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  1. Ethical Sensemaking in Impact Investing: Reasons and Motives in the Chinese Renewable Energy Sector.Tongyu Meng, Jamie Newth & Christine Woods - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 179 (4):1091-1117.
    This article explores impact investing within the renewable energy sector. Drawing on ethical decision making and sensemaking, this article contributes to an enhanced understanding of the complex ethical sensemaking process of impact investors when facing plausible situations in a world of contested truths. Addressing the ethical tensions faced by impact investors with mixed motives, this study investigates the way decision makers use context-specific reasons to make sense of and shape the renewable energy investment process. This represents an initial attempt to (...)
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  • Applying Research Findings to Enhance Pre-Practicum Ethics Training.Alfred Allan - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (6):465-482.
    Professions have a social obligation to ensure that their members’ professional behavior is morally appropriate. The psychology profession in most jurisdictions delegates the responsibility of ensuring that psychologists entering the profession are ethically competent to pre-practicum training programs. Educators responsible for teaching the ethics courses in these programs often base them on Rest’s theory that does not take into account a vast amount of contemporary psychological and neuroscientific research data on moral decision making. My aim with this article is therefore (...)
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  • A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Face-to-Face and Online Delivery in Ethics Instruction: The Case for a Hybrid Approach.E. Michelle Todd, Logan L. Watts, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Brett S. Torrence, Megan R. Turner, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (6):1719-1754.
    Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research, few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses. The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, representing 106 ethics courses and 10,069 participants. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed for each delivery format. Process-based contents were best delivered face-to-face, whereas contents delivered online (...)
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  • Coding Ethical Decision-Making in Research.David J. Hartmann, Thomas Van Valey & Wayne Fuqua - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):121-146.
    This paper presents methods and challenges attendant on the use of protocol analysis to develop a model of heuristic processing applied to research ethics. Participants are exposed to ethically complex scenarios and asked to verbalize their thoughts as they formulate a requested decision. The model identifies functional parts of the decision-making task: interpretation, retrieval, judgment and editing and seeks to reliably code participant verbalizations to those tasks as well as to a set of cognitive tools generally useful in such work. (...)
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  • Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multilevel Approach.Michael D. Mumford, Logan Steele & Logan L. Watts - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (1):37-60.
    Although education in the responsible conduct of research is considered necessary, evidence bearing on the effectiveness of these programs in improving research ethics has indicated that, although some programs are successful, many fail. Accordingly, there is a need for systematic evaluation of ethics education programs. In the present effort, we examine procedures for evaluation of ethics education programs from a multilevel perspective: examining both within-program evaluation and cross-program evaluation. With regard to within-program evaluation, we note requisite designs and measures for (...)
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  • Retracted Article: Improving Case-Based Ethics Training: How Modeling Behaviors and Forecasting Influence Effectiveness.Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):299-299.
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  • Moral Identity as Leverage Point in Teaching Business Ethics.Jun Gu & Cristina Neesham - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (3):527-536.
    This paper examines whether appealing to learners’ moral identity makes a significant contribution to improving their ethical decision making beyond traditional, rule-based teaching. In response to criticisms leveled at rule-based ethics teaching by alternative approaches, we identify moral identity theory and experiments in moral psychology as useful sources to draw on for the creation of a new, identity-based ethics teaching approach. We develop and apply a set of regular self-reflection focused writing tasks added to the traditional teaching program over a (...)
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  • Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education. [REVIEW]Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):883-912.
    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were (...)
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  • Examining the Effects of Incremental Case Presentation and Forecasting Outcomes on Case-Based Ethics Instruction.Alexandra E. MacDougall, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Juandre Peacock, Michael D. Mumford, Lynn D. Devenport & Shane Connelly - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (2):126-150.
    Case-based reasoning has long been used to facilitate instructional effectiveness. Although much remains to be known concerning the most beneficial way to present case material, recent literature suggests that simplifying case material is favorable. Accordingly, the current study manipulated two instructional techniques, incremental case presentation and forecasting outcomes, in a training environment in an attempt to better understand the utility of simplified versus complicated case presentation for learning. Findings suggest that pairing these two cognitively demanding techniques reduces satisfaction and detracts (...)
