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  1. Sufficient Reason & The Axiom of Choice, an Ontological Proof for One Unique Transcendental God for Every Possible World.Assem Hamdy - manuscript
    Chains of causes appear when the existence of God is discussed. It is claimed by some that these chains must be finite and terminated by God. But these chains seem endless through our knowledge search. This endlessness for the physical reasons for any world event expresses the greatness and complexity of God’s creation and so the transcendence of God. So, only we can put our hands on physical reasons in an endless forage for knowledge. Yet, the endlessness of the physical (...)
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  2. The Banach-Tarski Paradox.Ulrich Meyer - forthcoming - Logique Et Analyse.
    Emile Borel regards the Banach-Tarski Paradox as a reductio ad absurdum of the Axiom of Choice. Peter Forrest instead blames the assumption that physical space has a similar structure as the real numbers. This paper argues that Banach and Tarski's result is not paradoxical and that it merely illustrates a surprising feature of the continuum: dividing a spatial region into disjoint pieces need not preserve volume.
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  3. The Axiom of Choice is False Intuitionistically (in Most Contexts).Charles Mccarty, Stewart Shapiro & Ansten Klev - 2023 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 29 (1):71-96.
    There seems to be a view that intuitionists not only take the Axiom of Choice (AC) to be true, but also believe it a consequence of their fundamental posits. Widespread or not, this view is largely mistaken. This article offers a brief, yet comprehensive, overview of the status of AC in various intuitionistic and constructivist systems. The survey makes it clear that the Axiom of Choice fails to be a theorem in most contexts and is even outright false in some (...)
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  4. Hilbert Mathematics versus Gödel Mathematics. III. Hilbert Mathematics by Itself, and Gödel Mathematics versus the Physical World within It: both as Its Particular Cases.Vasil Penchev - 2023 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 16 (47):1-46.
    The paper discusses Hilbert mathematics, a kind of Pythagorean mathematics, to which the physical world is a particular case. The parameter of the “distance between finiteness and infinity” is crucial. Any nonzero finite value of it features the particular case in the frameworks of Hilbert mathematics where the physical world appears “ex nihilo” by virtue of an only mathematical necessity or quantum information conservation physically. One does not need the mythical Big Bang which serves to concentrate all the violations of (...)
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  5. The cardinality of the partitions of a set in the absence of the Axiom of Choice.Palagorn Phansamdaeng & Pimpen Vejjajiva - 2023 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 31 (6):1225-1231.
    In the Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZF), |$|\textrm {fin}(A)|<2^{|A|}\leq |\textrm {Part}(A)|$| for any infinite set |$A$|⁠, where |$\textrm {fin}(A)$| is the set of finite subsets of |$A$|⁠, |$2^{|A|}$| is the cardinality of the power set of |$A$| and |$\textrm {Part}(A)$| is the set of partitions of |$A$|⁠. In this paper, we show in ZF that |$|\textrm {fin}(A)|<|\textrm {Part}_{\textrm {fin}}(A)|$| for any set |$A$| with |$|A|\geq 5$|⁠, where |$\textrm {Part}_{\textrm {fin}}(A)$| is the set of partitions of |$A$| whose members are finite. We (...)
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  6. Platonism and the Proto-ontology of Mathematics: Learning from the Axiom of Choice.Carl J. Posy - 2023 - In Carl Posy & Yemima Ben-Menahem (eds.), Mathematical Knowledge, Objects and Applications: Essays in Memory of Mark Steiner. Springer. pp. 99-134.
    Benacerraf’s Problem about mathematical truth displays a tension, indeed a seemingly unbridgeable gap, between Platonist foundations for mathematics on the one hand and Hilbert’s ‘finitary standpoint’ on the other. While that standpoint evinces an admirable philosophical unity, it is ultimately an effete rival to Platonism: It leaves mathematical practice untouched, even the highly non-constructive axiom of choice. Brouwer’s intuitionism is a more potent finitist rival, for it engenders significant deviation from standard (classical) mathematics. The essay illustrates three sorts of intuitionistic (...)
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  7. Hume’s Principle, Bad Company, and the Axiom of Choice.Sam Roberts & Stewart Shapiro - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (4):1158-1176.
    One prominent criticism of the abstractionist program is the so-called Bad Company objection. The complaint is that abstraction principles cannot in general be a legitimate way to introduce mathematical theories, since some of them are inconsistent. The most notorious example, of course, is Frege’s Basic Law V. A common response to the objection suggests that an abstraction principle can be used to legitimately introduce a mathematical theory precisely when it is stable: when it can be made true on all sufficiently (...)
