Results for 'Problem solving'

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  1. Problem Solving and Situated Cognition.David Kirsh - 2009 - The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition:264-306.
    In the course of daily life we solve problems often enough that there is a special term to characterize the activity and the right to expect a scientific theory to explain its dynamics. The classical view in psychology is that to solve a problem a subject must frame it by creating an internal representation of the problem’s structure, usually called a problem space. This space is an internally generable representation that is mathematically identical to a graph structure (...)
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    Complex Problem Solving: What It Is and What It Is Not.Dörner Dietrich & Funke Joachim - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Computer-simulated scenarios have been part of psychological research on problem solving for more than 40 years. The shift in emphasis from simple toy problems to complex, more real-life oriented problems has been accompanied by discussions about the best ways to assess the process of solving complex problems. Psychometric issues such as reliable assessments and addressing correlations with other instruments have been in the foreground of these discussions and have left the content validity of complex problem (...) in the background. In this paper, we return the focus to content issues and address the important features that define complex problems. (shrink)
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  3.  27
    Interdisciplinary Problem- Solving: Emerging Modes in Integrative Systems Biology.Miles MacLeod & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):401-418.
    Integrative systems biology is an emerging field that attempts to integrate computation, applied mathematics, engineering concepts and methods, and biological experimentation in order to model large-scale complex biochemical networks. The field is thus an important contemporary instance of an interdisciplinary approach to solving complex problems. Interdisciplinary science is a recent topic in the philosophy of science. Determining what is philosophically important and distinct about interdisciplinary practices requires detailed accounts of problem-solving practices that attempt to understand how specific (...)
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  4.  14
    ProblemSolving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.Travis J. Wiltshire, Jonathan E. Butner & Stephen M. Fiore - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):129-167.
    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem (...)
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  5.  97
    Problem Solving and Situated Cognition.David Kirsh - 2009 - In Philip Robbins & M. Aydede (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 264--306.
    In the course of daily life we solve problems often enough that there is a special term to characterize the activity and the right to expect a scientific theory to explain its dynamics. The classical view in psychology is that to solve a problem a subject must frame it by creating an internal representation of the problem‘s structure, usually called a problem space. This space is an internally generable representation that is mathematically identical to a graph structure (...)
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  6.  1
    Group Problem Solving.Patrick R. Laughlin - 2011 - Princeton University Press.
    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical, (...)
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  7.  11
    Problem-Solving Argumentative Patterns in Plenary Debates of the European Parliament.Bart Garssen - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (1):25-43.
    The aim of this paper is to describe the way in which argumentative patterns come into being in plenary debate over legislative issues in the European Parliament. What kind of argumentative patterns are to be expected within this macro context? It is shown that the argumentative patterns that come into being in legislative debate in the European Parliament depend for the most part on the problem-solving argumentation that is put forward in the opening speech by the rapporteur of (...)
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  8. A Problem-Solving Approach to Scientific Progress.Larry Laudan - 1981 - In Ian Hacking (ed.), Scientific Revolutions. Oxford University Press.
     
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  9.  8
    Logic for Problem Solving.Robert Kowalski - 1979 - Ediciones Díaz de Santos.
    Investigates the application of logic to problem solving and computer programming. Requires no previous knowledge in this field, and therefore can be used as an introduction to logic, the theory of problem-solving and computer programming. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
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  10.  1
    Problem-Solving with Diagrammatic Representations.Brian V. Funt - 1980 - Artificial Intelligence 13 (3):201-230.
  11. Manifest Failure: The Gettier Problem Solved.John Turri - 2011 - Philosophers' Imprint 11.
    This paper provides a principled and elegant solution to the Gettier problem. The key move is to draw a general metaphysical distinction and conscript it for epistemological purposes. Section 1 introduces the Gettier problem. Sections 2–5 discuss instructively wrong or incomplete previous proposals. Section 6 presents my solution and explains its virtues. Section 7 answers the most common objection.
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  12.  35
    Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design.Linden J. Ball, Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Ian Dennis & Thomas C. Ormerod - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247-270.
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic in (...)
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  13. An Operant Analysis of Problem Solving.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):583-591.
