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John McCarthy [87]John C. McCarthy [25]John P. McCarthy [16]John J. McCarthy [2]
John A. McCarthy [2]John W. Mccarthy [2]John Campbell Mccarthy [1]John Russell Mccarthy [1]

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John C. McCarthy
Catholic University of America
  1. Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence.John McCarthy & Patrick Hayes - 1969 - In B. Meltzer & Donald Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 463--502.
  2.  24
    Circumscription — A Form of Non-Monotonic Reasoning.John McCarthy - 1980 - Artificial Intelligence 13 (1-2):27–39.
  3.  20
    Applications of Circumscription to Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge.John McCarthy - 1986 - Artificial Intelligence 28 (1):89–116.
  4. Ascribing mental qualities to machines.John McCarthy - 1979 - In Martin Ringle (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Humanities Press.
    Ascribing mental qualities like beliefs, intentions and wants to a machine is sometimes correct if done conservatively and is sometimes necessary to express what is known about its state. We propose some new definitional tools for this: definitions relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definitions.
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  5.  55
    The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition.Carl Lee Baker & John J. McCarthy - 1981 - MIT Press (MA).
    This collection of articles and associated discussion papers focuses on a problem that has attracted increasing attention from linguists and psychologists throughout the world during the past several years. Reduced to essentials, the problem is that of discovering the character of the mental capacities that make it possible for human beings to attain knowledge of their language on the basis of fragmentary and haphazard early linguistic experience. A fundamental assumption running through all of these contributions is that people possess strong (...)
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  6.  42
    Epistemological challenges for connectionism.John McCarthy - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):44-44.
  7.  14
    From here to human-level AI.John McCarthy - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (18):1174-1182.
  8.  81
    Automata Studies.John Mccarthy & Claude Shannon - 1958 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 23 (1):59-60.
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  9.  50
    Formalizing context (expanded notes).John McCarthy & Sasa Buvac - 1998 - CSLI Lecture Notes 81:13-50.
    These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relationships are: ist(c,p) meaning that the proposition p is true in the context c, and value(c,p) designating the value of the term e in the context c Besides these, there are lifting formulas that relate the propositions and terms in subcontexts to possibly more general propositions and terms in the outer context. Subcontextx are often specialised with regard to time, place and terminology. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit (...)
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  10.  53
    The well-designed child.John McCarthy - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (18):2003-2014.
    This article is inspired by recent psychological studies confirming that a child is not born a blank slate but has important innate capabilities. An important part of the ``learning'' required to deal with the three dimensional world of objects, processes, and other beings was done by evolution. Each child need not do this learning itself.
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  11. Making robots conscious of their mental states.John McCarthy - 1996 - In S. Muggleton (ed.), Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Press.
    In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will be wanted, some will not, and some abilities not possessed by humans have already been found feasible and (...)
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  12. What is artificial intelligence?John McCarthy - 2004
  13.  41
    First order theories of individual concepts and propositions.John McCarthy - 1979
    We discuss first order theories in which individual concepts are admitted as mathematical objects along with the things that reify them. This allows very straightforward formalizations of knowledge, belief, wanting, and necessity in ordinary first order logic without modal operators. Applications are given in philosophy and in artificial intelligence. We do not treat general concepts, and we do not present any full axiomatizations but rather show how various facts can be expressed.
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  14.  23
    Towards a Mathematical Science of Computation.J. Mccarthy, Cicely M. Popplewell, John Mccarthy & Wayne A. Kalenich - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):346-347.
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  15. Concepts of Logical Ai.John McCarthy - unknown
    Logical AI involves representing knowledge of an agent’s world, its goals and the current situation by sentences in logic. The agent decides what to do by inferring that a certain action or course of action is appropriate to achieve the goals. We characterize briefly a large number of concepts that have arisen in research in logical AI. Reaching human-level AI requires programs that deal with the common sense informatic situation. This in turn requires extensions from the way logic has been (...)
     
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  16. The advice taker.John McCarthy - 1968 - In Marvin L. Minsky (ed.), Semantic Information Processing. MIT Press.
     
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  17.  8
    Crossings: Nietzsche and the Space of Tragedy.John P. Mccarthy - 1992 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50 (4):354-356.
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  18. Acts of Dissent: New Developments in the Study of Protest.Dieter Rucht, Ruud Koopmans, Friedhelm Niedhardt, Mark R. Beissinger, Louis J. Crishock, Grzegorz Ekiert, Olivier Fillieule, Pierre Gentile, Peter Hocke, Jan Kubik, John D. McCarthy, Clark McPhail, Johan L. Olivier, Susan Olzak, David Schweingruber, Jackie Smith & Sidney Tarrow - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Although living conditions have improved throughout history, protest, at least in the last few decades, seems to have increased to the point of becoming a normal phenomenon in modern societies. Contributors to this volume examine how and why this is the case and argue that although problems such as poverty, hunger, and violations of democratic rights may have been reduced in advanced Western societies, a variety of other problems and opportunities have emerged and multiplied the reasons and possibilities for protest.
     
