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Tom Froese
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University
  1. Where There is Life There is Mind: In Support of a Strong Life-Mind Continuity Thesis.Michael David Kirchhoff & Tom Froese - 2017 - Entropy 19.
    This paper considers questions about continuity and discontinuity between life and mind. It begins by examining such questions from the perspective of the free energy principle (FEP). The FEP is becoming increasingly influential in neuroscience and cognitive science. It says that organisms act to maintain themselves in their expected biological and cognitive states, and that they can do so only by minimizing their free energy given that the long-term average of free energy is entropy. The paper then argues that there (...)
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  2. The Extended Body: A Case Study in the Neurophenomenology of Social Interaction. [REVIEW]Tom Froese & Thomas Fuchs - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):205-235.
    There is a growing realization in cognitive science that a theory of embodied intersubjectivity is needed to better account for social cognition. We highlight some challenges that must be addressed by attempts to interpret ‘simulation theory’ in terms of embodiment, and argue for an alternative approach that integrates phenomenology and dynamical systems theory in a mutually informing manner. Instead of ‘simulation’ we put forward the concept of the ‘extended body’, an enactive and phenomenological notion that emphasizes the socially mediated nature (...)
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  3.  44
    The Enactive Approach: Theoretical Sketches From Cell to Society.Tom Froese & Ezequiel A. Di Paolo - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):1-36.
    There is a small but growing community of researchers spanning a spectrum of disciplines which are united in rejecting the still dominant computationalist paradigm in favor of theenactive approach. The framework of this approach is centered on a core set of ideas, such as autonomy, sense-making, emergence, embodiment, and experience. These concepts are finding novel applications in a diverse range of areas. One hot topic has been the establishment of an enactive approach to social interaction. The main purpose of this (...)
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  4.  23
    The Enactive Approach: Theoretical Sketches From Cell to Society.Tom Froese & Ezequiel A. Di Paolo - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):1-36.
    There is a small but growing community of researchers spanning a spectrum of disciplines which are united in rejecting the still dominant computationalist paradigm in favor of the enactive approach. The framework of this approach is centered on a core set of ideas, such as autonomy, sense-making, emergence, embodiment, and experience. These concepts are finding novel applications in a diverse range of areas. One hot topic has been the establishment of an enactive approach to social interaction. The main purpose of (...)
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  5. On the Role of Social Interaction in Individual Agency.Hanne De Jaegher & Tom Froese - 2009 - Adaptive Behavior 17 (5):444-460.
    Is an individual agent constitutive of or constituted by its social interactions? This question is typically not asked in the cognitive sciences, so strong is the consensus that only individual agents have constitutive efficacy. In this article we challenge this methodological solipsism and argue that interindividual relations and social context do not simply arise from the behavior of individual agents, but themselves enable and shape the individual agents on which they depend. For this, we define the notion of autonomy as (...)
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  6.  16
    The Enactive Approach to Habits: New Concepts for the Cognitive Science of Bad Habits and Addiction.Susana Ramírez-Vizcaya & Tom Froese - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10 (301):1--12.
  7.  6
    Enactive Artificial Intelligence: Investigating the Systemic Organization of Life and Mind.Tom Froese & Tom Ziemke - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence 173 (3-4):466-500.
  8.  29
    The Problem of Meaning in AI and Robotics: Still with Us After All These Years.Tom Froese & Shigeru Taguchi - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):14-0.
    In this essay we critically evaluate the progress that has been made in solving the problem of meaning in artificial intelligence and robotics. We remain skeptical about solutions based on deep neural networks and cognitive robotics, which in our opinion do not fundamentally address the problem. We agree with the enactive approach to cognitive science that things appear as intrinsically meaningful for living beings because of their precarious existence as adaptive autopoietic individuals. But this approach inherits the problem of failing (...)
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  9. Sociality and the Life–Mind Continuity Thesis.Tom Froese & Ezequiel A. Di Paolo - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):439-463.
    The life–mind continuity thesis holds that mind is prefigured in life and that mind belongs to life. The biggest challenge faced by proponents of this thesis is to show how an explanatory framework that accounts for basic biological processes can be systematically extended to incorporate the highest reaches of human cognition. We suggest that this apparent ‘cognitive gap’ between minimal and human forms of life appears insurmountable largely because of the methodological individualism that is prevalent in cognitive science. Accordingly, a (...)
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  10. Epistemological Odyssey: Introduction to Special Issue on the Diversity of Enactivism and Neurophenomenology.S. Vörös, T. Froese & A. Riegler - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):189-204.
