Este artigo trata do livro de Ruy Fausto, Marx, Logique et Politique, Recherches pour une recostitution du sens de la dialectique, publicado na França em 1986. Procura mostrar como o autor examina diferentes leituras de Marx: - a de Althusser, Castoriadis e Bonetti e Cartellier - fazendo ver que todas elas são leituras do entendimento.
A homonymy analysis is proposed to explain the so-called “demonstrative use” of personal pronouns. This analysis explains why some pronouns (_it_) do not allow a demonstrative use, as demonstrated in Nunberg (1993). The absence of a demonstrative feature in _it_ can also account for the fact that it does not allow deferred reference. It is argued on the basis of the structure of the nominal demonstrative paradigm that the homonymy analysis is more parsimonious than a single-item analysis.
Taking Parenting Public makes a compelling case that parenting has become dangerously undervalued in America today. It calls for a new investment—both personal and public—into the work of raising children and argues that we are all "stockholders" in the next generation. With a foreword by Sylvia Ann Hewlett and Cornel West, Taking Parenting Public crosses boundaries to bring together thinkers from diverse fields spanning the political spectrum. It features contributions from distinguished experts in economics, political science, public policy, child development, (...) public health, history, and the media. While recent books have focused on working mothers or absent fathers, Taking Parenting Public is the first volume to take a comprehensive look at the common struggles of parents. These essays go beyond the usual chest-beating about busy parents torn between work and family demands to suggest bold solutions. Instead of the typical call for "parent replacement"—more child care, more after school programs and more mentors—the contributors offer fresh strategies for "parent replenishment," ways to put mothers and fathers back into the lives of their children not only as economic providers, but also as emotional and moral providers. (shrink)
SummaryLooking at proof theory as an attempt to ‘code’ the general pattern of the logical steps of a mathematical proof, the question of what kind of rules can make the meaning of a logical connective completely explicit does not seem to have been answered satisfactorily. The lambda calculus seems to have been more coherent simply because the use of ‘λ’ together with its projection 'apply' is specified by what can be called a 'reduction' rule: β‐conversion. We attempt to analyse the (...) role of proof rules, making use of a set of formal rules designed to capture both the notions of proof theory and those of the lambda‐calculus: Martin‐Löf's Intuitionistic Type Theory.RésuméSi on considère la théorie de la démonstration comme une tentative de ‘codifier’ les pas logiques d'une démonstration mathématique, on se rendra compte qu'on n'a pas répondu de façon satisfaisante à la question suivante: quelles sont les règies qui rendent complètement explicite le sens d'un connecteur logique? Le lambda‐calcul a été apparemment plus cohérent, tout simplement parce que l'utilisation du‘λ’ avec sa projection 'apply' est spécifiée par une regie de 'réduction': β‐conversion. Nous essayons d'analyser le rôle des règies de démonstration, en utilisant un système formel de règies conçu pour englober à la fois les notions de la théorie de la démonstration et celles du lambda‐calcul: la Théorie Intuitionniste des Types de Martin‐Löf.ZusammenfassungWenn man Beweistheorie als einen Versuch, ein allgemeines Muster der logischen Schritte in einem mathematischen Beweis zu kodifizieren, betrachtet, so scheint die Frage nach der Art von Regeln , die die Bedeutung von logischen Operatoren vollständig beschreiben, nicht zufriedenstellend beantwortet. Der Lambda‐Kalkül erscheint, kohärenter, einfach deshalb weil der Gebrauch von ‘λ’ zusammen mit dessen Projektion 'apply' durch Regeln bestimmt wird, die man 'Reduktions'‐Regeln nennen kann: β‐Konversion. Wir versuchen, die Rolle von Beweisregeln zu analysieren, indem wir ein Regelsystem verwenden, das sowohl die Begriffe der Beweistheorie als auch diejenigen des Lambda‐Kalküls erfasst, nämlich die Martin‐Löfsche Typentheorie. (shrink)
Este ensaio visa elucidar as relações entre Marx e Hegel a partir da análise de questões que diferenciam a “dialética limitada" do primeiro frente à dialética e à especulação do segundo. Essa diferença é destacada no estudo do problema do "entendimento", da “imaginação” do “tempo”, da “matéria” e da "negação".
