statements.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  38.  33
    Ethical Dimensions of the Global Burden of Disease.Christopher J. L. Murray & S. Andrew Schroeder - 2020 - In Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.), Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions. New York, NY, USA: pp. 24-47.
    This chapter suggests that descriptive epidemiological studies like the Global Burden of Disease Study can usefully be divided into four tasks: describing individuals’ health states over time, assessing their health states under a range of counterfactual scenarios, summarizing the information collected, and then packaging it for presentation. The authors show that each of these tasks raises important and challenging ethical questions. They comment on some of the philosophical issues involved in measuring health states, attributing causes to health outcomes, choosing the (...)
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  39. You Don't Have to Do What's Best! (A problem for consequentialists and other teleologists).S. Andrew Schroeder - 2011 - In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Define teleology as the view that requirements hold in virtue of facts about value or goodness. Teleological views are quite popular, and in fact some philosophers (e.g. Dreier, Smith) argue that all (plausible) moral theories can be understood teleologically. I argue, however, that certain well-known cases show that the teleologist must at minimum assume that there are certain facts that an agent ought to know, and that this means that requirements can't, in general, hold in virtue of facts about value (...)
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  40.  6
    Grammar and Grammatical Statements.Severin Schroeder - 2016 - In Hans‐Johann Glock & John Hyman (eds.), A Companion to Wittgenstein. Chichester, UK: Wiley. pp. 252–268.
    “Grammar” is Ludwig Wittgenstein's preferred term for the workings of a language: the system of rules that determine linguistic meaning. A philosophical study of language is a study of “grammar”, in this sense, and insofar as any philosophical investigation is concerned with conceptual details, which manifest themselves in language, it is a grammatical investigation. In the Tractatus Logico‐Philosophicus Wittgenstein offered a mathematical picture of language: presenting language as a calculus. Like a calculus, language was claimed to be governed by syntactic (...)
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  41. Wittgenstein and contemporary philosophy of mind.Severin Schroeder (ed.) - 2001 - New York: Palgrave.
    Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind aims to reassess the work of Wittgenstein in terms of its importance to contemporary debates surrounding the philosophy of mind.The first part of this study examines Wittgenstein in the context of current views on the human mind in relation to the body and behavior. The arguments confront the views of Quine and Dennett, as well as functionalism, eliminative materialism, and the current debate about consciousness. The essays that make up the second part focus on (...)
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  42.  10
    Masked Morphological Priming in German-Speaking Adults and Children: Evidence from Response Time Distributions.Jana Hasenäcker, Elisabeth Beyersmann & Sascha Schroeder - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  43.  6
    Sentiment Analysis of Children and Youth Literature: Is There a Pollyanna Effect?Arthur M. Jacobs, Berenike Herrmann, Gerhard Lauer, Jana Lüdtke & Sascha Schroeder - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    If the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, as assumed by Boucher and Osgood’s (1969) famous Pollyanna hypothesis and computationally confirmed for large text corpora in several languages (Dodds et al., 2015), then children and youth literature (CYL) should also show a Pollyanna effect. Here we tested this prediction applying a vector space model- based sentiment analysis tool called SentiArt (Jacobs, 2019) to two CYL corpora, one in English (372 books) and one in German (500 books). (...)
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  44.  7
    The tightrope walker.Severin Schroeder - 2008 - In John Preston (ed.), Wittgenstein and Reason. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 85-106.
    This chapter contains sections titled: I II III IV V Bibliography.
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  45.  37
    Why Juliet is the Sun.Severin Joachim Schroeder - 2004 - In Mark Siebel & Markus Textor (eds.), Semantik Und Ontologie: Beiträge Zur Philosophischen Forschung. Ontos Verlag. pp. 2--63.
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  46. Hempel's Paradox, Law‐likeness and Causal Relations.Severin Schroeder - 2009 - Philosophical Investigations 32 (3):244-263.
    It is widely thought that Bayesian confirmation theory has provided a solution to Hempel's Paradox (the Ravens Paradox). I discuss one well‐known example of this approach, by John Mackie, and argue that it is unconvincing. I then suggest an alternative solution, which shows that the Bayesian approach is altogether mistaken. Nicod's Condition should be rejected because a generalisation is not confirmed by any of its instances if it is not law‐like. And even law‐like non‐basic empirical generalisations, which are expressions of (...)
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  47.  47
    God, lions, and Englishwomen.Severin Schroeder - 2018 - In Jesús Padilla Gálvez & Margit Gaffal (eds.), Human Understanding as Problem. De Gruyter. pp. 171-184.
    Wittgenstein shows that understanding is a capacity, and cannot be accounted for by mental representations of what is understood. But if a person’s understanding or thinking cannot be accounted for by occurrences of mental representations, then understanding that person cannot be a matter of knowing what is going on inside him or her: what representations he or she has in his or her mind. That, I argue, is the point of Wittgenstein’s famous and frequently misunderstood saying, “If a lion could (...)
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  48.  34
    Wittgenstein and his legacy.Severin Schroeder - 2018 - In Amy Kind (ed.), Philosophy of Mind in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries: The History of the Philosophy of Mind, Volume 6. Routledge.
  49.  8
    Orthographic Networks in the Developing Mental Lexicon. Insights From Graph Theory and Implications for the Study of Language Processing.Jutta Trautwein & Sascha Schroeder - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  50.  6
    Wittgenstein and Naturalism.Eugen Fischer & Severin Schroeder - 2017 - Routledge.
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