    Context: In the past two decades, the so-called 4E approaches to the mind and cognition have been rapidly gaining in recognition and have become an integral part of various disciplines. Problem: Recently, however, questions have been raised as to whether, and to what degree, these different approaches actually cohere with one another. Specifically, it seems that many of them endorse mutually incompatible, perhaps even contradictory, epistemological and metaphysical presuppositions. Method: By retracing the roots of an alternative conception of mind and (...)
     
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  11. Phenomenology and Artificial Life: Toward a Technological Supplementation of Phenomenological Methodology.Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher - 2010 - Husserl Studies 26 (2):83-106.
    The invention of the computer has revolutionized science. With respect to finding the essential structures of life, for example, it has enabled scientists not only to investigate empirical examples, but also to create and study novel hypothetical variations by means of simulation: ‘life as it could be’. We argue that this kind of research in the field of artificial life, namely the specification, implementation and evaluation of artificial systems, is akin to Husserl’s method of free imaginative variation as applied to (...)
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  12.  14
    How passive is passive listening? Toward a sensorimotor theory of auditory perception.Tom Froese & Ximena González-Grandón - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):619-651.
    According to sensorimotor theory perceiving is a bodily skill involving exercise of an implicit know-how of the systematic ways that sensations change as a result of potential movements, that is, of sensorimotor contingencies. The theory has been most successfully applied to vision and touch, while perceptual modalities that rely less on overt exploration of the environment have not received as much attention. In addition, most research has focused on philosophically grounding the theory and on psychologically elucidating sensorimotor laws, but the (...)
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  13. An Inter-Enactive Approach to Agency: Participatory Sense-Making, Dynamics, and Sociality.Steve Torrance & Tom Froese - 2011 - Humana. Mente 15:21-53.
     
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  14. Breathing New Life Into Cognitive Science.Tom Froese - 2011 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (1):113–129.
    In this article I take an unusual starting point from which to argue for a unified cognitive science, namely a position defined by what is sometimes called the ‘life-mind continuity thesis’. Accordingly, rather than taking a widely accepted starting point for granted and using it in order to propose answers to some well defined questions, I must first establish that the idea of life-mind continuity can amount to a proper starting point at all. To begin with, I therefore assess the (...)
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  15.  39
    Validating and Calibrating First-and Second-Person Methods in the Science of Consciousness.T. Froese, C. Gould & A. K. Seth - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (2):38.
  16.  78
    Getting Interaction Theory (IT) Together: Integrating Developmental, Phenomenological, Enactive, and Dynamical Approaches to Social Interaction.Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher - 2012 - Interaction Studies 13 (3):436-468.
    We argue that progress in our scientific understanding of the `social mind' is hampered by a number of unfounded assumptions. We single out the widely shared assumption that social behavior depends solely on the capacities of an individual agent. In contrast, both developmental and phenomenological studies suggest that the personal-level capacity for detached `social cognition' (conceived as a process of theorizing about and/or simulating another mind) is a secondary achievement that is dependent on more immediate processes of embodied social interaction. (...)
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  17.  69
    Re-Viewing From Within: A Commentary on First- and Second-Person Methods in the Science of Consciousness.T. Froese, C. Gould & A. Barrett - 2011 - Constructivist Foundations 6 (2):254-269.
    Context: There is a growing recognition in consciousness science of the need for rigorous methods for obtaining accurate and detailed phenomenological reports of lived experience, i.e., descriptions of experience provided by the subject living them in the “first-person.” Problem: At the moment although introspection and debriefing interviews are sometimes used to guide the design of scientific studies of the mind, explicit description and evaluation of these methods and their results rarely appear in formal scientific discourse. Method: The recent publication of (...)
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  18. Is Collective Agency a Coherent Idea? Considerations From the Enactive Theory of Agency.Mog Stapleton & Tom Froese - 2015 - In Catrin Misselhorn (ed.), Collective Agency and Cooperation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Springer Verlag. pp. 219-236.
    Whether collective agency is a coherent concept depends on the theory of agency that we choose to adopt. We argue that the enactive theory of agency developed by Barandiaran, Di Paolo and Rohde (2009) provides a principled way of grounding agency in biological organisms. However the importance of biological embodiment for the enactive approach might lead one to be skeptical as to whether artificial systems or collectives of individuals could instantiate genuine agency. To explore this issue we contrast the concept (...)
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  19.  23
    Enactive Cognition at the Edge of Sense-Making: Making Sense of Non-Sense.Tom Froese & Massimiliano Cappuccio (eds.) - 2014 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The enactive approach is a growing movement in cognitive science that replaces the classical computer metaphor of the mind with an emphasis on biological embodiment and social interaction as the sources of our goals and concerns. Mind is viewed as an activity of making sense in embodied interaction with our world. However, if mind is essentially a concrete activity of sense-making, how do we account for the more typically human forms of cognition, including those involving the abstract and the patently (...)