    Behavior that solves a problem is distinguished by the fact that it changes another part of the solver's behavior and is strengthened when it does so. Problem solving typically involves the construction of discriminative stimuli. Verbal responses produce especially useful stimuli, because they affect other people. As a culture formulates maxims, laws, grammar, and science, its members behave more effectively without direct or prolonged contact with the contingencies thus formulated. The culture solves problems for its members, and (...)
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  14.  3
    Learning Problem Solving Skills From Studying Examples.Michelene T. H. Chi, Miriam Bassok, Matthew W. Lewis, Peter Reimann & Robert Glaser - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (2):145-182.
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  15.  31
    Affective Problem Solving: Emotion in Research Practice.Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2011 - Mind and Society 10 (1):57-78.
    This paper presents an analysis of emotional and affectively toned discourse in biomedical engineering researchers’ accounts of their problem solving practices. Drawing from our interviews with scientists in two laboratories, we examine three classes of expression: explicit, figurative and metaphorical, and attributions of emotion to objects and artifacts important to laboratory practice. We consider the overall function of expressions in the particular problem solving contexts described. We argue that affective processes are engaged in problem (...), not as simply tacked onto reasoning but as integral to it. The examples we present illustrate the close relation of emotion to problem solving and experimentation; they also implicate social and cultural dimensions of emotion expression. The analysis underscores a need to consider emotional expression to be intimately and importantly tied to the cognitive achievements and social negotiations of laboratory practices. (shrink)
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  16.  54
    Is Mathematics Problem Solving or Theorem Proving?Carlo Cellucci - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (1):183-199.
    The question that is the subject of this article is not intended to be a sociological or statistical question about the practice of today’s mathematicians, but a philosophical question about the nature of mathematics, and specifically the method of mathematics. Since antiquity, saying that mathematics is problem solving has been an expression of the view that the method of mathematics is the analytic method, while saying that mathematics is theorem proving has been an expression of the view that (...)
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  17.  24
    Learning ProblemSolving Rules as Search Through a Hypothesis Space.Hee Seung Lee, Shawn Betts & John R. Anderson - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (5):1036-1079.
    Learning to solve a class of problems can be characterized as a search through a space of hypotheses about the rules for solving these problems. A series of four experiments studied how different learning conditions affected the search among hypotheses about the solution rule for a simple computational problem. Experiment 1 showed that a problem property such as computational difficulty of the rules biased the search process and so affected learning. Experiment 2 examined the impact of examples (...)
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  18.  12
    Complex Problem Solving—Single Ability or Complex Phenomenon?Wolfgang Schoppek & Andreas Fischer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  19. All Life is Problem Solving.Karl R. Popper - 1999 - Routledge.
    'Never before has there been so many and such dreadful weapons in so many irresponsible hands.' - Karl Popper, from the Preface All Life is Problem Solving is a stimulating and provocative selection of Popper's writings on his main preoccupations during the last twenty-five years of his life. This collection illuminates Popper's process of working out key formulations in his theory of science, and indicates his view of the state of the world at the end of the Cold (...)
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  20.  13
    Problem Solving Stages in the Five Square Problem.Anna Fedor, Eörs Szathmáry & Michael Öllinger - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  21. All Life is Problem Solving.Karl Popper - 1999 - Routledge.
    _'Never before has there been so many and such dreadful weapons in so many irresponsible hands.'__ - Karl Popper, from the Preface_ _All Life is Problem Solving_ is a stimulating and provocative selection of Popper's writings on his main preoccupations during the last twenty-five years of his life. This collection illuminates Popper's process of working out key formulations in his theory of science, and indicates his view of the state of the world at the end of the Cold War (...)
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  22. Problem Solving.Michael Polanyi - 1957 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 8 (30):89-103.
  23.  11
    Problem Solving of Magic Tricks: Guiding to and Through an Impasse with Solution Cues.Judit Pétervári & Amory H. Danek - 2019 - Thinking and Reasoning 26 (4):502-533.
    This study investigated how problem solvers get into and out of a state of impasse while solving difficult problems. 47 participants had to decipher the secret method behind 33 magic tricks while r...
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  24. The Effect of Problem-Solving Skill Teaching on the Increase of the Social Efficiency of the Girl Juveniles.Seyyed Hadi Motamedi, Akbar Biglarian & Manijeh Fallah Selukolaee - 2012 - Social Research (Islamic Azad University Roudehen Branch) 5 (14):17-29.