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  8. Troublesome Quasi-Cardinals and the Axiom of Choice.Eliza Wajch - 2023 - In Jonas R. B. Arenhart & Raoni W. Arroyo (eds.), Non-Reflexive Logics, Non-Individuals, and the Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics: Essays in Honour of the Philosophy of Décio Krause. Springer Verlag. pp. 203-222.
    The article concerns French–Krause quasi-set theory????\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathfrak {Q}$$\end{document}, in particular, its very controversial axioms on quasi-cardinals, the Axiom of Choice and the Weak Extensionality Axiom. A modification????∗\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathfrak {Q}^{\ast }$$\end{document} of????\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathfrak {Q}$$\end{document} is proposed. Similarly to what is going on in????\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathfrak {Q}$$\end{document}, indiscernibility is a primitive concept (...)
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  9. El Axioma de elección en el quehacer matemático contemporáneo.Franklin Galindo & Randy Alzate - 2022 - Aitías 2 (3):49-126.
    Para matemáticos interesados en problemas de fundamentos, lógico-matemáticos y filósofos de la matemática, el axioma de elección es centro obligado de reflexión, pues ha sido considerado esencial en el debate dentro de las posiciones consideradas clásicas en filosofía de la matemática (intuicionismo, formalismo, logicismo, platonismo), pero también ha tenido una presencia fundamental para el desarrollo de la matemática y metamatemática contemporánea. Desde una posición que privilegia el quehacer matemático, nos proponemos mostrar los aportes que ha tenido el axioma en varias (...)
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  10. Algebraic completion without the axiom of choice.Jørgen Harmse - 2022 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 68 (4):394-397.
    Läuchli and Pincus showed that existence of algebraic completions of all fields cannot be proved from Zermelo‐Fraenkel set theory alone. On the other hand, important special cases do follow. In particular, I show that an algebraic completion of can be constructed in Zermelo‐Fraenkel set theory.
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  11. The Price of Mathematical Scepticism.Paul Blain Levy - 2022 - Philosophia Mathematica 30 (3):283-305.
    This paper argues that, insofar as we doubt the bivalence of the Continuum Hypothesis or the truth of the Axiom of Choice, we should also doubt the consistency of third-order arithmetic, both the classical and intuitionistic versions. -/- Underlying this argument is the following philosophical view. Mathematical belief springs from certain intuitions, each of which can be either accepted or doubted in its entirety, but not half-accepted. Therefore, our beliefs about reality, bivalence, choice and consistency should all be aligned.
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  12. Gentzen’s “cut rule” and quantum measurement in terms of Hilbert arithmetic. Metaphor and understanding modeled formally.Vasil Penchev - 2022 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal 14 (14):1-37.
    Hilbert arithmetic in a wide sense, including Hilbert arithmetic in a narrow sense consisting by two dual and anti-isometric Peano arithmetics, on the one hand, and the qubit Hilbert space (originating for the standard separable complex Hilbert space of quantum mechanics), on the other hand, allows for an arithmetic version of Gentzen’s cut elimination and quantum measurement to be described uniformy as two processes occurring accordingly in those two branches. A philosophical reflection also justifying that unity by quantum neo-Pythagoreanism links (...)
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  13. Gödel mathematics versus Hilbert mathematics. I. The Gödel incompleteness (1931) statement: axiom or theorem?Vasil Penchev - 2022 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 14 (9):1-56.
    The present first part about the eventual completeness of mathematics (called “Hilbert mathematics”) is concentrated on the Gödel incompleteness (1931) statement: if it is an axiom rather than a theorem inferable from the axioms of (Peano) arithmetic, (ZFC) set theory, and propositional logic, this would pioneer the pathway to Hilbert mathematics. One of the main arguments that it is an axiom consists in the direct contradiction of the axiom of induction in arithmetic and the axiom of infinity in set theory. (...)
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  14. Choice-free stone duality.Nick Bezhanishvili & Wesley H. Holliday - 2020 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 85 (1):109-148.
    The standard topological representation of a Boolean algebra via the clopen sets of a Stone space requires a nonconstructive choice principle, equivalent to the Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem. In this article, we describe a choice-free topological representation of Boolean algebras. This representation uses a subclass of the spectral spaces that Stone used in his representation of distributive lattices via compact open sets. It also takes advantage of Tarski’s observation that the regular open sets of any topological space form a Boolean (...)
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  15. Quantum Invariance.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Epistemology eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (22):1-6.