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  20. Hume and the Enactive Approach to Mind.Tom Froese - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (1):95-133.
    An important part of David Hume’s work is his attempt to put the natural sciences on a firmer foundation by introducing the scientific method into the study of human nature. This investigation resulted in a novel understanding of the mind, which in turn informed Hume’s critical evaluation of the scope and limits of the scientific method as such. However, while these latter reflections continue to influence today’s philosophy of science, his theory of mind is nowadays mainly of interest in terms (...)
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  21.  12
    The Feeling Is Mutual: Clarity of Haptics-Mediated Social Perception Is Not Associated With the Recognition of the Other, Only With Recognition of Each Other.Tom Froese, Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca, Iwin Leenen & Ruben Fossion - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  22.  26
    A Sensorimotor Signature of the Transition to Conscious Social Perception: Co-Regulation of Active and Passive Touch.Hiroki Kojima, Tom Froese, Mizuki Oka, Hiroyuki Iizuka & Takashi Ikegami - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  23. An Inter-Enactive Approach to Agency: Participatory Sense-Making, Dynamics, and Sociality.Steve Torrance & Tom Froese - 2011 - Humana Mente 4 (15).
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  24.  30
    Using Minimal Human-Computer Interfaces for Studying the Interactive Development of Social Awareness.Tom Froese, Hiroyuki Iizuka & Takashi Ikegami - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  25.  4
    Life is Precious Because It is Precarious: Individuality, Mortality and the Problem of Meaning.Tom Froese - 2017 - In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (eds.), Representation of Reality: Humans, Other Living Organism and Intelligent Machines. Springer.
    Computationalism aspires to provide a comprehensive theory of life and mind. It fails in this task because it lacks the conceptual tools to address the problem of meaning. I argue that a meaningful perspective is enacted by an individual with a potential that is intrinsic to biological existence: death. Life matters to such an individual because it must constantly create the conditions of its own existence, which is unique and irreplaceable. For that individual to actively adapt, rather than to passively (...)
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  26.  36
    The Brain is Not an Isolated “Black Box,” nor is its Goal to Become One.Tom Froese & Takashi Ikegami - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):213-214.
    In important ways, Clark's (HPM) approach parallels the research agenda we have been pursuing. Nevertheless, we remain unconvinced that the HPM offers the best clue yet to the shape of a unified science of mind and action. The apparent convergence of research interests is offset by a profound divergence of theoretical starting points and ideal goals.
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  27.  14
    Time-Series Analysis of Embodied Interaction: Movement Variability and Complexity Matching As Dyadic Properties.Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca, Dobromir Dotov, Ruben Fossion & Tom Froese - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  28.  6
    Scientific Observation Is Socio-Materially Augmented Perception: Toward a Participatory Realism.Tom Froese - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):37.
    There is an overlooked similarity between three classic accounts of the conditions of object experience from three distinct disciplines. Sociology: the “inversion” that accompanies discovery in the natural sciences, as local causes of effects are reattributed to an observed object. Psychology: the “externalization” that accompanies mastery of a visual–tactile sensory substitution interface, as tactile sensations of the proximal interface are transformed into vision-like experience of a distal object. Biology: the “projection” that brings forth an animal’s Umwelt, as impressions on its (...)
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  29.  46
    From Cybernetics to Second-Order Cybernetics: A Comparative Analysis of Their Central Ideas.T. Froese - 2010 - Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):75--85.
    Context: The enactive paradigm in the cognitive sciences is establishing itself as a strong and comprehensive alternative to the computationalist mainstream. However, its own particular historical roots have so far been largely ignored in the historical analyses of the cognitive sciences. Problem: In order to properly assess the enactive paradigm’s theoretical foundations in terms of their validity, novelty and potential future directions of development, it is essential for us to know more about the history of ideas that has led to (...)
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  30.  16
    Imitation by Social Interaction? Analysis of a Minimal Agent-Based Model of the Correspondence Problem.Tom Froese, Charles Lenay & Takashi Ikegami - 2012 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.
  31.  48
    Bio-Machine Hybrid Technology: A Theoretical Assessment and Some Suggestions for Improved Future Design. [REVIEW]Tom Froese - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (4):539-560.
    In sociology, there has been a controversy about whether there is any essential difference between a human being and a tool, or if the tool–user relationship can be defined by co-actor symmetry. This issue becomes more complex when we consider examples of AI and robots, and even more so following progress in the development of various bio-machine hybrid technologies, such as robots that include organic parts, human brain implants, and adaptive prosthetics. It is argued that a concept of autonomous agency (...)
