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John McCarthy [87]John C. McCarthy [25]John P. McCarthy [16]Joan McCarthy [14]
J. McCarthy [13]Jeremiah McCarthy [7]Joseph M. McCarthy [5]Jeremiah J. McCarthy [5]

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John C. McCarthy
Catholic University of America
Joan McCarthy
University College, Cork
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  1. Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence.John McCarthy & Patrick Hayes - 1969 - In B. Meltzer & Donald Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 463--502.
  2.  10
    Circumscription — A Form of Non-Monotonic Reasoning.John McCarthy - 1980 - Artificial Intelligence 13 (1-2):27–39.
  3. Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence.J. McCarthy & P. J. Hayes - 1969 - Machine Intelligence 4:463-502.
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  4.  53
    Covid‐19: Ethical Challenges for Nurses.Georgina Morley, Christine Grady, Joan McCarthy & Connie M. Ulrich - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):35-39.
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  5. Ascribing mental qualities to machines.John McCarthy - 1979 - In Martin Ringle (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Humanities Press.
    Ascribing mental qualities like beliefs, intentions and wants to a machine is sometimes correct if done conservatively and is sometimes necessary to express what is known about its state. We propose some new definitional tools for this: definitions relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definitions.
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  6.  4
    Applications of Circumscription to Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge.John McCarthy - 1986 - Artificial Intelligence 28 (1):89–116.
  7.  23
    Moral distress: A review of the argument-based nursing ethics literature. [REVIEW]J. McCarthy & C. Gastmans - 2015 - Nursing Ethics 22 (1):131-152.
  8.  33
    The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition.C. L. Baker & John J. McCarthy - 1981 - Mit Press (Ma).
    This collection of articles and associated discussion papers focuses on a problem that has attracted increasing attention from linguists and psychologists throughout the world during the past several years. Reduced to essentials, the problem is that of discovering the character of the mental capacities that make it possible for human beings to attain knowledge of their language on the basis of fragmentary and haphazard early linguistic experience. A fundamental assumption running through all of these contributions is that people possess strong (...)
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  9.  21
    Moral Distress Reconsidered.Joan McCarthy & Rick Deady - 2008 - Nursing Ethics 15 (2):254-262.
    Moral distress has received much attention in the international nursing literature in recent years. In this article, we describe the evolution of the concept of moral distress among nursing theorists from its initial delineation by the philosopher Jameton to its subsequent deployment as an umbrella concept describing the impact of moral constraints on health professionals and the patients for whom they care. The article raises worries about the way in which the concept of moral distress has been portrayed in some (...)
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  10.  15
    The Standard Account of Moral Distress and Why We Should Keep It.Joan McCarthy & Settimio Monteverde - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (4):319-328.
    In the last three decades, considerable theoretical and empirical research has been undertaken on the topic of moral distress among health professionals. Understood as a psychological and emotional response to the experience of moral wrongdoing, there is evidence to suggest that—if unaddressed—it contributes to staff demoralization, desensitization and burnout and, ultimately, to lower standards of patient safety and quality of care. However, more recently, the concept of moral distress has been subjected to important criticisms. Specifically, some authors argue that the (...)
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  11.  34
    Epistemological challenges for connectionism.John McCarthy - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):44-44.
  12.  47
    Automata Studies.John Mccarthy & Claude Shannon - 1958 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 23 (1):59-60.
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  13.  43
    The well-designed child.John McCarthy - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (18):2003-2014.
    This article is inspired by recent psychological studies confirming that a child is not born a blank slate but has important innate capabilities. An important part of the ``learning'' required to deal with the three dimensional world of objects, processes, and other beings was done by evolution. Each child need not do this learning itself.
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  14.  37
    Formalizing context (expanded notes).John McCarthy & Sasa Buvac - 1998 - CSLI Lecture Notes 81:13-50.
