Results for 'Futility Debate'

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  1.  7
    ""The" Futility Debate" and the Management of Gordian Knots.Bruce E. Zawacki - 1995 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 6 (2):112.
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  2.  9
    Progress in the Futility Debate.Robert D. Truog - 1995 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 6 (2):128.
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  3.  33
    Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Don't Use the Wrong Cases.Howard Brody - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):269-273.
    Among those who criticize the concept of a common refrain is that we really have no idea what futility means. For example, physicians seem to disagree on whether a treatment being futile means that it has a less than 5% chance of working or a 20% chance of working. If the concept is so unclear, then it seems a thin reed upon which to base a momentous ethical decision—namely, that the physician's judgment should be allowed to override the wishes (...)
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  4.  37
    Pipes, Colanders, and Leaky Buckets: Reflections on the Futility Debate.John J. Paris - 1993 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (2):147.
    The issue of physician refusal of requested treatment has fueled a two-pronged debate in our society-one on the meaning of futility and the other on the limits of patient autonomy. The latter is a genuinely philosophic dispute; the former, it seems, is a modern relapse into nominalism.It is not the meaning of a word, but the moral basis for the actions of the par-ticipants that should be the focus of our attention, Yet the medical literature distracts us with (...)
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  5.  69
    Commentary: Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Are the Cases Wrong? Lawrence J. Schneiderman.Lawrence J. Schneiderman - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):273-278.
    Howard Brody expresses concern that citing the “two cases that put futility on the map,” namely Helga Wanglie and Baby K, may be providing ammunition to the opponents of the concept of medical futility. He in fact joins well-known opponents of the concept of medical futility in arguing that it is one thing for the physician to say whether a particular intervention will promote an identified goal, quite another to say whether a goal is worth pursuing. In (...)
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  6.  21
    Towards a Just, Courageous, and Honest Resolution of the Futility Debate.Rosemarie Tong - 1995 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):165-189.
    This essay discusses the history of the "futility debate" and the motives that sometimes prompt health care professionals, health care providers, patients, and surrogates to take different sides in it. Changes in the health care system, financial responsibility shifts, technical medical advances, and medical care rationing are analyzed as contributors to the futility debate. So too are variations in the definition of futility examined as part of the current controversy. The respective attitudes of professionals, providers, (...)
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  7.  70
    Response to “Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Don't Use the Wrong Cases” by Howard Brody and “Commentary: Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Are the Cases Wrong?” by L.J. Schneiderman. [REVIEW]Griffin Trotter - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):527-537.
    In a recent issue of CambridgeQuarterlyofHealthcareEthics, Howard Brody and Lawrence Schneiderman offer contrasting opinions about how to apply the concept of in medicine. Brody holds that are those in which it is reasonably certain that a given intervention when applied for the purpose of attaining a specific clinical goal. To determine which actions are futile, Brody prescribes a division of labor. Patients are charged with choosing the goals of treatment while physicians are charged with determining whether specific treatments will be (...)
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  8.  14
    Debating Medical Utility, Not Futility: Ethical Dilemmas in Treating Critically Ill People Who Use Injection Drugs.Stephen R. Baldassarri, Ike Lee, Stephen R. Latham & Gail D'Onofrio - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (2):241-251.
    Physicians who care for critically ill people with opioid use disorder frequently face medical, legal, and ethical questions related to the provision of life-saving medical care. We examine a complex medical case that illustrates these challenges in a person with relapsing injection drug use. We focus on a specific question: Is futility an appropriate and useful standard by which to determine provision of life-saving care to such individuals? If so, how should such determinations be made? If not, what alternative (...)
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  9.  43
    Futility and the Varieties of Medical Judgment.Daniel P. Sulmasy - 1997 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2):63-78.
    Pellegrino has argued that end-of-life decisions should be based upon the physician's assessment of the effectiveness of the treatment and the patient's assessment of its benefits and burdens. This would seem to imply that conditions for medical futility could be met either if there were a judgment of ineffectiveness, or if the patient were in a state in which he or she were incapable of a subjective judgment of the benefits and burdens of the treatment. I argue that a (...)
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  10.  91
    Institutional Futility Policies Are Inherently Unfair.Philip M. Rosoff - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (3):191-209.
    For many years a debate has raged over what constitutes futile medical care, if patients have a right to demand what doctors label as futile, and whether physicians should be obliged to provide treatments that they think are inappropriate. More recently, the argument has shifted away from the difficult project of definitions, to outlining institutional policies and procedures that take a measured and patient-by-patient approach to deciding if an existing or desired intervention is futile. The prototype is the Texas (...)