An appropriate framework is put forward for the construction of $$\lambda $$ -models with $$\infty $$ -groupoid structure, which we call homotopic $$\lambda $$ -models, through the use of an $$\infty $$ -category with cartesian closure and enough points. With this, we establish the start of a project of generalization of Domain Theory and $$\lambda $$ -calculus, in the sense that the concept of proof (path) of equality of $$\lambda $$ -terms is raised to higher proof (homotopy).
A disciplina Filosofia no ensino secundário/médio brasileiro apresenta um movimento de intermitência caracterizado ora pela presença garantida, ora pela presença indefinida e ora pela ausência garantida, tal como define Dalton José Alves. Analisar esse fenômeno pela perspectiva da história das disciplinas escolare,s sob a compreensão de Chervel e Goodson, foi o objetivo deste trabalho. Para a investigação utilizou-se como fontes as leis de reformas do ensino secundário brasileiro, os programas da disciplina e a distribuição da carga horária destinada ao seu (...) ensino determinadas pelas reformas. Concluiu-se que essa intermitência foi favorecida pelas políticas governamentais liberais de cunho desenvolvimentista, pela ausência de um corpus academicus que sustentasse a Filosofia enquanto disciplina na Educação Básica brasileira e pela aparente inadequação do saber filosófico à proposta da escola moderna. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is studying the importance of the antithetical pair sympathy-antipathy, as an interpretive instrument of the human phýsis in the Hippocratic medical epistemology. His study aims to be a contribution to the understanding of the methods of inference developed by ancient medicine, in parallel to the demonstrative method.
This paper expects establish the importance of the Project of a psychology for neurologists in the whole of Freud’s work, pointing out those points in which anticipates the theory that some years later will revolutionize the human thought, that is, anyone who defines the field of the psychoanalysis and that has to psychic device items and of unconscious as axes head offices.
In this article, it tries to interpret the modern society under the the logic of the market, in which the human being is removed of the historical center and substituted by the consumption object, that stars to assume preponderant factor of control and social alienation in actual historial stage. The purpose of this article is to deonstrate that the contemporary society didn't renounce the rite neither the mythm as construction instruments and psychological and sociological elabration, To approriate or to link (...) with the being or object of the desire it requests a logical asbolutely formal, contractual and self-denial. (shrink)
Affect misattribution occurs when affective cues color subsequent unrelated evaluations. Research suggests that affect misattribution decreases when one is aware that affective cues are unrelated to the evaluation at hand. We propose that affect misattribution may even occur when one is aware that affective cues are irrelevant, as long as the source of these cues seems ambiguous. When source ambiguity exists, affective cues may freely influence upcoming unrelated evaluations. We examined this using an adapted affect misattribution procedure where pleasant and (...) unpleasant responses served as affective cues that could influence later evaluations of unrelated targets. These affective cues were either perceived as reflecting a single source , or as reflecting two sources suggesting source ambiguity. Results show that misattribution of affect decreased when participants perceived affective cues as representing one source rather than two. (shrink)
The intention here is that of giving a formal underpinning to the idea of ‘meaning-is-use’ which, even if based on proofs, it is rather different from proof-theoretic semantics as in the Dummett–Prawitz tradition. Instead, it is based on the idea that the meaning of logical constants are given by the explanation of immediate consequences, which in formalistic terms means the effect of elimination rules on the result of introduction rules, i.e. the so-called reduction rules. For that we suggest an extension (...) to the Curry– Howard interpretation which draws on the idea of labelled deduction, and brings back Frege’s device of variable-abstraction to operate on the labels (i.e., proof-terms) alongside formulas of predicate logic. (shrink)
Este artículo pretende establecer la importancia del Proyecto de una psicología para neurólogos en el conjunto de la obra de Freud, señalando aquellos puntos en los que anticipa la teoría que, unos años más tarde, revolucionará el pensamiento humano, es decir, aquella que define el campo del psicoanálisis y que tiene a los conceptos de aparato psíquico y de inconsciente como ejes centrales.