    These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relationships are: ist(c,p) meaning that the proposition p is true in the context c, and value(c,p) designating the value of the term e in the context c Besides these, there are lifting formulas that relate the propositions and terms in subcontexts to possibly more general propositions and terms in the outer context. Subcontextx are often specialised with regard to time, place and terminology. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit (...)
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  15. Making robots conscious of their mental states.John McCarthy - 1996 - In S. Muggleton (ed.), Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Press.
    In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will be wanted, some will not, and some abilities not possessed by humans have already been found feasible and (...)
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  16.  4
    From here to human-level AI.John McCarthy - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (18):1174-1182.
  17. What is artificial intelligence?John McCarthy - 2004
  18.  34
    Paediatrics at the cutting edge: do we need clinical ethics committees?V. F. Larcher, B. Lask & J. M. McCarthy - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (4):245-249.
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the need for hospital clinical ethics committees by studying the frequency with which ethical dilemmas arose, the perceived adequacy of the process of their resolution, and the teaching and training of staff in medical ethics. DESIGN: Interviews with individuals and three multidisciplinary teams; questionnaire to randomly selected individuals. SETTING: Two major London children's hospitals. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas arose frequently but were resolved in a relatively unstructured fashion. Ethical concerns included: the validity of consent for investigations and treatment; (...)
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  19.  31
    First order theories of individual concepts and propositions.John McCarthy - 1979
    We discuss first order theories in which individual concepts are admitted as mathematical objects along with the things that reify them. This allows very straightforward formalizations of knowledge, belief, wanting, and necessity in ordinary first order logic without modal operators. Applications are given in philosophy and in artificial intelligence. We do not treat general concepts, and we do not present any full axiomatizations but rather show how various facts can be expressed.
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  20.  12
    Towards a Mathematical Science of Computation.J. Mccarthy, Cicely M. Popplewell, John Mccarthy & Wayne A. Kalenich - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):346-347.
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  21.  28
    A pluralist view of nursing ethics.Joan McCarthy - 2006 - Nursing Philosophy 7 (3):157-164.
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  22.  48
    Moral instability: The upsides for nursing practice.Joan McCarthy - 2010 - Nursing Philosophy 11 (2):127-135.
    This article briefly outlines some of the key problems with the way in which the moral realm has traditionally been understood and analysed. I propose two alternative views of what is morally interesting and applicable to nursing practice and I indicate that instability has its upsides. I begin with a moral tale – a 'Good Samaritan' story – which raises fairly usual questions about the nature of morality but also the more philosophically fundamental question about the relationship between subjectivity and (...)
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  23.  35
    Dennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative Self.Joan McCarthy - 2007 - Humanity Books.
    Why the narrative self? -- Contemporary interest in narrative theory -- Is the self real or illusory? -- Dennett's brand of naturalism -- The heterophenomenological method (HM) -- Consciousness and the self -- The naturalist narrative self -- Puzzle cases -- The HM and the narrative self -- The limitations of Dennett's account -- The limits of language -- Epistemological fragility -- Ontological fragility -- Naturalism and phenomenology -- Confronting naturalism -- Phenomenology and hermeneutics -- The detour of interpretation -- (...)
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  24.  59
    Two plus blue equals green: Grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color.J. Daniel McCarthy, Lianne N. Barnes, Bryan D. Alvarez & Gideon Paul Caplovitz - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1384-1392.
  25.  9
    Addressing ethical concerns arising in nursing and midwifery students’ reflective assignments.Bridie McCarthy, Joan McCarthy, Anna Trace & Pamela Grace - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973301667476.
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  26.  18
    Challenges in implementing an advance care planning programme in long-term care.Ciara McGlade, Edel Daly, Joan McCarthy, Nicola Cornally, Elizabeth Weathers, Rónán O’Caoimh & D. William Molloy - 2017 - Nursing Ethics 24 (1):87-99.
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  27. The advice taker.John McCarthy - 1968 - In Marvin L. Minsky (ed.), Semantic Information Processing. MIT Press.
     