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  11.  5
    Meaningful Futility: Requests for Resuscitation Against Medical Recommendation.Lucas Vivas & Travis Carpenter - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (10):654-656.
    Futility’ is a contentious term that has eluded clear definition, with proposed descriptions either too strict or too vague to encompass the many facets of medical care. Requests for futile care are often surrogates for requests of a more existential character, covering the whole range of personal, emotional, cultural and spiritual needs. Physicians and other practitioners can use requests for futile care as a valuable opportunity to connect with their patients at a deeper level than the mere biomedical diagnosis. (...)
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  12.  90
    Defining Medical Futility and Improving Medical Care.Lawrence J. Schneiderman - 2011 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):123-131.
    It probably should not be surprising, in this time of soaring medical costs and proliferating technology, that an intense debate has arisen over the concept of medical futility. Should doctors be doing all the things they are doing? In particular, should they be attempting treatments that have little likelihood of achieving the goals of medicine? What are the goals of medicine? Can we agree when medical treatment fails to achieve such goals? What should the physician do and not (...)
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  13.  88
    Futility Beyond CPR: The Case of Dialysis. [REVIEW]Thomas Tomlinson - 2007 - HEC Forum 19 (1):33-43.
    The modern debate on whether—and why—physicians and hospitals can refuse patient or family demands for treatment on grounds of “futility” will be reaching its 20th anniversary this year (Blackhall, 1987). The early debate focused on the use of CPR, for good historical and clinical reasons, and CPR probably remains the primary target of hospital policy. But the reach of the arguments over futility extends well beyond this context, most vividly illustrated by the case of Helga Wanglie (...)
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  14.  17
    Futility, Autonomy, and Cost in End-of-Life Care.Mary Ann Baily - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):172-182.
    In 1989, Helga Wanglie, 86 years old, broke her hip. This began a medical downhill course that a year later caused her health care providers to conclude that she would not benefit from continued medical treatment. It would be futile, and therefore, should not be provided. Her husband disagreed, and the conflict eventually led to a lawsuit. The Wanglie case touched off an extended debate in the medical and bioethical literature about medical futility: what it means and how (...)
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  15.  24
    From Futility to Triage.R. A. Gatter & J. C. Moskop - 1995 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):191-205.
    Basic disagreements about what makes human life valuable hinder use of the concept of futility to decide whether it is appropriate to continue life support for one in a permanent state of unconsciousness, or to provide intensive medical care to one in the last stages of a terminal illness (the “paradigm cases”). Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) is an attractive alternative framework for addressing the paradigm cases. Triage planning permits society to see the (...)
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  16.  72
    The Question of Futility and Roger C. Bone.Maria Bitsori, Dimitrios Georgopoulos & Emmanouil Galanakis - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):477-481.
    Medical futility, one of the most debated end-of-life issues in medical ethics, has been discussed among physicians and scholars for years but remained an unresolved question. Roger C. Bone (1941–1997), an outstanding pulmonologist and critical care specialist, devoted his last years to ethical issues of terminal care, while facing himself metastatic renal cancer. Criticising the abuse of technology in terminal care and the administrative and financial interference on medical decisions, he bequeathed important points on futility, bringing also patients’ (...)
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  17.  39
    Medically Inappropriate or Futile Treatment: Deliberation and Justification.Cheryl J. Misak, Douglas B. White & Robert D. Truog - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (1):90-114.
    This paper reframes the futility debate, moving away from the question “Who decides when to end what is considered to be a medically inappropriate or futile treatment?” and toward the question “How can society make policy that will best account for the multitude of values and conflicts involved in such decision-making?” It offers a pragmatist moral epistemology that provides us with a clear justification of why it is important to take best standards, norms, and physician judgment seriously and (...)
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  18.  5
    Futility: A Perennial Issue for Medical Ethics.John McMillan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (10):649-649.
    While the era following the Bland decision in 19931 might be thought of as the time when concepts such as ‘futility’ were placed under pressure and scrutiny, it’s an idea that has been debated for at least forty years. In a 1983 JME commentary Bryan Jennett distinguishes three kinds of reason why Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation might be withheld: > ‘… that CPR would be futile because it is very unlikely to be successful; that quality of life after CPR is likely (...)
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  19.  78
    The Futile Search for True Utility.Roberto Fumagalli - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (3):325-347.