    Quantum invariance designates the relation of any quantum coherent state to the corresponding statistical ensemble of measured results. The adequate generalization of ‘measurement’ is discussed to involve the discrepancy, due to the fundamental Planck constant, between any quantum coherent state and its statistical representation as a statistical ensemble after measurement. A set-theory corollary is the curious invariance to the axiom of choice: Any coherent state excludes any well-ordering and thus excludes also the axiom of choice. It should be equated to (...)
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  16. Choice, Infinity, and Negation: Both Set-Theory and Quantum-Information Viewpoints to Negation.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal 12 (14):1-3.
    The concepts of choice, negation, and infinity are considered jointly. The link is the quantity of information interpreted as the quantity of choices measured in units of elementary choice: a bit is an elementary choice between two equally probable alternatives. “Negation” supposes a choice between it and confirmation. Thus quantity of information can be also interpreted as quantity of negations. The disjunctive choice between confirmation and negation as to infinity can be chosen or not in turn: This corresponds to set-theory (...)
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  17. The Gödel Incompleteness Theorems (1931) by the Axiom of Choice.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Econometrics: Mathematical Methods and Programming eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (39):1-4.
    Those incompleteness theorems mean the relation of (Peano) arithmetic and (ZFC) set theory, or philosophically, the relation of arithmetical finiteness and actual infinity. The same is managed in the framework of set theory by the axiom of choice (respectively, by the equivalent well-ordering "theorem'). One may discuss that incompleteness form the viewpoint of set theory by the axiom of choice rather than the usual viewpoint meant in the proof of theorems. The logical corollaries from that "nonstandard" viewpoint the relation of (...)
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  18. High-Order Metaphysics as High-Order Abstractions and Choice in Set Theory.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Epistemology eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (21):1-3.
    The link between the high-order metaphysics and abstractions, on the one hand, and choice in the foundation of set theory, on the other hand, can distinguish unambiguously the “good” principles of abstraction from the “bad” ones and thus resolve the “bad company problem” as to set theory. Thus it implies correspondingly a more precise definition of the relation between the axiom of choice and “all company” of axioms in set theory concerning directly or indirectly abstraction: the principle of abstraction, axiom (...)
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  19. The Axiom of Choice and the Road Paved by Sierpiński.Valérie Lynn Therrien - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (2):504-523.
    From 1908 to 1916, articles supporting the axiom of choice were scant. The situation changed in 1916, when Wacław Sierpiński published a series of articles reviving the debate. The posterity of the axiom of choice as we know it would be unimaginable without Sierpiński’s efforts.
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  20. Properties and predicates, objects and names : impredicativity and the axiom of choice.Stewart Shapiro - 2018 - In Ivette Fred Rivera & Jessica Leech (eds.), Being Necessary: Themes of Ontology and Modality from the Work of Bob Hale. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
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  21. Álgebras booleanas, órdenes parciales y axioma de elección.Franklin Galindo - 2017 - Divulgaciones Matematicas 18 ( 1):34-54.
    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una demostración de un teorema clásico sobre álgebras booleanas y ordenes parciales de relevancia actual en teoría de conjuntos, como por ejemplo, para aplicaciones del método de construcción de modelos llamado “forcing” (con álgebras booleanas completas o con órdenes parciales). El teorema que se prueba es el siguiente: “Todo orden parcial se puede extender a una única álgebra booleana completa (salvo isomorfismo)”. Donde extender significa “sumergir densamente”. Tal demostración se realiza utilizando cortaduras de (...)
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  22. Russell’s method of analysis and the axioms of mathematics.Lydia Patton - 2017 - In Sandra Lapointe Christopher Pincock (ed.), Innovations in the History of Analytical Philosophy. London: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 105-126.
    In the early 1900s, Russell began to recognize that he, and many other mathematicians, had been using assertions like the Axiom of Choice implicitly, and without explicitly proving them. In working with the Axioms of Choice, Infinity, and Reducibility, and his and Whitehead’s Multiplicative Axiom, Russell came to take the position that some axioms are necessary to recovering certain results of mathematics, but may not be proven to be true absolutely. The essay traces historical roots of, and motivations for, Russell’s (...)
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  23. Gregory H. Moore. Zermelo’s Axiom of Choice: Its Origins, Development, and Influence. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2013. ISBN 978-0-48648841-7 . Pp. 448: Critical Studies/Book Reviews. [REVIEW]John L. Bell - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):131-134.
  24. Perfect set properties in models of ZF.Franklin Galindo & Carlos Di Prisco - 2010 - Fundamenta Mathematicae 208 (208):249-262.
