Formal topology aims at developing general topology in intuitionistic and predicative mathematics. Many classical results of general topology have been already brought into the realm of constructive mathematics by using formal topology and also new light on basic topological notions was gained with this approach which allows distinction which are not expressible in classical topology. Here we give a systematic exposition of one of the main tools in formal topology: inductive generation. In fact, many formal topologies can be presented in (...) a predicative way by an inductive generation and thus their properties can be proved inductively. We show however that some natural complete Heyting algebra cannot be inductively defined. (shrink)
A proof-theoretical analysis of elementary theories of order relations is effected through the formulation of order axioms as mathematical rules added to contraction-free sequent calculus. Among the results obtained are proof-theoretical formulations of conservativity theorems corresponding to Szpilrajn’s theorem on the extension of a partial order into a linear one. Decidability of the theories of partial and linear order for quantifier-free sequents is shown by giving terminating methods of proof-search.
We present a possible computational content of the negative translation of classical analysis with the Axiom of (countable) Choice. Interestingly, this interpretation uses a refinement of the realizability semantics of the absurdity proposition, which is not interpreted as the empty type here. We also show how to compute witnesses from proofs in classical analysis of ∃-statements and how to extract algorithms from proofs of ∀∃-statements. Our interpretation seems computationally more direct than the one based on Godel's Dialectica interpretation.
We associate with any game G another game, which is a variant of it, and which we call . Winning strategies for have a lower recursive degree than winning strategies for G: if a player has a winning strategy of recursive degree 1 over G, then it has a recursive winning strategy over , and vice versa. Through we can express in algorithmic form, as a recursive winning strategy, many common proofs of non-constructive Mathematics, namely exactly the theorems of the (...) sub-classical logic Limit Computable Mathematics , Hayashi and Nakata ). (shrink)
. The effort in providing constructive and predicative meaning to non-constructive modes of reasoning has almost without exception been applied to theories with full classical logic . In this paper we show how to combine unrestricted countable choice, induction on infinite well-founded trees and restricted classical logic in constructively given models. These models are sheaf models over a $\sigma$ -complete Boolean algebra, whose topologies are generated by finite or countable covering relations. By a judicious choice of the Boolean algebra we (...) can directly extract effective content from $\Pi_2^0$ -statements true in the model. All the arguments of the present paper can be formalised in Martin-Löf's constructive type theory with generalised inductive definitions. (shrink)
Semantical arguments, based on the completeness theorem for first-order logic, give elegant proofs of purely syntactical results. For instance, for proving a conservativity theorem between two theories, one shows instead that any model of one theory can be extended to a model of the other theory. This method of proof, because of its use of the completeness theorem, is a priori not valid constructively. We show here how to give similar arguments, valid constructively, by using Boolean models. These models are (...) a slight variation of ordinary first-order models, where truth values are now regular ideals of a given Boolean algebra. Two examples are presented: a simple conservativity result and Herbrand's theorem. (shrink)
The general framework of this paper is a reformulation of Hilbert’s program using the theory of locales, also known as formal or point-free topology [P.T. Johnstone, Stone Spaces, in: Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, vol. 3, 1982; Th. Coquand, G. Sambin, J. Smith, S. Valentini, Inductively generated formal topologies, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 124 71–106; G. Sambin, Intuitionistic formal spaces–a first communication, in: D. Skordev , Mathematical Logic and its Applications, Plenum, New York, 1987, pp. 187–204]. Formal topology presents a (...) topological space, not as a set of points, but as a logical theory which describes the lattice of open sets. The application to Hilbert’s program is then the following. Hilbert’s ideal objects are represented by points of such a formal space. There are general methods to “eliminate” the use of points, close to the notion of forcing and to the “elimination of choice sequences” in intuitionist mathematics, which correspond to Hilbert’s required elimination of ideal objects. This paper illustrates further this general program on the notion of valuations. They were introduced by Dedekind and Weber [R. Dedekind, H. Weber, Theorie des algebraischen Funktionen einer Veränderlichen, J. de Crelle t. XCII 181–290] to give a rigorous presentation of Riemann surfaces. It can be argued that it is one of the first example in mathematics of point-free representation of spaces [N. Bourbaki, Eléments de Mathématique. Algèbre commutative, Hermann, Paris, 1965, Chapitre 7]. It is thus of historical and conceptual interest to be able to represent this notion in formal topology. (shrink)
We present a proof of Goodmanʼs Theorem, which is a variation of the proof of Renaldel de Lavalette . This proof uses in an essential way possibly divergent computations for proving a result which mentions systems involving only terminating computations. Our proof is carried out in a constructive metalanguage. This involves implicitly a covering relation over arbitrary posets in formal topology, which occurs in forcing in set theory in a classical framework, but can also be defined constructively.
We introduce the notion of Boolean measure algebra. It can be described shortly using some standard notations and terminology. If B is any Boolean algebra, let BN denote the algebra of sequences , xn B. Let us write pk BN the sequence such that pk = 1 if i K and Pk = 0 if k < i. If x B, denote by x* BN the constant sequence x* = . We define a Boolean measure algebra to be a Boolean (...) algebra B with an operation μ:BN → B such that μ = 0 and μ = x. Any Boolean measure algebra can be used to model non-principal ultrafilters in a suitable sense. Also, we can build effectively the initial Boolean measure algebra. This construction is related to the closed open Ramsey Theorem 193–198.). (shrink)
We present a manuscript of Paul Lorenzen that provides a proof of consistency for elementary number theory as an application of the construction of the free countably complete pseudocomplemented semilattice over a preordered set. This manuscript rests in the Oskar-Becker-Nachlass at the Philosophisches Archiv of Universität Konstanz, file OB 5-3b-5. It has probably been written between March and May 1944. We also compare this proof to Gentzen's and Novikov's, and provide a translation of the manuscript.
We present a new and constructive proof of the Peter-Weyl theorem on the representations of compact groups. We use the Gelfand representation theorem for commutative C*-algebras to give a proof which may be seen as a direct generalization of Burnside's algorithm . This algorithm computes the characters of a finite group. We use this proof as a basis for a constructive proof in the style of Bishop. In fact, the present theory of compact groups may be seen as a natural (...) continuation in the line of Bishop's work on locally compact, but Abelian, groups . (shrink)
This work concerns constructive aspects of measure theory. By considering metric completions of Boolean algebras – an approach first suggested by Kolmogorov – one can give a very simple construction of e.g. the Lebesgue measure on the unit interval. The integration spaces of Bishop and Cheng turn out to give examples of such Boolean algebras. We analyse next the notion of Borel subsets. We show that the algebra of such subsets can be characterised in a pointfree and constructive way by (...) an initiality condition. We then use our work to define in a purely inductive way the measure of Borel subsets. (shrink)
Is it possible to give an abstract characterisation of constructive real numbers? A condition should be that all axioms are valid for Dedekind reals in any topos, or for constructive reals in Bishop mathematics. We present here a possible first-order axiomatisation of real numbers, which becomes complete if one adds the law of excluded middle. As an application of the forcing relation defined in [3, 2], we give a proof that the formula which specifies the maximum function is not provable (...) in this theory. (shrink)