This study analyses the influence that Adam Smith's philosophy had on his Wealth of Nations, and reveals the unity in Smith's extensive system of morals, politics, and economics. It concludes that Smith was motivated by a political ideal, which was moral liberalism.
A textbook presenting basic moral principles from the ethical standpoint of the author. The author contends that these basic principles do not change very often or very rapidly, although the application of these principles is subject to constant revision. Much of the literature in ethics is devoted to the application of moral philosophy; this book provides a thorough study of the principles themselves.
Is it ethical to perform a surgery whose purpose is to make a male look like a female or a female to appear male? Is it medically appropriate? Sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) violates basic medical and ethical principles and is therefore not ethically or medically appropriate. (1) SRS mutilates a healthy, non-diseased body. To perform surgery on a healthy body involves unnecessary risks; therefore, SRS violates the principle primum non nocere, “first, do no harm.” (2) Candidates for SRS may believe (...) that they are trapped in the bodies of the wrong sex and therefore desire or, more accurately, demand SRS; however, this belief is generated by a disordered perception of self. Such a fixed, irrational belief is appropriately described as a delusion. SRS, therefore, is a “category mistake”—it offers a surgical solution for psychological problems such as a failure to accept the goodness of one’s masculinity or femininity, lack of secure attachment relationships in childhood with same-sex peers or a parent, self-rejection, untreated gender identity disorder, addiction to masturbation and fantasy, poor body image, excessive anger, and severe psychopathology in a parent. (3) SRS does not accomplish what it claims to accomplish. It does not change a person’s sex; therefore, it provides no true benefit. (4) SRS is a “permanent,” effectively unchangeable, and often unsatisfying surgical attempt to change what may be only a temporary (i.e., psychotherapeutically changeable) psychological/psychiatric condition. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 9.1 (Spring2009): 97–125. (shrink)
In this paper we propose a unified semantics for singular and plural superlative expressions that makes use of the ‘**’ (“double star”) distributivity operator (an operator whose role is to pluralize 2-place predicates). The analysis aims to solve two problems: (a) the distributivity problem (the fact that a superlative expression doesn’t distribute over the atomic parts of the plural individual it is predicated of); and (b) the cut-off problem (the fact that a plural superlative expression cannot simultaneously be predicated of (...) two distinct yet overlapping plural individuals). We argue that any solution to these problems that posits two distinct superlative morphemes, one corresponding to a superlative operator for singular individuals and one corresponding to a superlative operator for plural individuals, is challenged by the lack of cross-linguistic morphological evidence. We provide a unified analysis, and account for the differences between plural and singular superlative expressions by appealing to pragmatic principles. (shrink)
International development policies inevitably encounter a conflict in their implementation, representing the gap between universal goals and grass-roots practice. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the significance of this gap, and to apply knowledge management principles as a lens to suggest bridging solutions. The research focuses on non-governmental organisations, which are a sub-section of the civil society. The study was unique as it took a Southern perspective—the views and experiences of policy-makers, practitioners and beneficiaries in Kenya (...) form the basis of the empirical research. Consequently, the research and its findings provide some answers as to how systems of knowledge can be aligned with the core values of organisational and societal culture in order to positively influence international stability. (shrink)
This paper explores the role of citizen journalism in the improvement of slums through the Voice of Kibera (VoK) case study. To meet the research objectives, both qualitative and quantitative methods are applied. The study used content analysis, a survey and interview techniques. It concluded that citizen journalism in the VoK uses a participatory, bottom-up approach, with the residents taking a lead role in the production and consumption of news, and that it plays its part in improving the lives of (...) people in Kibera, contributing to governance and processes of democracy. The core development values of participation and empowerment are central to this study, which examines how these values are being impacted on by information technology interventions in the communications area. The research also concludes that citizen journalism may be sustainable if it is financed, promoted, resourced with professional journalists, equipped with new technologies and citizens continue to participate. Lack of cooperation from the audience, finance both for the running of the project, salary and technical problems were cited as the major challenges of citizen journalism. (shrink)
Antoni Domènech was one of Spain’s most important political philosophers of the late twentieth and early twentyfirst centuries. Known primarily as a scholar of republicanism, his work on the concepts of individual liberty and rights complicates standard liberal definitions, which he believed erred in defining these terms independent of institutional context, as pre-political attributes of the individual. He argued that republicanism corrected liberalism’s abstraction by making one’s actually being able to exercise liberty and rights depend on one’s enjoying a sufficiently (...) robust set of material conditions, or on having enough property so that one could always avoid unequal social relationships. (shrink)
El autor presenta a estos dos dramaturgos de culturas marcadamente distintas, que realizaron aportes libertarios frente a políticas represivas en las repúblicas de Sudáfrica y de Chile. Para ello contextualiza el país y el tiempo en que escribieron, y nos ofrece una interiorización a sus dramaturgias. Fugard produjo en un contexto de apartheid desde la clandestinidad. Radrigán, bajo dictadura y en condiciones de represión y autocensura. Ambos rescatan la dignidad de los marginados de su patria.