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  19.  89
    A logical approach to context.John McCarthy - 1996
    Logical AI develops computer programs that represent what they know about the world primarily by logical formulas and decide what to do primarily by logical reasoning--including nonmonotonic logical reasoning. It is convenient to use logical sentences and terms whose meaning depends on context. The reasons for this are similar to what causes human language to use context dependent meanings. This note gives elements of some of the formalisms to which we have been led. Fuller treatments are in [McC93], [Guh91] and (...)
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  20.  22
    Beliefs, machines, and theories.John McCarthy - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):435-435.
  21.  54
    Computer Programs for Checking Mathematical Proofs.John Mccarthy - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):523-523.
  22.  12
    History of circumscription.John McCarthy - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence 59 (1-2):23-26.
  23. Modality, si! Modal logic, no!John Mccarthy - 1997 - Studia Logica 59 (1):29-32.
    This article is oriented toward the use of modality in artificial intelligence (AI). An agent must reason about what it or other agents know, believe, want, intend or owe. Referentially opaque modalities are needed and must be formalized correctly. Unfortunately, modal logics seem too limited for many important purposes. This article contains examples of uses of modality for which modal logic seems inadequate.I have no proof that modal logic is inadequate, so I hope modal logicians will take the examples as (...)
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  24.  13
    The Inversion of Functions Defined by Turing Machines.John Mccarthy - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):481-481.
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  25. John Searle's chinese room argument.John McCarthy - manuscript
    John Searle begins his ``Consciousness, Explanatory Inversion and Cognitive Science'' with " ``Ten years ago in this journal I published an article criticising what I call Strong AI, the view that for a system to have mental states it is sufficient for the system to implement the right sort of program with right inputs and outputs. Strong AI is rather easy to refute and the basic argument can be summarized in one sentence: {it a system, me for example, could implement (...)
     
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  26. Actions and other events in situation calculus.John McCarthy - manuscript
    internal events that happen spontaneously from external events (actions). It also treats processes, e.g. a buzzer, that do not settle down. The non-monotonic reasoning is circumscription done situation by situation.
     
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  27. A tough nut for proof procedures.John McCarthy - unknown
    Here's the article which was a 1964 Stanford AI Memo. After the original memo, several people offered different proofs of the theorem including Shmuel Winograd, Marvin Minsky and Dimitri Stefanyuk - none published, to my knowledge. Winograd claimed that his proof was non-creative, because it didn't use an extraneous idea like the colors of the squares. This set off a contest to see who could produce the most non-creative proof. Minsky's idea was to start with the diagonal next to an (...)
     
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  28. Todd Moody's zombies.John McCarthy - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):345-347.
    From the AI point of view, consciousness must be regarded as a collection of interacting processes rather than the unitary object of much philosophical speculation. We ask what kinds of propositions and other entities need to be designed for consciousness to be useful to an animal or a machine. We thereby assert that human consciousness is useful to human functioning and not just and epiphenomenon. Zombies in the sense of Todd Moody's article are merely the victims of Moody's prejudices. To (...)
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  29.  44
    Toward a dialogical perspective on agency.Paul Sullivan & John Mccarthy - 2004 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (3):291–309.
    The aim of this article is to motivate and outline a dialogical perspective on agency that accommodates centrifugal and centripetal tendencies in current cultural theories of agency. To complement approaches that assume a high degree of integration and clarity, we emphasise the diversity of agency as it is experienced in the open-ended dialogical relationship with a particular other. While these former approaches to agency provide us with the means to examine the influence of social processes such as division of labour (...)
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  30. The Mutilated Checkerboard in Set Theory.John McCarthy - unknown
    An 8 by 8 checkerboard with two diagonally opposite squares removed cannot be covered by dominoes each of which covers two rectilinearly adjacent squares. present a set theory description of the proposition and an informal proof that the covering is impossible. While no present system that I know of will accept either formal description or the proof, I claim that both should be admitted in any heavy duty set theory.
     