    We study several perfect set properties of the Baire space which follow from the Ramsey property ω→(ω) ω . In particular we present some independence results which complete the picture of how these perfect set properties relate to each other.
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  25. Constructibilidad relativizada y el Axioma de elección.Franklin Galindo & Carlos Di Prisco - 2010 - Mixba'al. Revista Metropolitana de Matemáticas 1 (1):23-40.
    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar en un solo cuerpo tres maneras de relativizar (o generalizar) el concepto de conjunto constructible de Gödel que no suelen aparecer juntas en la literatura especializada y que son importantes en la Teoría de Conjuntos, por ejemplo para resolver problemas de consistencia o independencia. Presentamos algunos modelos resultantes de las diferentes formas de relativizar el concepto de constructibilidad, sus propiedades básicas y algunas formas débiles del Axioma de Elección válidas o no válidas en (...)
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  26. Notions of compactness for special subsets of ℝ I and some weak forms of the axiom of choice.Marianne Morillon - 2010 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (1):255-268.
    We work in set-theory without choice ZF. A set is Countable if it is finite or equipotent with ${\Bbb N}$ . Given a closed subset F of [0, 1] I which is a bounded subset of $\ell ^{1}(I)$ (resp. such that $F\subseteq c_{0}(I)$ ), we show that the countable axiom of choice for finite sets, (resp. the countable axiom of choice AC N ) implies that F is compact. This enhances previous results where AC N (resp. the axiom of Dependent (...)
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  27. The axiom of choice.John L. Bell - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The principle of set theory known as the Axiom of Choice has been hailed as “probably the most interesting and, in spite of its late appearance, the most discussed axiom of mathematics, second only to Euclid's axiom of parallels which was introduced more than two thousand years ago” (Fraenkel, Bar-Hillel & Levy 1973, §II.4). The fulsomeness of this description might lead those unfamiliar with the axiom to expect it to be as startling as, say, the Principle of the Constancy of (...)
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  28. The axiom of choice and the law of excluded middle in weak set theories.John L. Bell - 2008 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (2):194-201.
    A weak form of intuitionistic set theory WST lacking the axiom of extensionality is introduced. While WST is too weak to support the derivation of the law of excluded middle from the axiom of choice, we show that bee.ng up WST with moderate extensionality principles or quotient sets enables the derivation to go through.
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  29. Some restricted lindenbaum theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice.David W. Miller - 2007 - Logica Universalis 1 (1):183-199.
    . Dzik [2] gives a direct proof of the axiom of choice from the generalized Lindenbaum extension theorem LET. The converse is part of every decent logical education. Inspection of Dzik’s proof shows that its premise let attributes a very special version of the Lindenbaum extension property to a very special class of deductive systems, here called Dzik systems. The problem therefore arises of giving a direct proof, not using the axiom of choice, of the conditional . A partial solution (...)
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  30. Canonical universes and intuitions about probabilities.Randall Dougherty & Jan Mycielski - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (4):357–368.
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  31. 4. The Axiom Of Choice And Inference To The Best Explanation.Thomas Forster - 2006 - Logique Et Analyse 49.
  32. Set Theory and its Philosophy: A Critical Introduction.Michael D. Potter - 2004 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Michael Potter presents a comprehensive new philosophical introduction to set theory. Anyone wishing to work on the logical foundations of mathematics must understand set theory, which lies at its heart. Potter offers a thorough account of cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the various axiom candidates. He discusses in detail the project of set-theoretic reduction, which aims to interpret the rest of mathematics in terms of set theory. The key question here is how to deal with the paradoxes that bedevil set (...)
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  33. Countable choice as a questionable uniformity principle.Peter M. Schuster - 2004 - Philosophia Mathematica 12 (2):106-134.
    Should weak forms of the axiom of choice really be accepted within constructive mathematics? A critical view of the Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov interpretation, accompanied by the intention to include nondeterministic algorithms, leads us to subscribe to Richman's appeal for dropping countable choice. As an alternative interpretation of intuitionistic logic, we propose to renew dialogue semantics.
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  34. The axiom of choice and combinatory logic.Andrea Cantini - 2003 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (4):1091-1108.
    We combine a variety of constructive methods (including forcing, realizability, asymmetric interpretation), to obtain consistency results concerning combinatory logic with extensionality and (forms of) the axiom of choice.
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  35. Definitions of compactness and the axiom of choice.Omar De la Cruz, Eric Hall, Paul Howard, Jean E. Rubin & Adrienne Stanley - 2002 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (1):143-161.
