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  1. The Collapse of the Hilbert Program: A Variation on the Gödelian Theme.Saul A. Kripke - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic:1-17.
    The Hilbert program was actually a specific approach for proving consistency, a kind of constructive model theory. Quantifiers were supposed to be replaced by ε-terms. εxA(x) was supposed to denote a witness to ∃xA(x), or something arbitrary if there is none. The Hilbertians claimed that in any proof in a number-theoretic system S, each ε-term can be replaced by a numeral, making each line provable and true. This implies that S must not only be consistent, but also 1-consistent. Here we (...)
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  2. The Price of Mathematical Scepticism.Paul Blain Levy - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    This paper argues that, insofar as we doubt the bivalence of the Continuum Hypothesis or the truth of the Axiom of Choice, we should also doubt the consistency of third-order arithmetic, both the classical and intuitionistic versions. -/- Underlying this argument is the following philosophical view. Mathematical belief springs from certain intuitions, each of which can be either accepted or doubted in its entirety, but not half-accepted. Therefore, our beliefs about reality, bivalence, choice and consistency should all be aligned.
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  3. Riemann’s Scale: A Puzzle About Infinity.Øystein Linnebo - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-3.
    Ordinarily, the order in which some objects are attached to a scale does not affect the total weight measured by the scale. This principle is shown to fail in certain cases involving infinitely many objects. In these cases, we can produce any desired reading of the scale merely by changing the order in which a fixed collection of objects are attached to the scale. This puzzling phenomenon brings out the metaphysical significance of a theorem about infinite series that is well (...)
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  4. A Marriage of Brouwer’s Intuitionism and Hilbert’s Finitism I: Arithmetic.Takako Nemoto & Sato Kentaro - 2022 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 87 (2):437-497.
    We investigate which part of Brouwer’s Intuitionistic Mathematics is finitistically justifiable or guaranteed in Hilbert’s Finitism, in the same way as similar investigations on Classical Mathematics already done quite extensively in proof theory and reverse mathematics. While we already knew a contrast from the classical situation concerning the continuity principle, more contrasts turn out: we show that several principles are finitistically justifiable or guaranteed which are classically not. Among them are: fan theorem for decidable fans but arbitrary bars; continuity principle (...)
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  5. An Introduction to Proof Theory: Normalization, Cut-Elimination, and Consistency Proofs.Paolo Mancosu, Sergio Galvan & Richard Zach - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    An Introduction to Proof Theory provides an accessible introduction to the theory of proofs, with details of proofs worked out and examples and exercises to aid the reader's understanding. It also serves as a companion to reading the original pathbreaking articles by Gerhard Gentzen. The first half covers topics in structural proof theory, including the Gödel-Gentzen translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, natural deduction and the normalization theorems, the sequent calculus, including cut-elimination and mid-sequent theorems, and various applications of these (...)
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  6. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Dictating Philosophy To Francis Skinner: The Wittgenstein-Skinner Manuscripts. Transcribed and Edited, with an Introduction, Introductory Chapters and Notes by Arthur Gibson.Arthur Gibson & Niamh O'Mahony (eds.) - 2020 - Berlin, Germany: Springer.
    This book publishes the previously unpublished Wittgenstein-Skinner Archive held in Trinity College Cambridge Wren Library. The principal Editor is Arthur Gibson, joined by the Editor Niamh O'Mahony in the editing project. The manuscripts were transcribed by Arthur Gibson, checked and edited by Niamh O'Mahony and Arthur Gibson, with additional assistance from Kelsey Gibson. The Chapters that reproduce the Archive, including the Preface, and Part I (chapters 1 and 2) are authored by Arthur Gibson. Arthur Gibson and Niamh O'Mahony jointly edited (...)
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  7. Apophatic Finitism and Infinitism.Jan Heylen - 2019 - Logique Et Analyse 62 (247):319-337.
    This article is about the ontological dispute between finitists, who claim that only finitely many numbers exist, and infinitists, who claim that infinitely many numbers exist. Van Bendegem set out to solve the 'general problem' for finitism: how can one recast finite fragments of classical mathematics in finitist terms? To solve this problem Van Bendegem comes up with a new brand of finitism, namely so-called 'apophatic finitism'. In this article it will be argued that apophatic finitism is unable to represent (...)