The question of finding a suitable formal account of meaning for the logical signs has troubled many philosophers and logicians since the early days of formal logic, whenever it is even recognised as a problem. Here I attempt to show how two operational approaches to the problem can still be shown to be ‘technically’ equivalent, despite having emerged from two different readings of a single philosophical account, and being essentially distinct with respect to the rôle of ‘will’ in the mathematical (...) activity: on the one hand, the ‘semantics of use’, my own reformulation of P. Martin‐Löf's Intuitionistic Type Theory canonical‐values based semantics by taking the normalisation rules as the key semantical device; and, on the other hand, J. Hintikka's Game‐Theoretical Semantics, where the meaning of logical signs is given via semantical games. The philosophical account from which both emerge is precisely Wittgenstein's later account of propositions, where the notion of ‘language‐games’ is introduced as a key semantical device. Observing that the normalisation rules seem to be able to formalise the explanation of the consequences one can draw from a proposition,3 thus showing the function/purpose/usefulness of its main connective in the calculus of language, it seems reasonable to advocate that such a meta‐mathematical device can be a semantically useful notion which would lead to a more reasonable account of the problem of formulating the meaning of logical constants. (shrink)
La "yesería" constituye uno de los elementos decorativos más característicos de nuestra arquitectura medieval. La imagen que hoy tenemos de La Alhambra, de la Sinagoga del Tránsito, y de tantos otros palacios y conventos, se debe a ese barato elemento constructivo que logró crear la misma apariencia de lujo de las telas o el marfil. Como hemos podido estudiar en nuestro artículo del número anterior (Al-Qantara, XX, 275-297), en el palacio de Ruy López Dávalos de Toledo se conserva uno de (...) los conjuntos más fascinantes del siglo XIV, el cual nos ha llevado a preparar estas páginas sobre la técnica de la yesería medieval. (shrink)
ABSTRACT This article explores the afterlives of the photographic production by Ruy Duarte de Carvalho, a Portuguese-born Angolan anthropologist who amidst the country's long-lasting civil war engaged with the Ovakuvale trans-humant shepherds dwelling in the semi-arid region of southern Angola. Through the 1990s, Carvalho used analogue photographic cameras to document his field-work among the Ovakuvale, and afterwards engaged in various experiments with the medium for ethnographic purposes. Departing from the current assemblage of Carvalho's personal archive that remains after he passed (...) away, I explore distinct photographic relations connected to public usages of his Ovakuvale images during his lifetime, to discuss the ways in which he articulated them through diverse expressive modes and ventures - such as watercolours, illustrated publications, temporary exhibitions and a theatre play. Offering the opportunity to surrender to a broad experimental practice that makes his overall Ovakuvale ethnography particularly revealing, I project through the current archival assemblage a comparative approach to the rationales guiding the presentation of his Ovakuvale field images, to discuss salient temporal relationships between his method to produce and later reuse these images in postcolonial times. (shrink)
One takes advantage of some basic properties of every homotopic \(\lambda\)-model (e.g. extensional Kan complex) to explore the higher \(\beta\eta\)-conversions, which would correspond to proofs of equality between terms of a theory of equality of any extensional Kan complex. Besides, Identity types based on computational paths are adapted to a type-free theory with higher \(\lambda\)-terms, whose equality rules would be contained in the theory of any \(\lambda\)-homotopic model.