    In traditional decision theory, utility is regarded as a mathematical representation of preferences to be inferred from agents hedonic experiences. Some go as far as to contend that utility is literally computed by specific neural areas and urge economists to complement or substitute their notion of utility with some neuro-psychological construct. In this paper, I distinguish three notions of utility that are frequently mentioned in debates about decision theory and examine some critical issues regarding their definition and measurability. Moreover, I (...)
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  20.  37
    Baby K: Medical Futility and the Free Exercise of Religion.Stephen G. Post - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (1):20-26.
    Pediatricians provided expert testimony that, in the case of Baby K, provision of ventilator support goes beyond accepted standards of care for anencephalic infants and so is medically futile. This argument, however reasonable, does not persuade those who believe in the absolute value of even a fraction of human life. In Baby K, court records indicate that Ms. H, Baby K's mother, persistently adheres to the sanctity-of-life principle on religious grounds.While I think that quality-of-life considerations have a role in medical (...)
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  21.  8
    Baby K: Medical Futility and the Free Exercise of Religion.Stephen G. Post - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (1):20-26.
    Pediatricians provided expert testimony that, in the case of Baby K, provision of ventilator support goes beyond accepted standards of care for anencephalic infants and so is medically futile. This argument, however reasonable, does not persuade those who believe in the absolute value of even a fraction of human life. In Baby K, court records indicate that Ms. H, Baby K's mother, persistently adheres to the sanctity-of-life principle on religious grounds.While I think that quality-of-life considerations have a role in medical (...)
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  22.  20
    Collective Decisions About Medical Futility.Bethany Spielman - 1994 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (2):152-160.
    The debate about medical futility is no longer in its infancy. Scholarly literature on this seemingly intractable problem is voluminous. The list of widely publicized cases in which physicians have wanted to discontinue life-sustaining medical treatment that families demand has grown to include not just Helga Wanglie, but also Baby Rena, Baby L, Jane Doe, Joseph Finelli, Baby K, and Teresa Hamilton. A futility case has now been decided at the appellate court level.Commentators have generated three kinds (...)
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  23.  41
    Collective Decisions About Medical Futility.Bethany Spielman - 1994 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (2):152-160.
    The debate about medical futility is no longer in its infancy. Scholarly literature on this seemingly intractable problem is voluminous. The list of widely publicized cases in which physicians have wanted to discontinue life-sustaining medical treatment that families demand has grown to include not just Helga Wanglie, but also Baby Rena, Baby L, Jane Doe, Joseph Finelli, Baby K, and Teresa Hamilton. A futility case has now been decided at the appellate court level.Commentators have generated three kinds (...)
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  24.  89
    Experts' Attitudes Towards Medical Futility: An Empirical Survey From Japan. [REVIEW]Alireza Bagheri, Atsushi Asai & Ryuichi Ida - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundThe current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility.MethodsTo examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents (...)
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  25. Should Physicians Make Value Judgments Regarding Medical Futility?Atsushi Asai - 1998 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 8 (5):141-143.
    Medical futility is one of the most controversial concepts in biomedical ethics. Different people have proposed diverse definitions. Nevertheless, decisions about medical futility have tremendous impacts on clinical practice and physician-patient relationships. The most fundamental dispute about medical futility is whether or not value-laden judgments regarding medical futility are acceptable.In this essay, I argue that value-laden judgments of medical futility are necessary in clinical settings because a majority of "futility " debates have focused on (...)
     
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  26.  36
    How Physicians Talk About Futility: Making Words Mean Too Many Things.Mildred Z. Solomon - 1993 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (2):231-237.
    “There's glory for you!”“I don't know what you mean by ‘glory,’ ” Alice said.Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. “Of course, you dont—till I tell you. I meant ‘there's a nice knock-down argument.’”“But ‘glory’ doesn't mean a ‘nice knock-down argument,” Alice objected.“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.”“The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.”“The question is,” said (...)
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  27.  25
    How Physicians Talk About Futility: Making Words Mean Too Many Things.Mildred Z. Solomon - 1993 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (2):231-237.
    “There's glory for you!”“I don't know what you mean by ‘glory,’ ” Alice said.Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. “Of course, you dont—till I tell you. I meant ‘there's a nice knock-down argument.’”“But ‘glory’ doesn't mean a ‘nice knock-down argument,” Alice objected.“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.”“The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.”“The question is,” said (...)
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  28.  8
    Why Some "Futile" Care Is "Appropriate": The Implications for Conscientious Objection to Contraceptive Services.Robert M. Veatch - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (3):438-448.