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  8. Remarques sur l'impossibilité l'incomplétude, la paracohérence l'indécision, le hasard, la calculabilité, le paradoxe et l'incertitude - dans Chaitin, Wittgenstein, Hofstadter, Wolpert, Doria da Costa, Godel, Searle, Rodych, Berto Floyd, Moyal-Sharrock et Yanofsky.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    On pense généralement que l'impossibilité, l'incomplétdulité, la paracohérence, l'indécidabilité, le hasard, la calcul, le paradoxe, l'incertitude et les limites de la raison sont des questions scientifiques physiques ou mathématiques disparates ayant peu ou rien dans terrain d'entente. Je suggère qu'ils sont en grande partie des problèmes philosophiques standard (c.-à-d., jeux de langue) qui ont été la plupart du temps résolus par Wittgenstein plus de 80 ans. Je fournis un bref résumé de quelques-unes des principales conclusions de deux des plus éminents (...)
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  9. On the Intuitionistic Background of Gentzen's 1935 and 1936 Consistency Proofs and Their Philosophical Aspects.Yuta Takahashi - 2018 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 27:1-26.
    Gentzen's three consistency proofs for elementary number theory have a common aim that originates from Hilbert's Program, namely, the aim to justify the application of classical reasoning to quantified propositions in elementary number theory. In addition to this common aim, Gentzen gave a “finitist” interpretation to every number-theoretic proposition with his 1935 and 1936 consistency proofs. In the present paper, we investigate the relationship of this interpretation with intuitionism in terms of the debate between the Hilbert School and the Brouwer (...)
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  10. Truth and Existence.Jan Heylen & Leon Horsten - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):106-114.
    Halbach has argued that Tarski biconditionals are not ontologically conservative over classical logic, but his argument is undermined by the fact that he cannot include a theory of arithmetic, which functions as a theory of syntax. This article is an improvement on Halbach's argument. By adding the Tarski biconditionals to inclusive negative free logic and the universal closure of minimal arithmetic, which is by itself an ontologically neutral combination, one can prove that at least one thing exists. The result can (...)
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  11. A New Reading and Comparative Interpretation of Gödel’s Completeness (1930) and Incompleteness (1931) Theorems.Vasil Penchev - 2016 - Логико-Философские Штудии 13 (2):187-188.
    Peano arithmetic cannot serve as the ground of mathematics for it is inconsistent to infinity, and infinity is necessary for its foundation. Though Peano arithmetic cannot be complemented by any axiom of infinity, there exists at least one (logical) axiomatics consistent to infinity. That is nothing else than a new reading at issue and comparative interpretation of Gödel’s papers (1930; 1931) meant here. Peano arithmetic admits anyway generalizations consistent to infinity and thus to some addable axiom(s) of infinity. The most (...)
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  12. On the Concept of Finitism.Luca Incurvati - 2015 - Synthese 192 (8):2413-2436.
    At the most general level, the concept of finitism is typically characterized by saying that finitistic mathematics is that part of mathematics which does not appeal to completed infinite totalities and is endowed with some epistemological property that makes it secure or privileged. This paper argues that this characterization can in fact be sharpened in various ways, giving rise to different conceptions of finitism. The paper investigates these conceptions and shows that they sanction different portions of mathematics as finitistic.
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  13. Hilbert's Objectivity.Lydia Patton - 2014 - Historia Mathematica 41 (2):188-203.
    Detlefsen (1986) reads Hilbert's program as a sophisticated defense of instrumentalism, but Feferman (1998) has it that Hilbert's program leaves significant ontological questions unanswered. One such question is of the reference of individual number terms. Hilbert's use of admittedly "meaningless" signs for numbers and formulae appears to impair his ability to establish the reference of mathematical terms and the content of mathematical propositions (Weyl (1949); Kitcher (1976)). The paper traces the history and context of Hilbert's reasoning about signs, which illuminates (...)
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  14. Отвъд машината на Тюринг: квантовият компютър.Vasil Penchev - 2014 - Sofia: BAS: ISSK (IPS).
    Quantum computer is considered as a generalization of Turing machine. The bits are substituted by qubits. In turn, a "qubit" is the generalization of "bit" referring to infinite sets or series. It extends the consept of calculation from finite processes and algorithms to infinite ones, impossible as to any Turing machines (such as our computers). However, the concept of quantum computer mets all paradoxes of infinity such as Gödel's incompletness theorems (1931), etc. A philosophical reflection on how quantum computer might (...)