     
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  25.  44
    Deliberation and Disagreement: Problem Solving, Prediction, and Positive Dissensus.Hélène Landemore & Scott E. Page - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (3):229-254.
    Consensus plays an ambiguous role in deliberative democracy. While it formed the horizon of early deliberative theories, many now denounce it as an empirically unachievable outcome, a logically impossible stopping rule, and a normatively undesirable ideal. Deliberative disagreement, by contrast, is celebrated not just as an empirically unavoidable outcome but also as a democratically sound and normatively desirable goal of deliberation. Majority rule has generally displaced unanimity as the ideal way of bringing deliberation to a close. This article offers an (...)
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  26.  92
    Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.Ron Sun - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (3):994-1024.
    This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit–implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit–implicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and (...)
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  27.  42
    A Problem-Solving Task Specialized for Functional Neuroimaging: Validation of the Scarborough Adaptation of the Tower of London Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.Anthony C. Ruocco, Achala H. Rodrigo, Jaeger Lam, Stefano I. Di Domenico, Bryanna Graves & Hasan Ayaz - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  28.  63
    Mathematical Problem-Solving and Ontology: An Exercise. [REVIEW]Richard Tieszen - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (2-3):295-312.
    In this paper the reader is asked to engage in some simple problem-solving in classical pure number theory and to then describe, on the basis of a series of questions, what it is like to solve the problems. In the recent philosophy of mind this “what is it like” question is one way of signaling a turn to phenomenological description. The description of what it is like to solve the problems in this paper, it is argued, leads to (...)
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  29. STEM Problem Solving: Inquiry, Concepts, and Reasoning.Aik-Ling Tan, Yann Shiou Ong, Yong Sim Ng & Jared Hong Jie Tan - forthcoming - Science & Education.
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    Adversarial Problem Solving: Modeling an Opponent Using Explanatory Coherence.Paul Thagard - 1992 - Cognitive Science 16 (1):123-149.
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  31.  35
    Understanding, Problem-Solving, and Conscious Reflection.Andrei Mărăşoiu - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (1):71-81.
    According to Zagzebski, understanding something is justified by the exercise of cognitive skills and intellectual virtues the knower possesses. Zagzebski develops her view by suggesting that “understanding has internalist conditions for success”. Against this view, Grimm raises an objection: what justifies understanding is the reliability of the processes by which we come to understand, and we need not be aware of the outcome of all reliable processes. Understanding is no exception, so, given that understanding something results from reliable processes, we (...)
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  32. Problem Solving in Science and the Competence Approach to Theorizing in Linguistics.Robert N. Mccauley - 1986 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 16 (3):299–312.
    The goals ofthis paper are to identify (in Section II) some general features of problem solving strategies in science, to discuss (in Section III) how Chomsky has employed two particularly popular discovery strategies in science, and to show (in Section IV) how these strategies inform Chomskyan linguistics. In Section IV I will discuss (1) how their employment in linguistics manifests features of scientific problem solving outlined in Section Il and (2) how an analysis in terms of (...)
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  33.  36
    Interactive Insight Problem Solving.Anna Weller, Gaëlle Villejoubert & Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (4):424 - 439.
    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In a second group, participants interacted with a three-dimensional representation of the false equation. Success rates in the static group (...)
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  34.  14
    Problem Solving in Semantically Rich Domains: An Example From Engineering Thermodynamics.R. Bhaskar & Herbert A. Simon - 1977 - Cognitive Science 1 (2):193-215.
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  35.  42
    Problem Solving and Discovery in the Growth of Darwin's Theories of Evolution.Scott A. Kleiner - 1981 - Synthese 47 (1):119 - 162.
  36.  41
    Verbal Behavior and Problem Solving: Some Effects of Labeling in a Functional Fixedness Problem.Sam Glucksberg & Robert W. Weisberg - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):659.
  37.  1
    All Life is Problem Solving.Karl Raimund Popper - 1999 - Routledge.