    Schneiderman, Jecker, and Jonsen disagree with two recent policy statements of professional medical organizations over whether to call some medical interventions “inappropriate” or “potentially inappropriate” that have previously been labelled “futile.” I would agree that inappropriate is a hopelessly ambiguous term that should not be used in the long-running debate, more normally referred to as the futility controversy. I find, however, that Schneiderman, Jecker, and Jonsen end up with the same policy conclusion as the two policy statements. When (...)
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  29.  18
    The Utility of Futility: The Construction of Bioethical Problems.F. A. Carnevale - 1998 - Nursing Ethics 5 (6):509-517.
    The aim of this article is to analyse the contemporary ‘futility discourse’ from a constructivist perspective. I will argue that bioethics discourse typically disregards the con text from which controversies emerge and the processes that inform and constrain such discourse. Constructivists have argued that scientific knowledge is expressive of the dominant paradigm within which a scientific community is working. I will outline an analysis of ‘medical futility’ as a construction of biomedical and bioethical communities (and their respective paradigms). (...)
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  30.  88
    The Development of "Medical Futility": Towards a Procedural Approach Based on the Role of the Medical Profession.S. Moratti - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):369-372.
    Over the past 50 years, technical advances have taken place in medicine that have greatly increased the possibilities of life-prolonging intervention. The increased possibilities of intervening have brought along new ethical questions. Not everything that is technically possible is appropriate in a specific case: not everything that could be done should be done. In the 1980s, a new term was coined to indicate a class of inappropriate interventions: “medically futile treatment”. A debate followed, with contributions from the USA and (...)
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  31.  67
    Helga Wanglie Revisited: Medical Futility and the Limits of Autonomy.David H. Johnson - 1993 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (2):161.
    There is little to indicate from, her circumstances that events would propel Helga Wanglie, an 86-year-old Minneapolis woman, into the center of public controversy. We know little of her life prior to the events that removed her from the world of conscious, sentient beings. By the time of her death on 4 July 1991, Mrs. Wanglie had become the focus of a nationwide public and professional debate on the rights of a patient in a persistent vegetative state to receive (...)
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  32.  96
    A Broader Look at Medical Futility.Wayne Shelton - 1998 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (4):383-400.
    This paper attempts to provide a descriptive theoretical overview of the medical futility debate. I will first argue that quantitative data cannot alone resolve the medical futility debate. I will then examine two aspects of medical futility, which I call the prospective and immediate, respectively. The first involves making prospective factual and value judgments about the efficacy of proposed medical interventions, while the latter involves making value judgments about ongoing medical conditions where the clinical data (...)
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  33.  29
    Too Much of a Good Thing is Wonderful? A Conceptual Analysis of Excessive Examinations and Diagnostic Futility in Diagnostic Radiology.Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (2):139-148.
    It has been argued extensively that diagnostic services are a general good, but that it is offered in excess. So what is the problem? Is not “too much of a good thing wonderful”, to paraphrase Mae West? This article explores such a possibility in the field of radiological services where it is argued that more than 40% of the examinations are excessive. The question of whether radiological examinations are excessive cries for a definition of diagnostic futility. However, no such (...)
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  34.  33
    The Physician's Authority to Withhold Futile Treatment.Glenn G. Griener - 1995 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2):207-224.
    The debate over futility is driven, in part, by physicians' desire to recover some measure of decision-making authority from their patients. The standard approach begins by noting that certain interventions are futile for certain patients and then asserts that doctors have no obligation to provide futile treatment. The concept of futility is a complex one, and many commentators find it useful to distinguish ‘physiological futility’ from ‘qualitative futility’. The assertion that physicians can decide to withhold (...)
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  35. Japanese Healthcare Workers‟ Attitudes Towards Administering Futile Treatments: A Preliminary Interview-Based Study.Yasuhiro Kadooka, A. Asai, K. Aizawa & S. Bito - 2011 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 21 (4):131-135.
    In Japan, few studies and ethical debates have addressed medical futility, but articles suggesting the practice of such treatment exist. The present study aimed to explore attitudes about this by examining personal practical experiences of those who have been involved in judging treatments as futile. We employed a qualitative descriptive design with content analysis of semi-structured and focus group interviews with 11 Japanese physicians and 9 nurses of a university hospital in Japan. The interviews mined their practical experience to (...)
     
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  36.  36
    Perceptions of Patients on the Utility or Futility of End-of-Life Treatment.K. L. Rodriguez - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (8):444-449.