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  • A Comparison of the Effects of Ethics Training on International and US Students.T. Lee Williams, Shane Connelly, Michael Mumford, Alexandra MacDougall, Logan Watts, James Johnson & Logan Steele - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1217-1244.
    As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Study 1 of this paper, a measure of biases and compensatory strategies that could influence ethical decisions was administered. Results from this study indicated that graduate students from the United States and international graduate students (...)
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  • Continuous Evaluation in Ethics Education: A Case Study.Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Michael Mumford, Shane Connelly & James DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):727-754.
    A great need for systematic evaluation of ethics training programs exists. Those tasked with developing an ethics training program may be quick to dismiss the value of training evaluation in continuous process improvement. In the present effort, we use a case study approach to delineate how to leverage formative and summative evaluation measures to create a high-quality ethics education program. With regard to formative evaluation, information bearing on trainee reactions, qualitative data from the comments of trainees, in addition to empirical (...)
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  • Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.Michael J. Bernstein, Kiera Reifschneider, Ira Bennett & Jameson M. Wetmore - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):861-882.
    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. “Science Outside the Lab” is a program designed to help early-career scientists (...)
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  • Active Vs Intuitive Sensemaking: Examination Through the Lens of Generation, Evaluation, and Revision in Ethical Decision-Making.Yash Gujar, Cory Higgs, Chanda Sanders, Mark Fichtel, Tristan McIntosh, Megan R. Turner, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (4):215-244.
    ABSTRACT Research examining ethical decision-making has focused on how people engage in EDM, leading many researchers to focus on sensemaking models of EDM. Although the merits of a sensemaking approach with respect to EDM are evident in the literature, less is known about the specific cognitive processes by which sensemaking impacts EDM. This study examines the impact of three late-cycle cognitive processes – idea generation, evaluation, and revision – as well as the timing of these processes on EDM. Results indicate (...)
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  • Improving Case-Based Ethics Training with Codes of Conduct and Forecasting Content.Lauren N. Harkrider, Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Michael D. Mumford, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):258 - 280.
    Although case-based training is popular for ethics education, little is known about how specific case content influences training effectiveness. Therefore, the effects of (a) codes of ethical conduct and (b) forecasting content were investigated. Results revealed richer cases, including both codes and forecasting content, led to increased knowledge acquisition, greater sensemaking strategy use, and better decision ethicality. With richer cases, a specific pattern emerged. Specifically, content describing codes alone was more effective when combined with short-term forecasts, whereas content embedding codes (...)
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  • Case-Based Knowledge and Ethics Education: Improving Learning and Transfer Through Emotionally Rich Cases.Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly, Lauren Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):265-286.
    Case-based instruction is a stable feature of ethics education, however, little is known about the attributes of the cases that make them effective. Emotions are an inherent part of ethical decision-making and one source of information actively stored in case-based knowledge, making them an attribute of cases that likely facilitates case-based learning. Emotions also make cases more realistic, an essential component for effective case-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of emotional case content, and complementary (...)
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  • Effects of Alternative Outcome Scenarios and Structured Outcome Evaluation on Case-Based Ethics Instruction.Juandre Peacock, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Shane Connelly, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford & Lynn D. Devenport - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1283-1303.
    Case-based instruction has been regarded by many as a viable alternative to traditional lecture-based education and training. However, little is known about how case-based training techniques impact training effectiveness. This study examined the effects of two such techniques: (a) presentation of alternative outcome scenarios to a case, and (b) conducting a structured outcome evaluation. Consistent with the hypotheses, results indicate that presentation of alternative outcome scenarios reduced knowledge acquisition, reduced sensemaking and ethical decision-making strategy use, and reduced decision ethicality. Conducting (...)
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  • Case-Based Ethics Instruction: The Influence of Contextual and Individual Factors in Case Content on Ethical Decision-Making.Zhanna Bagdasarov, Chase E. Thiel, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly, Lauren N. Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1305-1322.
    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include (...)