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  15. Unifying Historical Perspectives. [REVIEW]Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2014 - The Berlin Review of Books 2014.
    Greg Frost-Arnold’s book is a highly elegant edition and commentary of Carnap’s notes, claiming just as much as he is warranted on the basis of the manuscript and other relevant texts, and formulating his scholarly assumptions very carefully. Along the way he tries to unify the three historiographical strategies: narrative, argumentative and micro-historical.
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  16. A Defense of Strict Finitism.J. P. Bendegem - 2012 - Constructivist Foundations 7 (2):141-149.
    Context: Strict finitism is usually not taken seriously as a possible view on what mathematics is and how it functions. This is due mainly to unfamiliarity with the topic. Problem: First, it is necessary to present a “decent” history of strict finitism (which is now lacking) and, secondly, to show that common counterarguments against strict finitism can be properly addressed and refuted. Method: For the historical part, the historical material is situated in a broader context, and for the argumentative part, (...)
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  17. Science, Religion, and Infinity.Graham Oppy - 2012 - In The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity. Wiley. pp. 430-440.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * Brief History * How We Talk * Science and Infinity * Religion and Infinity * Concluding Remarks * Notes * References * Further Reading.
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  18. Gödel on Intuition and on Hilbert's Finitism.W. W. Tait - 2010 - In Kurt Gödel, Solomon Feferman, Charles Parsons & Stephen G. Simpson (eds.), Kurt Gödel: Essays for His Centennial. Association for Symbolic Logic.
    There are some puzzles about G¨ odel’s published and unpublished remarks concerning finitism that have led some commentators to believe that his conception of it was unstable, that he oscillated back and forth between different accounts of it. I want to discuss these puzzles and argue that, on the contrary, G¨ odel’s writings represent a smooth evolution, with just one rather small double-reversal, of his view of finitism. He used the term “finit” (in German) or “finitary” or “finitistic” primarily to (...)
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  19. Brain, Mind and Limitations of a Scientific Theory of Human Consciousness.Alfred Gierer - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (5):499-505.
    In biological terms, human consciousness appears as a feature associated with the func- tioning of the human brain. The corresponding activities of the neural network occur strictly in accord with physical laws; however, this fact does not necessarily imply that there can be a comprehensive scientific theory of conscious- ness, despite all the progress in neurobiology, neuropsychology and neurocomputation. Pre- dictions of the extent to which such a theory may become possible vary widely in the scien- tific community. There are (...)
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  20. A Simple Proof of Parsons' Theorem.Fernando Ferreira - 2005 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (1):83-91.
    Let be the fragment of elementary Peano arithmetic in which induction is restricted to -formulas. More than three decades ago, Parsons showed that the provably total functions of are exactly the primitive recursive functions. In this paper, we observe that Parsons' result is a consequence of Herbrand's theorem concerning the -consequences of universal theories. We give a self-contained proof requiring only basic knowledge of mathematical logic.
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  21. The Practice of Finitism: Epsilon Calculus and Consistency Proofs in Hilbert's Program.Richard Zach - 2003 - Synthese 137 (1-2):211 - 259.
    After a brief flirtation with logicism around 1917, David Hilbertproposed his own program in the foundations of mathematics in 1920 and developed it, in concert with collaborators such as Paul Bernays andWilhelm Ackermann, throughout the 1920s. The two technical pillars of the project were the development of axiomatic systems for everstronger and more comprehensive areas of mathematics, and finitisticproofs of consistency of these systems. Early advances in these areaswere made by Hilbert (and Bernays) in a series of lecture courses atthe (...)
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  22. Wittgenstein, Finitism, and the Foundations of Mathematics.Marc A. Joseph - 2001 - Mind 110 (438):501-504.
  23. Time, Successive Addition, and Kalam Cosmological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2001 - Philosophia Christi 3 (1):181-192.
    Craig (1981) presents and defends several different kalam cosmological arguments. The core of each of these arguments is the following ur argument.
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  24. Wittgenstein, Finitism, and the Foundations of Mathematics. [REVIEW]David Stern - 2001 - Dialogue 40 (3):624-625.
    More than half of Wittgenstein’s writings from the years between his return to philosophy in 1929 and the completion of Part I of the Philosophical Investigations in 1945 are about issues in the philosophy of mathematics. In 1929 he wrote that “There is no religious denomination in which so much sin has been committed through the misuse of metaphorical expressions as in mathematics”. But what sins, and which misuses, was he criticizing in his writings on the philosophy of mathematics? Wittgenstein, (...)