The conception of contagious disease that Girolamo Fracastoro provides in his work De contagione et contagiosis morbis, marks the origin of modern epidemiology and microbiology. This conception puts into play the Galenic and Aristotelian traditions of research, faced with its own conceptual limitations of the growing mechanistic thought of the time. According to Fracastoro, epidemic diseases spread by invisible living germs called seminaria, begotten by corrupted humours. Fracastoro resorted to the old notions of "sympathy" and "antipathy" to respond to questions (...) about how seminaria is transmitted from one body to another, and what is the specificity that limits its transmission to certain species and organs. Like Galileo and Descartes, Fracastoro tries to establish a dialogue in the field of medicine between the Aristotelian vitalism and the modern mechanistic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ideological, theoretical and conceptual assumptions, both philosophical and scientific, assumed by Fracastoro with regard to the problem of contagion. (shrink)
The clinical empiricism of Thomas Sydenham (1624–1689) and his definition of especie morbosae represented a substantial turn in the medicine of his time. This turn supposed the shift towards an ontological conception of diseases, from a qualitative to quantitative interpretation. Sydenham’s clinical proposal had a great influence on empiricism philosophical thinking, particularly in John Locke and his delimitation of knowledge. The dialogue between medicine and philosophy, set out by Sydenham-Locke, reactivates the problem of the clinical and theoretical foundations of medical (...) thought, as well as the limits of scientific knowledge. Similar to problem exposed in the Hippocratic treatise On ancient medicine, seventeenth-century medicine seeks its epistemological foundations and the solution to its difficulties in clinical experience, probability and analogy. The aim of this work is to show the Sydenham’s contribution to one of the great controversies between medicine and philosophy. (shrink)
Dividing chains have been used as conditions to isolate adequate subclasses of simple theories. In the first part of this paper we present an introduction to the area. We give an overview on fundamental notions and present proofs of some of the basic and well-known facts related to dividing chains in simple theories. In the second part we discuss various characterizations of the subclass of low theories. Our main theorem generalizes and slightly extends a well-known fact about the connection between (...) dividing chains and Morley sequences (in our case: independent sequences). Moreover, we are able to give a proof that is shorter than the original one. This result motivates us to introduce a special property of formulas concerning independent dividing chains: For any dividing chain there exists an independent dividing chain of the same length. We study this property in the context of low, short and ω -categorical simple theories, outline some examples and define subclasses of low and short theories, which imply this property. The results give rise to further studies of the relationships between some subclasses of simple theories. (shrink)
Este volumen trata de temas que en el mundo se debaten desde diversas perspectivas: la cuestion del embrion, el asesoramiento genetico y diagnostico prenatal, el aborto, la clonacion y celulas troncales, trasplante de organos, investigacion medica en seres humanos, eutanasia, neuroetica, eugenesia, etc. Ademas, el primer capitulo nos introduce al surgimiento del concepto de etica, y de ahi al nacimiento de la bioetica. Los autores exponen con seriedad e imparcialidad los puntos de vista contrarios a los que ellos mismos sostienen, (...) lo cual confiere a sus textos la probidad intelectual indispensable para una obra de esta naturaleza. (shrink)
The intention here is that of giving a formal underpinning to the idea of 'meaning-is-use' which, even if based on proofs, it is rather different from proof-theoretic semantics as in the Dummett-Prawitz tradition. Instead, it is based on the idea that the meaning of logical constants are given by the explanation of immediate consequences, which in formalistic terms means the effect of elimination rules on the result of introduction rules, i. e. the so-called reduction rules. For that we suggest an (...) extension to the Curry-Howard interpretation which draws on the idea of labelled deduction, and brings back Frege's device of variable-abstraction to operate on the labels (i. e., proof-terms) alongside formulas of predicate logic. (shrink)
En el presente artículo, indagamos en torno a la teoría de la dependencia de Ruy Mauro Marini y sus estudios de principios de los años 1970, a fin de retomar los aportes teóricos-metodológicos que proporciona frente al problema de la conceptualización de las clases sociales en América Latina. Recuperamos los estudios desarrollados entre 1973, año de publicación de La dialéctica de la dependencia, y 1979, cuando se divulgan los artículos “Plusvalía extraordinaria y acumulación de capital” y “El ciclo del capital (...) en la economía dependiente”. En este período, desarrolló el núcleo de su crítica a la economía política latinoamericana y los cimientos de la categoría de dependencia. Asimismo, produjo una serie de estudios volcados a pensar la coyuntura chilena de la época. Muchos de estos materiales fueron compilados en el libro El reformismo y la contrarrevolución. El diálogo entre los textos teóricos y los estudios sobre Chile constituyen la fuente principal de nuestra indagación. Nuestra hipótesis es que, en estos textos, escritos al calor de las luchas y proceso políticos y culturales, hay implícita una orientación teórico metodológica que hace a la consideración de las clases sociales en el capitalismo dependiente latinoamericano y desborda los acontecimientos puntuales para abonar la construcción de herramientas que permiten comprender determinaciones en un plano general, ligadas a las reconfiguraciones neoliberales del capitalismo. (shrink)