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  • A Comparison of the Effects of Ethics Training on International and US Students.Logan M. Steele, James F. Johnson, Logan L. Watts, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & T. H. Lee Williams - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1217-1244.
    As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Study 1 of this paper, a measure of biases and compensatory strategies that could influence ethical decisions was administered. Results from this study indicated that graduate students from the United States and international graduate students (...)
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  • The Influence of Temporal Orientation and Affective Frame on Use of Ethical Decision-Making Strategies.Cheryl K. Stenmark, Laura E. Martin, Lynn D. Devenport, Alison L. Antes, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Chase E. Thiel - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (2):127-146.
    This study examined the role of temporal orientation and affective frame in the execution of ethical decision-making strategies. In reflecting on a past experience or imagining a future experience, participants thought about experiences that they considered either positive or negative. The participants recorded their thinking about that experience by responding to several questions, and their responses were content-analyzed for the use of ethical decision-making strategies. The findings indicated that a future temporal orientation was associated with greater strategy use. Likewise, a (...)
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  • Biases and Compensatory Strategies: The Efficacy of a Training Intervention.Jensen T. Mecca, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Vincent Giorgini, Carter Gibson, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (2):128-143.
    Research misconduct is of growing concern within the scientific community. As a result, organizations must identify effective approaches to training for ethics in research. Previous research has suggested that biases and compensatory strategies may represent important influences on the ethical decision-making process. The present effort investigated a training intervention targeting these variables. The results of the intervention are presented, as well as a description of accompanying exercises tapping self-reflection, sensemaking, and forecasting and their differential effectiveness on transfer to an ethical (...)
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  • The Effects of Note-Taking and Review on Sensemaking and Ethical Decision Making.James F. Johnson, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (4):299-323.
    The effectiveness of case-based learning in ethics education varies widely regarding how cases are presented. Case process instruction may impact case-based ethics education to promote sensemaking processes, ethical sensemaking strategy use, and ethical decision making (EDM) quality. This study examined two teaching techniques, notes and review, and participants completed note-taking and review activities examining a case-based scenario during an ethics education course. Results suggest that providing case notes in outline form improves sensemaking processes, strategy use, and EDM quality. In addition, (...)
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  • Structuring Case-Based Ethics Training: How Comparing Cases and Structured Prompts Influence Training Effectiveness.Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (3):179-198.
    This study examined how structuring case-based ethics training, either through (a) case presentation or (b) prompt questions, influences training outcomes. Results revealed an interaction between case presentation and prompt questions such that some form of structure improved effectiveness. Specifically, comparing cases led to greater sensemaking strategy use and decision-ethicality when trainees considered unstructured rather than structured prompts. When cases were presented sequentially, structuring prompts improved training effectiveness. Too much structure, however, decreased future ethical decision making, suggesting that there can be (...)
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  • The Influence of Anger on Ethical Decision Making: Comparison of a Primary and Secondary Appraisal.Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly & Jennifer A. Griffith - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (5):380 - 403.
    Higher order cognitive processes, including ethical decision making (EDM), are influenced by the experiencing of discrete emotions. Recent research highlights the negative influence one such emotion, anger, has on EDM and its underlying processes. The mechanism, however, by which anger disrupts the EDM has not been investigated. The current study sought to discover whether cognitive appraisals of an emotion-evoking event are the driving mechanisms behind the influence of anger on EDM. One primary (goal obstacle) and one secondary (certainty) appraisal of (...)
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  • Mental Models and Ethical Decision Making: The Mediating Role of Sensemaking.Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (1):133-144.
    The relationship between mental models and ethical decision making, along with the mechanisms through which mental models affect EDM, are not well understood. Using the sensemaking approach to EDM, we empirically tested the relationship of mental models to EDM. Participants were asked to depict their mental models in response to an ethics case to reveal their understanding of the ethical dilemma, and then provide a response, along with a rationale, to a different ethical problem. Findings indicated that complexity of respondents’ (...)
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  • Structuring Case-Based Ethics Training: How Comparing Cases and Structured Prompts Influence Training Effectiveness.Lauren Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior:150527093230007.
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