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  28. Acts of Dissent: New Developments in the Study of Protest.Dieter Rucht, Ruud Koopmans, Friedhelm Niedhardt, Mark R. Beissinger, Louis J. Crishock, Grzegorz Ekiert, Olivier Fillieule, Pierre Gentile, Peter Hocke, Jan Kubik, John D. McCarthy, Clark McPhail, Johan L. Olivier, Susan Olzak, David Schweingruber, Jackie Smith & Sidney Tarrow - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Although living conditions have improved throughout history, protest, at least in the last few decades, seems to have increased to the point of becoming a normal phenomenon in modern societies. Contributors to this volume examine how and why this is the case and argue that although problems such as poverty, hunger, and violations of democratic rights may have been reduced in advanced Western societies, a variety of other problems and opportunities have emerged and multiplied the reasons and possibilities for protest.
     
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  29.  7
    Gender and Power: the Irish Hysterectomy Scandal.Joan McCarthy, Sharon Murphy & Mark Loughrey - 2008 - Nursing Ethics 15 (5):643-655.
    In April 2004 the Irish Government commissioned Judge Maureen Harding Clark to compile a report to ascertain the rate of caesarean hysterectomies at Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital in Drogheda, Republic of Ireland. The report came about as a result of complaints by midwives into questionable practices that were mainly (but not solely) attributed to one particular obstetrician. In this article we examine the findings of this Report through a feminist lens in order to explore what a feminist reading of (...)
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  30. Modality, si! Modal logic, no!John Mccarthy - 1997 - Studia Logica 59 (1):29-32.
    This article is oriented toward the use of modality in artificial intelligence (AI). An agent must reason about what it or other agents know, believe, want, intend or owe. Referentially opaque modalities are needed and must be formalized correctly. Unfortunately, modal logics seem too limited for many important purposes. This article contains examples of uses of modality for which modal logic seems inadequate.I have no proof that modal logic is inadequate, so I hope modal logicians will take the examples as (...)
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  31.  32
    A decision-making tool for building clinical ethics capacity among Irish health professionals.Louise Campbell & Joan McCarthy - 2017 - Clinical Ethics 12 (4):189-196.
    Although clinical ethics support services are becoming increasingly prevalent in Europe and North America, they remain an uncommon feature of the Irish healthcare system and Irish health professionals lack formal support when faced with ethically challenging cases. We have developed a variant on existing clinical ethics decision-making tools which is designed to build capacity and confidence amongst Irish practitioners and enable them to confront challenging situations in the absence of any dedicated support structure. The tool provided below follows a transparent (...)
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  32.  83
    A logical approach to context.John McCarthy - 1996
    Logical AI develops computer programs that represent what they know about the world primarily by logical formulas and decide what to do primarily by logical reasoning--including nonmonotonic logical reasoning. It is convenient to use logical sentences and terms whose meaning depends on context. The reasons for this are similar to what causes human language to use context dependent meanings. This note gives elements of some of the formalisms to which we have been led. Fuller treatments are in [McC93], [Guh91] and (...)
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  33.  40
    Computer Programs for Checking Mathematical Proofs.John Mccarthy - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):523-523.
  34. Concepts of Logical Ai.John McCarthy - unknown
    Logical AI involves representing knowledge of an agent’s world, its goals and the current situation by sentences in logic. The agent decides what to do by inferring that a certain action or course of action is appropriate to achieve the goals. We characterize briefly a large number of concepts that have arisen in research in logical AI. Reaching human-level AI requires programs that deal with the common sense informatic situation. This in turn requires extensions from the way logic has been (...)
     
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  35.  2
    Embodied Relationality and Caring after Death.Raia Prokhovnik & Jane Ribbens McCarthy - 2014 - Body and Society 20 (2):18-43.
    We explore contested meanings around care and relationality through the under-explored case of caring after death, throwing the relational significance of ‘bodies’ into sharp relief. While the dominant social imaginary and forms of knowledge production in many affluent western societies take death to signify an absolute loss of the other in the demise of their physical body, important implications follow from recognising that embodied relational experience can continue after death. Drawing on a model of embodied relational care encompassing a ‘me’, (...)
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  36. Todd Moody's zombies.John McCarthy - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):345-347.
    From the AI point of view, consciousness must be regarded as a collection of interacting processes rather than the unitary object of much philosophical speculation. We ask what kinds of propositions and other entities need to be designed for consciousness to be useful to an animal or a machine. We thereby assert that human consciousness is useful to human functioning and not just and epiphenomenon. Zombies in the sense of Todd Moody's article are merely the victims of Moody's prejudices. To (...)
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  37.  13
    Beliefs, machines, and theories.John McCarthy - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):435-435.
  38.  20
    An Account of Peirce's Proof of Pragmatism.Jeremiah McCarthy - 1990 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 26 (1):63 - 113.
  39. The Mutilated Checkerboard in Set Theory.John McCarthy - unknown
    An 8 by 8 checkerboard with two diagonally opposite squares removed cannot be covered by dominoes each of which covers two rectilinearly adjacent squares. present a set theory description of the proposition and an informal proof that the covering is impossible. While no present system that I know of will accept either formal description or the proof, I claim that both should be admitted in any heavy duty set theory.
     