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  31.  14
    Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics, I: Papers from the First Annual Symposium on Arabic LinguisticsPerspectives on Arabic Linguistics, II: Papers from the Second Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics.M. G. Carter, Mushira Eid & John McCarthy - 1992 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (1):143.
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  32. Friendship: No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed.Ken Knisely, John McCarthy & Matthew West - forthcoming - DVD.
    Aristotle and the shape of modern friendships. With John McCarthy and Matthew West.
     
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  33.  7
    A Basis for a Mathematical Theory of Computation, Preliminary Report.John Mccarthy, P. Braffort & D. Hirschberg - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (1):117-117.
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  34. An everywhere continuous nowhere differentiable function.John McCarthy - manuscript
    My 1953 proof that the function is everywhere continuous and nowhere differentiable is just 13 lines. I've added some remarks to the note in the American Mathematical Monthly.
     
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  35. An example for natural language understanding and the ai problems it raises.John McCarthy - manuscript
    An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the AI Problems it Raises I think this 1976 memorandum is of 1996 interest. The problems it raises haven't been solved or even substantially reformulated.
     
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  36. Artificial intelligence and philosophy.John McCarthy - 1995
    AI needs many ideas that have hitherto been studied only by philosophers. This is because a robot, if it is to have human level intelligence and ability to learn from its experience, needs a general world view in which to organize facts. It turns out that many philosophical problems take new forms when thought about in terms of how to design a robot. Some approaches to philosophy are helpful and others are not.
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  37.  11
    Artificial intelligence: a paper symposium.John McCarthy - 1974 - Artificial Intelligence 5 (3):317-322.
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  38. At the grand canyon: Verse.John Russell Mccarthy - 1923 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 4 (1):28.
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  39.  12
    Bickerton's creole cooking: Where's the beef?John J. McCarthy - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):563-563.
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  40. Beyond Lisp.John McCarthy - unknown
    • Lisp programs are Lisp data—abstract syntax. Programming languages need functions for their abstract • English is important for its semantics—not its syntax • The largest piece of cake—Kleene µ operator • An elephant never forgets and is faithful. • Resolution considered harmful. • Special provers are just strategies—Davis-Putnam • Programs as logical formulas—Algol 48 and Algol..
     
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  41. Bacon's third sailing: the Presocratic origins of modern philosophy.John C. McCarthy - 2013 - In Joe McCoy & Charles H. Kahn (eds.), Early Greek philosophy: the Presocratics and the emergence of reason. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.
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  42.  35
    Chesterton and Ireland.John P. McCarthy - 1993 - The Chesterton Review 19 (2):259-265.
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  43.  23
    Concepts As Objects.John McCarthy - unknown
    “...it seems that hardly anybody proposes to use different variables for propositions and for truth-values, or different variables for individuals and individual concepts.” (Carnap 1956, p. 113).
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  44.  14
    Competence cognitivism vs. performance cognitivism.John McCarthy - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (2):241-242.
  45.  7
    Command neurons and unitary behavior.John McCarthy - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):32-32.
  46. Creative Solutions to Problems.John McCarthy - unknown
    engineering—Achieve goals in the world—so study world 1. Write programs using non-logical representations. 2. represent facts about the world in logic and decide what to do by logical inference..
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  47. Challenges to machine learning: Relations between reality and appearance.John McCarthy - unknown
    Apology: My knowledge of of machine learning is no more recent than Tom Mitchell's book. Its chapters describe, except for inductive logic programming, programs aimed at classifying appearances.
     
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  48.  23
    Elephant 2000 - a programming language based on speech acts.John McCarthy - 1990
    Elephant 2000 is a proposed programming language good for writing and verifying programs that interact with people (eg. transaction processing) or interact with programs belonging to other organizations (eg. electronic data interchange) 1. Communication inputs and outputs are in an I-O language whose sentences are meaningful speech acts identified in the language as questions, answers, offers, acceptances, declinations, requests, permissions and promises. 2. The correctness of programs is partly defined in terms of proper performance of the speech acts. Answers should (...)
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  49. Essays.John McCarthy - manuscript
    Here are some essays written at various times. What does it mean to be rational? American History for Valley Girls The Chief Seattle Theme Park Here's a Manifesto of the Newtonian Brotherhood of Truly Christian Scientists . I regret to say that it has turned out to be necessary to explicitly characterize it as humor. I didn't mind that some careless readers accused me of being a bigot, but I had to put in a disclaimer when some readers emailed me (...)
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  50. Events of two centuries.John McCarthy - manuscript
    The most important scientific events of the 20th century were the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and the discovery of the genetic code. The most important engineering events were nuclear energy, which insures adequate energy for a billion years, the computer, micro-electronics, the green revolution, and the beginnings of genetic engineering. The general development of technology permits worldwide high standards of living.
     
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