Rhetorical ethos and dramatic theory -- Syntax, style, and ethos -- The worth of words -- Memory and ethos -- Shaw, ethos, and rhetorical wit -- Athol Fugard's dramatic rhetoric -- Rhetoric and silence in Holocaust drama.
Introduction -- Overview of the contemporary global context : life stories -- Data on poverty, hunger, and inequality in an age of globalization -- The goals and structure of this book -- Development theory and practice : an overview -- Origins of the concept of development -- Modernization theory -- Modernization theory and U.S. aid policy -- The impact of modernizationist development -- Structuralist economic theories -- Dependency theories -- Basic needs approach -- New international economic order -- Alternative development (...) -- The impact of reformist thought on development policy -- Neoliberal resurgence and structural adjustment policies -- Current debates in development studies -- The failures of modernizationist development : a closer look -- The impacts of colonialism and slavery -- Post-WW II development policies and the third world debt crisis -- Consequences of debt and structural adjustment -- Responses to the debt crisis -- United States opposition to social change in the third world -- Summary of major structural influences on the third world -- Catholic social teaching and development -- CST prior to Pope John XXIII -- Early reflections on development : John XXIII and Vatican II -- The pivotal contributions of Paul VI, the Latin American bishops, and justice in the world -- John Paul II : the centrality of solidarity -- The social ethics of Benedict XVI -- Summary of catholic social teaching on development issues -- Catholic social teaching and political economy : neoconservative and radical critiques -- Neoconservative reflections on CST -- Radical reflections on CST -- Evaluation of neoconservative, radical, and CST views -- Grassroots critics of development and neoliberal globalization -- Rejecting the quest for development - Vandana shiva : the violence of development and reductionist science -- Further issues in the development/globalization debates -- Reclaiming the commons : the positive visions of development critics -- Catholic social teaching, the radical tradition, and development critics -- Grassroots action and policy alternatives -- Grassroots organizations in the third world : an overview -- The impact of grassroots organizations -- Development policies : follow the nic model -- Alternative development policies -- Differing visions : alternative development vs. regeneration -- Prospects for the adoption of alternative policies -- Re-envisioning C atholic social teaching -- The contributions of CST to the development debate -- Enhancing Catholic social teaching -- Structural analysis of capitalism -- Women, development, and CST -- CST, modernization, and cultural diversity -- CST and ecology - CST, grassroots movements, and social struggle -- The church and social change -- Social criticism and pioneering creativity : how Christians can constructively address issues of development and globalization -- Education -- Lifestyle choices -- Responsible purchasing -- Responsible investment -- Organizing, activism, and aid provision -- Direct service/solidarity -- Responsible parenting -- Applying CST in the life of the church -- Concluding reflections -- Theological epilogue: The path of discipleship. (shrink)
Somerville, Margaret Review of: Scholars turn their minds to marriage : The jurisprudence of marriage and other intimate relationships, by Scott FitzGibbon, Lynn D. Wardle, and A. Scott Loveless, Buffalo, NY: William S. Hein and Co., 2010.
Why Revisit Classics Like Antigone? Sophocles’ dramatic depiction of the myth of Antigone has undergone a range of theatrical reincarnations over the centuries, from the tellingly entitled Antigone ou le piete by Robert Garnier to versions and free translations by Vittorio Alfieri , Friedrich Hölderin , Johann Wolfgang Goethe , Walter Hasenclaver , Jean Coc- teau , Jean Anouilh , Bertolt Brecht , Tom Paulin , Athol Fugard , Miro Gavran and Seamus Heaney – to name just a few. (...) It is the contention of this analysis that dramatic reinterpretations of Sophocles’ Antigone have fallen into two very distinct phases; firstly those comprising predominantly reverential appropriations of the ancient classic which tap into the source text’s cultural cachet to bolster the cultural, religious and political aims of the society in which it was currently being performed; and secondly, the post 1945 appropriations. It is the sec- ond phase that will provide the particular focus for this discussion. (shrink)
ARAGÃO, Ivan Rêgo. “ Vinde todas as pessoas, e vede a minha dor ”: A Festa/Procissão ao Nosso Senhor dos Passos como Atrativo Potencial Turístico em São Cristóvão-Sergipe-Brasil. 2012. 198f. Dissertação (Mestrado) Cultura e Turismo – Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilhéus-BA. Palavras-chave: Turismo Cultural-Religioso Católico. Religiosidade Popular. Festa do Senhor dos Passos. Keywords: Catholic Religious-Cultural Tourism. Popular Religiosity. Party of Lord of the Steps.