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  40.  2
    Crossings: Nietzsche and the Space of Tragedy.John P. Mccarthy - 1992 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50 (4):354-356.
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  41.  9
    The impact of an end-of-life healthcare ethics educational intervention.Claire Molloy, Joan McCarthy & Mark Tyrrell - 2016 - Clinical Ethics 11 (1):28-37.
    Background The impact of healthcare ethics educational interventions on participants’ ethical development is rarely reported on and assessed; even less attention is paid to educational interventions that focus on end-of-life ethical issues. Aim To evaluate the impact of the Ethical Framework for End-of-Life Care Study Sessions Programme on the moral development of healthcare staff who are delivering end-of-life care. Methods The EOLCSS was delivered to 20 multi-disciplinary health care staff in Ireland in May 2013. Effect on moral reasoning was measured (...)
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  42. History of circumscription.John McCarthy - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence 59 (1-2):23-26.
  43. John Searle's chinese room argument.John McCarthy - manuscript
    John Searle begins his ``Consciousness, Explanatory Inversion and Cognitive Science'' with " ``Ten years ago in this journal I published an article criticising what I call Strong AI, the view that for a system to have mental states it is sufficient for the system to implement the right sort of program with right inputs and outputs. Strong AI is rather easy to refute and the basic argument can be summarized in one sentence: {it a system, me for example, could implement (...)
     
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  44. Actions and other events in situation calculus.John McCarthy - manuscript
    internal events that happen spontaneously from external events (actions). It also treats processes, e.g. a buzzer, that do not settle down. The non-monotonic reasoning is circumscription done situation by situation.
     
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  45. A tough nut for proof procedures.John McCarthy - unknown
    Here's the article which was a 1964 Stanford AI Memo. After the original memo, several people offered different proofs of the theorem including Shmuel Winograd, Marvin Minsky and Dimitri Stefanyuk - none published, to my knowledge. Winograd claimed that his proof was non-creative, because it didn't use an extraneous idea like the colors of the squares. This set off a contest to see who could produce the most non-creative proof. Minsky's idea was to start with the diagonal next to an (...)
     
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  46.  38
    Toward a dialogical perspective on agency.Paul Sullivan & John Mccarthy - 2004 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (3):291–309.
    The aim of this article is to motivate and outline a dialogical perspective on agency that accommodates centrifugal and centripetal tendencies in current cultural theories of agency. To complement approaches that assume a high degree of integration and clarity, we emphasise the diversity of agency as it is experienced in the open-ended dialogical relationship with a particular other. While these former approaches to agency provide us with the means to examine the influence of social processes such as division of labour (...)
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  47.  8
    End-of-Life Care: Ethics and Law.Joan McCarthy (ed.) - 2011 - Cork University Press.
    This title offers an ethical framework for end-of-life decision making in healthcare settings. Its objective is to foster and support ethically and legally sound clinical practice in end-of-life treatment and care in Ireland.
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  48.  26
    Positioning in practice: Understanding participation in the social world.C. Linehan & J. McCarthy - 2000 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 30 (4):435–453.
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  49. The robot and the baby.John McCarthy - manuscript
    This is the first science fiction story I have put up for the public to look at. While it was written just as a story, it partly illustrates my opinions about what household robots should be like. In my article Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States , I argued that robots should not be programmed to have..
     
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  50. Challenges to machine learning: Relations between reality and appearance.John McCarthy - unknown
    Apology: My knowledge of of machine learning is no more recent than Tom Mitchell's book. Its chapters describe, except for inductive logic programming, programs aimed at classifying appearances.
     
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