    Background and objectives: Definitions of medical futility, offered by healthcare professionals, bioethicists and other experts, have been rigorously debated by many investigators, but the perceptions of patients of futility have been explored only by a few. Patients were allowed to discuss their concerns about end-of-life care, so that their ideas about treatment futility or utility could be extrapolated by us.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 elderly people who were receiving outpatient care (...)
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  37.  6
    1984 and Philosophy, is Resistance Futile?Ezio Di Nucci & Stefan Storrie (eds.) - 2018 - Open Court.
    Philosophers debate how Orwell's nightmare world compares to today's world of political acrimony and discontent.
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  38.  65
    Response to “The Rise and Fall of Death: The Plateau of Futility” by Lawrence J. Schneiderman, Holly Teetzel, and Todd Gilmer : Correcting False Impressions. [REVIEW]Donald Joralemon - 2004 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (3):288-288.
    Schneiderman, Teetzel, and Gilmer offer an amusing but misleading response to my article on medical futility. Although I did make note of the falloff in citations to medical futility in Medline and Bioethicsline after 1995, my analysis focused on the precipitous rise in professional publications on the concept in the period from 1988 to 1995—a trend confirmed by the authors' own search results. I certainly did not argue, either explicitly or implicitly, that the discussion of medical futility (...)
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  39.  30
    Rituals, Death and the Moral Practice of Medical Futility.Shan Mohammed & Elizabeth Peter - 2009 - Nursing Ethics 16 (3):292-302.
    Medical futility is often defined as providing inappropriate treatments that will not improve disease prognosis, alleviate physiological symptoms, or prolong survival. This understanding of medical futility is problematic because it rests on the final outcomes of procedures that are narrow and medically defined. In this article, Walker's `expressivecollaborative' model of morality is used to examine how certain critical care interventions that are considered futile actually have broader social functions surrounding death and dying. By examining cardiopulmonary resuscitation and life-sustaining (...)
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  40.  40
    The Barnes Case: Taking Difficult Futility Cases Public.Ruth A. Mickelsen, Daniel S. Bernstein, Mary Faith Marshall & Steven H. Miles - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):374-378.
    Futility disputes are increasing and courts are slowly abandoning their historical reluctance to engage these contentious issues, particularly when confronted with inappropriate surrogate demands for aggressive treatment. Use of the judicial system to resolve futility disputes inevitably brings media attention and requires clinicians, hospitals, and families to debate these deep moral conflicts in the public eye. A recent case in Minnesota, In re Emergency Guardianship of Albert Barnes, explores this emerging trend and the complex responsibilities of clinicians (...)
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  41.  81
    ‘Debating the Morality and Legality of Medically Assisted Dying’. Critical Notice of Emily Jackson and John Keown, Debating Euthanasia. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2012. [REVIEW]Robert Young - 2013 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (1):151-160.
    In this Critical Notice of Emily Jackson and John Keown’s Debating Euthanasia , the respective lines of argument put forward by each contributor are set out and the key debating points identified. Particular consideration is given to the points each contributor makes concerning the sanctity of human life and whether slippery slopes leading from voluntary medically assisted dying to non-voluntary euthanasia would be established if voluntary medically assisted dying were to be legalised. Finally, consideration is given to the positions adopted (...)
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  42.  56
    Advancing the Overflow Debate.Bradley Richards - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (7-8):124-144.
    Introspective subjective reports cannot provide direct evidence that phenomenal experience overflows cognitive access. This problem for the overflow view is underappreciated in several ways: first, it places the onus on the overflow theorist to explain how sub-jective reports can be used to provide evidence for overflow. Second, it implies that there must be a true non-overflow account of subjective reports of overflow, even if there is overflow. Thus, attempting to dis-prove all anti- overflow explanations of subjective reports is futile. Third, (...)
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  43.  16
    Revisiting the Equity Debate in COVID-19: ICU is No Panacea.Angela Ballantyne, Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki Entwistle & Cindy Towns - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):641-645.
    Throughout March and April 2020, debate raged about how best to allocate limited intensive care unit resources in the face of a growing COVID-19 pandemic. The debate was dominated by utility-based arguments for saving the most lives or life-years. These arguments were tempered by equity-based concerns that triage based solely on prognosis would exacerbate existing health inequities, leaving disadvantaged patients worse off. Central to this debate was the assumption that ICU admission is a valuable but scarce resource (...)
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  44.  56
    Ventilating the Debate: Elective Ventilation Revisited.Dominic Wilkinson - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (3):127-128.