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  25. Eric Winsberg, Review of Wittgenstein, Finitism, and the Foundations of Mathematics by Mathieu Marion. [REVIEW]Eric Winsberg - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):533-536.
  26. Constructive Existence Claims.Michael Detlefsen - 1998 - In Matthias Schirn (ed.), The Philosophy of Mathematics Today. Clarendon Press. pp. 1998--307.
    It is a commonplace of constructivist thought that a claim that an object of a certain kind exists is to be backed by an explicit display or exhibition of an object that is manifestly of that kind. Let us refer to this requirement as the exhibition condition. The main objective of this essay is to examine this requirement and to arrive at a better understanding of its epistemic character and the role that it plays in the two main constructivist philosophies (...)
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  27. Numbers and Functions in Hilbert's Finitism.Richard Zach - 1998 - Taiwanese Journal for History and Philosophy of Science 10:33-60.
    David Hilbert's finitistic standpoint is a conception of elementary number theory designed to answer the intuitionist doubts regarding the security and certainty of mathematics. Hilbert was unfortunately not exact in delineating what that viewpoint was, and Hilbert himself changed his usage of the term through the 1920s and 30s. The purpose of this paper is to outline what the main problems are in understanding Hilbert and Bernays on this issue, based on some publications by them which have so far received (...)
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  28. What Are the ∀∑1 B-Consequences of T 2 1 and T 2 2?Fernando Ferreira - 1995 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 75 (1):79-88.
    We formulate schemes and of the “typical” ∀∑ 1 b -sentences that are provable in T 2 1, respectively T 2 2. As an application, we reprove a recent result of Buss and Krajíček which describes witnesses for the ∀∑ 1 b -sentences provable in T 2 1 in terms of solutions to PLS-problems.
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  29. Hilbert's Formalism.Michael Detlefsen - 1993 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 47 (186):285-304.
    Various parallels between Kant's critical program and Hilbert's formalistic program for the philosophy of mathematics are considered.
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  30. On an Alleged Refutation of Hilbert's Program Using Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem.Michael Detlefsen - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (4):343 - 377.
    It is argued that an instrumentalist notion of proof such as that represented in Hilbert's viewpoint is not obligated to satisfy the conservation condition that is generally regarded as a constraint on Hilbert's Program. A more reasonable soundness condition is then considered and shown not to be counter-exemplified by Godel's First Theorem. Finally, attention is given to the question of what a theory is; whether it should be seen as a "list" or corpus of beliefs, or as a method for (...)
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  31. Finitism.W. W. Tait - 1981 - Journal of Philosophy 78 (9):524-546.
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  32. On Interpreting Gödel's Second Theorem.Michael Detlefsen - 1979 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 8 (1):297 - 313.
    In this paper I have considered various attempts to attribute significance to Gödel's second incompleteness theorem (G2 for short). Two of these attempts (Beth-Cohen and the position maintaining that G2 shows the failure of Hilbert's Program), I have argued, are false. Two others (an argument suggested by Beth, Cohen and ??? and Resnik's Interpretation), I argue, are groundless.
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  33. The Physical Foundations of Biology and the Problem of Psychophysics.Alfred Gierer - 1970 - Ratio (Misc.) 12:47-64.
    Full applicability of physics to human biology does not necessarily imply that one can uncover a comprehensive, algorithmic correlation between physical brain states and corresponding mental states. The argument takes into account that information processing is finite in principle in a finite world. Presumbly the brain-mind-relation cannot be resolved in all essential aspects, particularly when high degrees of abstraction or self-analytical processes are involved. Our conjecture plausibly unifies the universal validity of physics and a logical limitation of human thought, and (...)
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  34. Finitism in Mathematics (I).Alice Ambrose - 1935 - Mind 44 (174):186-203.
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  35. A Natural First-Order System of Arithmetic Which Proves Its Own Consistency.Andrew Boucher - manuscript
    Herein is presented a natural first-order arithmetic system which can prove its own consistency, both in the weaker Godelian sense using traditional Godel numbering and, more importantly, in a more robust and direct sense; yet it is strong enough to prove many arithmetic theorems, including the Euclidean Algorithm, Quadratic Reciprocity, and Bertrand’s Postulate.
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