    _'Never before has there been so many and such dreadful weapons in so many irresponsible hands.'__ - Karl Popper, from the Preface_ _All Life is Problem Solving_ is a stimulating and provocative selection of Popper's writings on his main preoccupations during the last twenty-five years of his life. This collection illuminates Popper's process of working out key formulations in his theory of science, and indicates his view of the state of the world at the end of the Cold War (...)
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  38.  9
    Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.Vera Hagemann & Annette Kluge - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  39.  38
    The Phenomenology of Problem Solving.Jeffrey Yoshimi - 2017 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (3):391-409.
    _ Source: _Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 391 - 409 The author outlines a provisional phenomenology of problem solving. He begins by reviewing the history of problem-solving psychology, focusing on the Gestalt approach, which emphasizes the influence of prior knowledge and the occurrence of sudden insights. He then describes problem solving as a process unfolding in a field of consciousness against a background of unconscious knowledge, which encodes action patterns, schemata, and affordances. A global (...)
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  40.  12
    Dialectical Models of Deliberation, Problem Solving and Decision Making.Douglas Walton, Alice Toniolo & Timothy J. Norman - 2020 - Argumentation 34 (2):163-205.
    Hamblin distinguished between formal and descriptive dialectic. Formal normative models of deliberation dialogue have been strongly emphasized as argumentation frameworks in computer science. But making such models of deliberation applicable to real natural language examples has reached a point where the descriptive aspect needs more interdisciplinary work. The new formal and computational models of deliberation dialogue that are being built in computer science seem to be closely related to some already existing and very well established computing technologies such as (...) solving and decision making, but whether or how dialectical argumentation can be helpful to support these systems remains an open question. The aim of this paper is to examine some real examples of argumentation that seem to hover on the borderlines between deliberation, problem solving and decision making. (shrink)
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  41.  41
    Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning.John Sweller - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (2):257-285.
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  42.  22
    Problem Solving is Not Like Perception: More on Gestalt Theory.Robert W. Weisberg & Joseph W. Alba - 1982 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 111 (3):326-330.
  43.  11
    Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.Anton J. H. Boonen, Björn B. de Koning, Jelle Jolles & Menno van der Schoot - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  44.  2
    Problem-Solving Technologies: A User-Friendly Philosophy.Sadjad Soltanzadeh - 2022 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Problem Solving Technologies provides a user friendly understanding of technological objects including what they are and how the function in our lives.
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  45. Steering Problem Solving Between Cliff Incoherence and Cliff Solitude.Joke Meheus & Diderik Batens - 1996 - Philosophica 58.
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  46.  8
    Mathematical Problem-Solving in Scientific Practice.Davide Rizza - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):13621-13641.
    In this paper I study the activity of mathematical problem-solving in scientific practice, focussing on enquiries in mathematical social science. I identify three salient phases of mathematical problem-solving and adopt them as a reference frame to investigate aspects of applications that have not yet received extensive attention in the philosophical literature.
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    Aristotle on Science as Problem Solving.Diana Quarantotto - 2020 - Topoi 39 (4):857-868.
    The paper provides an interpretation of Aristotle’s view on scientific inquiry as problem solving. It tackles passages where Aristotle emphasises the role that the problem-solving activity has in science, and where he describes the history of humans’ problem-solving activity and the historical development of natural science as a problem-solving activity. Further, the paper examines Aristotle’s practice of raising, assessing and solving problems as well as the heuristic procedures he employs to move (...)
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  48. Problem Solving.Rudi Anders - 2015 - Australian Humanist, The 117:16.
    Anders, Rudi To solve a problem such as wars between nations and civil wars it is necessary to discover what causes the problem.
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  49. Moral Intensity and Managerial Problem Solving.Janet M. Dukerich, Mary J. Waller, Elizabeth George & George P. Huber - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 24 (1):29 - 38.
    There is an increasing interest in how managers describe and respond to what they regard as moral versus nonmoral problems in organizations. In this study, forty managers described a moral problem and a nonmoral problem that they had encountered in their organization, each of which had been resolved. Analyses indicated that: (1) the two types of problems could be significantly differentiated using four of Jones' (1991) components of moral intensity; (2) the labels managers used to describe problems varied (...)
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  50.  4
    Problem-Solving Between European and Japanese Literature.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In this paper, I draw attention to two problems that Milan Kundera’s The Book of Laughter and Forgetting faces. I propose that a single word change can solve both.
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