    This issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics features a special symposium on ‘elective ventilation’ . EV ) was originally described in the 1990s by doctors working in Exeter in the UK.1 At that time there was concern about the large shortfall in organs for transplantation. Patients could become organ donors if they were diagnosed as being brain dead, but this only ever occurred in patients on breathing machines in intensive care who developed signs of brainstem failure. Doctors wondered if (...)
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  45.  25
    Can Medical Criteria Settle Priority-Setting Debates? The Need for Ethical Analysis.Donna L. Dickenson - 1999 - Health Care Analysis 7 (2):131-137.
    Medical criteria rooted in evidence-based medicine are often seen as a value-neutral ‘trump card’ which puts paid to any further debate about setting priorities for treatment. On this argument, doctors should stop providing treatment at the point when it becomes medically futile, and that is also the threshold at which the health purchaser should stop purchasing. This paper offers three kinds of ethical criteria as a counterweight to analysis based solely on medical criteria. The first set of arguments concerns (...)
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  46.  10
    Tratamento e cuidado dos pacientes em estado vegetativo persistente: um debate de vida e de morte.Paul Okoth Auma - 2016 - Revista de Teologia 10 (17):267-276.
    This article presents the ethical situation that evolves the discussion of limitation of treatment offered to patients in a persistent vegetative state. Health professionals find themselves in difficult situations when dealing with these recurrent problems in their daily professional activities. This is presented, then, as an ethical issue of difficult solution, the decision of suspension of life support tasks. The debate is sustained, however, on how to distinguish the concepts of terminality of life, orthothanasia, euthanasia, dysthanasia, palliative care and, (...)
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  47. La Logique Symbolique En Débat À Oxford À la Fin du XIXe Siècle : Les Disputes Logiques de Lewis Carroll Et John Cook Wilson.Mathieu Marion & Amirouche Moktefi - 2014 - Revue D’Histoire des Sciences 67 (2):185-205.
    The development of symbolic logic is often presented in terms of a cumulative story of consecutive innovations that led to what is known as modern logic. This narrative hides the difficulties that this new logic faced at first, which shaped its history. Indeed, negative reactions to the emergence of the new logic in the second half of the nineteenth century were numerous and we study here one case, namely logic at Oxford, where one finds Lewis Carroll, a mathematical teacher who (...)
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  48. O uporczywej terapii oraz środkach zwyczajnych i nadzwyczajnych w polskim kontekście bioetycznym. Na marginesie dwóch debat Polskiego Towarzystwa Bioetycznego.Marcin Ferdynus - 2021 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 69 (2):65-81.
    W artykule rozważam opinię mówiącą o rezygnacji z terminu „uporczywa terapia” i o potrzebie zastąpienia go terminem „terapia medycznie daremna”. Ponadto zastanawiam się nad przydatnością podziału środków medycznych na zwyczajne i nadzwyczajne. Opowiadam się przeciwko odrzuceniu terminu „uporczywa terapia”, jak również staram się pokazać, że klasyfikacja środków medycznych, która łączy pary pojęć „proporcjonalne/nieproporcjonalne” i „zwyczajne/nadzwyczajne”, może stanowić skuteczną pomoc w podejmowaniu decyzji o rezygnacji z uporczywej terapii zarówno dla lekarza, jak i dla pacjenta. Przedmiotem refleksji czynię wypracowaną przez Polską Grupę (...)
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    Alternative Paradigmatic Hypotheses Cannot Be Fairly Evaluated From Within One's Own Paradigmatic Assumptions.Steven Lehar - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):430-439.
    To avoid endless and futile debate, critics of an alternative paradigmatic hypothesis cannot simply state their own paradigmatic assumptions as if they were plain fact while dismissing those of the opposition as self-evidently absurd, because it is exactly those initial assumptions that are brought into question by the paradigmatic proposal. Perceived incredibility is no valid ground for rejection of a paradigm whose alternatives are at least equally incredible, and arguably more so.
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  50. The Explanation of Action in History.Constantine Sandis - 2006 - Essays in Philosophy 7 (2):12.
    This paper focuses on two conflations which frequently appear within the philosophy of history and other fields concerned with action explanation. The first of these, which I call the Conflating View of Reasons, states that the reasons for which we perform actions are reasons why (those events which are) our actions occur. The second, more general conflation, which I call the Conflating View of Action Explanation, states that whatever explains why an agent performed a certain action explains why (that event (...)
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