    We study the relationships between definitions of compactness in topological spaces and the roll the axiom of choice plays in these relationships.
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  36. Relations between some cardinals in the absence of the axiom of choice.Lorenz Halbeisen & Saharon Shelah - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):237-261.
    If we assume the axiom of choice, then every two cardinal numbers are comparable, In the absence of the axiom of choice, this is no longer so. For a few cardinalities related to an arbitrary infinite set, we will give all the possible relationships between them, where possible means that the relationship is consistent with the axioms of set theory. Further we investigate the relationships between some other cardinal numbers in specific permutation models and give some results provable without using (...)
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  37. On Specker's Refutation of the Axiom of Choice.Maurice Boffa - 2000 - Logique Et Analyse 43.
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  38. Inconsistency of the Axiom of Choice with the Positive Theory $GPK^+ \infty$.Olivier Esser - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (4):1911-1916.
    The idea of the positive theory is to avoid the Russell's paradox by postulating an axiom scheme of comprehension for formulas without "too much" negations. In this paper, we show that the axiom of choice is inconsistent with the positive theory $GPK^+ \infty$.
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  39. Is the axiom of choice a logical or set-theoretical principle?Jaako Hintikka - 1999 - Dialectica 53 (3-4):283–290.
    A generalization of the axioms of choice says that all the Skolem functions of a true first‐order sentence exist. This generalization can be implemented on the first‐order level by generalizing the rule of existential instantiation into a rule of functional instantiation. If this generalization is carried out in first‐order axiomatic set theory , it is seen that in any model of FAST, there are sentences S which are true but whose Skolem functions do not exist. Since this existence is what (...)
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  40. Cut-elimination for simple type theory with an axiom of choice.G. Mints - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (2):479-485.
    We present a cut-elimination proof for simple type theory with an axiom of choice formulated in the language with an epsilon-symbol. The proof is modeled after Takahashi's proof of cut-elimination for simple type theory with extensionality. The same proof works when types are restricted, for example for second-order classical logic with an axiom of choice.
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  41. On the computational content of the axiom of choice.Stefano Berardi, Marc Bezem & Thierry Coquand - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (2):600-622.
    We present a possible computational content of the negative translation of classical analysis with the Axiom of (countable) Choice. Interestingly, this interpretation uses a refinement of the realizability semantics of the absurdity proposition, which is not interpreted as the empty type here. We also show how to compute witnesses from proofs in classical analysis of ∃-statements and how to extract algorithms from proofs of ∀∃-statements. Our interpretation seems computationally more direct than the one based on Godel's Dialectica interpretation.
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  42. The axiom of choice for well-ordered families and for families of well- orderable sets.Paul Howard & Jean E. Rubin - 1995 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (4):1115-1117.
    We show that it is not possible to construct a Fraenkel-Mostowski model in which the axiom of choice for well-ordered families of sets and the axiom of choice for sets are both true, but the axiom of choice is false.
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  43. The axiom of choice for countable collections of countable sets does not imply the countable union theorem.Paul E. Howard - 1992 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 33 (2):236-243.
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  44. Independence, randomness and the axiom of choice.Michiel van Lambalgen - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (4):1274-1304.
    We investigate various ways of introducing axioms for randomness in set theory. The results show that these axioms, when added to ZF, imply the failure of AC. But the axiom of extensionality plays an essential role in the derivation, and a deeper analysis may ultimately show that randomness is incompatible with extensionality.
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  45. A note on some weak forms of the axiom of choice.Gary P. Shannon - 1991 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 33 (1):144-147.
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  46. An equivalent of the axiom of choice in finite models of the powerset axiom.Alexander Abian & Wael A. Amin - 1990 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 31 (3):371-374.
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  47. Plural quantification and the axiom of choice.Stephen Pollard - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (3):393 - 397.
  48. Equivalent versions of a weak form of the axiom of choice.Gary P. Shannon - 1988 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 29 (4):569-573.
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  49. Ultrapowers without the axiom of choice.Mitchell Spector - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (4):1208-1219.
    A new method is presented for constructing models of set theory, using a technique of forming pseudo-ultrapowers. In the presence of the axiom of choice, the traditional ultrapower construction has proven to be extremely powerful in set theory and model theory; if the axiom of choice is not assumed, the fundamental theorem of ultrapowers may fail, causing the ultrapower to lose almost all of its utility. The pseudo-ultrapower is designed so that the fundamental theorem holds even if choice fails; this (...)
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  50. Maximal $p$-subgroups and the axiom of choice.Paul E. Howard & Mary Yorke - 1987 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 28 (2):276-283.
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