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  32.  33
    From Synthetic Modeling of Social Interaction to Dynamic Theories of Brain–Body–Environment–Body–Brain Systems.Tom Froese, Hiroyuki Iizuka & Takashi Ikegami - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):420 - 421.
    Synthetic approaches to social interaction support the development of a second-person neuroscience. Agent-based models and psychological experiments can be related in a mutually informing manner. Models have the advantage of making the nonlinear brainenvironmentbrain system as a whole accessible to analysis by dynamical systems theory. We highlight some general principles of how social interaction can partially constitute an individual's behavior.
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  33.  12
    Getting Interaction Theory Together: Integrating Developmental, Phenomenological, Enactive, and Dynamical Approaches to Social Interaction.Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher - 2012 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 13 (3):436-468.
    We argue that progress in our scientific understanding of the ‘social mind’ is hampered by a number of unfounded assumptions. We single out the widely shared assumption that social behavior depends solely on the capacities of an individual agent. In contrast, both developmental and phenomenological studies suggest that the personal-level capacity for detached ‘social cognition’ is a secondary achievement that is dependent on more immediate processes of embodied social interaction. We draw on the enactive approach to cognitive science to further (...)
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  34.  9
    The Enactive Approach: Theoretical Sketches From Cell to Society.Tom Froese & Ezequiel A. Paolo Di - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):1-36.
    There is a small but growing community of researchers spanning a spectrum of disciplines which are united in rejecting the still dominant computationalist paradigm in favor of the enactive approach. The framework of this approach is centered on a core set of ideas, such as autonomy, sense-making, emergence, embodiment, and experience. These concepts are finding novel applications in a diverse range of areas. One hot topic has been the establishment of an enactive approach to social interaction. The main purpose of (...)
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  35.  7
    Embodied Dyadic Interaction Increases Complexity of Neural Dynamics: A Minimal Agent-Based Simulation Model.Madhavun Candadai, Matt Setzler, Eduardo J. Izquierdo & Tom Froese - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  36.  7
    Multi-Scale Coordination of Distinctive Movement Patterns During Embodied Interaction Between Adults With High-Functioning Autism and Neurotypicals.Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca, Dobromir Dotov, Ruben Fossion, Tom Froese, Leonhard Schilbach, Kai Vogeley & Bert Timmermans - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  37.  20
    An Extended Case Study on the Phenomenology of Sequence-Space Synesthesia.Cassandra Gould, Tom Froese, Adam B. Barrett, Jamie Ward & Anil K. Seth - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  38.  4
    The Problem of Meaning: The Free Energy Principle and Artificial Agency.Michael David Kirchhoff, Julian Kiverstein & Tom Froese - 2022 - Frontiers in Neurorobotic 1.
    Biological agents can act in ways that express a sensitivity to context-dependent relevance. So far it has proven difficult to engineer this capacity for context-dependent sensitivity to relevance in artificial agents. We give this problem the label the “problem of meaning”. The problem of meaning could be circumvented if artificial intelligence researchers were to design agents based on the assumption of the continuity of life and mind. In this paper, we focus on the proposal made by enactive cognitive scientists to (...)
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  39.  36
    Enactive Neuroscience, the Direct Perception Hypothesis, and the Socially Extended Mind.Tom Froese - 2015 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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  40.  14
    What is ‘the Secret of Life’? The Mind-Body Problem in Čapek’s Rossum's Universal Robots (R.U.R.).Tom Froese - forthcoming - In Jitka Cejkova (ed.), Karel Capek’s R.U.R. and the Vision of Artificial Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    One of the recurring themes in Čapek’s play is the existential question of whether the reductionist materialist worldview – the belief that we can fully explain the world, including ourselves, in terms of nothing but physical processes – can accommodate all that is essential to the human being. The materialist worldview triumphed with the scientific revolution, which in turn laid the foundations for the military-industrial complex. This historical shift is represented in the play by the business-minded young Rossum inheriting the (...)
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  41.  14
    On the Spatiotemporal Extensiveness of Sense-Making: Ultrafast Cognition and the Historicity of Normativity.Laura Mojica & Tom Froese - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 1):447-460.
    The enactive approach conceives of cognition as acts of sense-making. A requirement of sense-making is adaptivity, i.e., the agent’s capacity to actively monitor and regulate its own trajectories with respect to its viability constraints. However, there are examples of sense-making, known as ultrafast cognition, that occur faster than the time physiologically required for the organism to centrally monitor and regulate movements, for example, via long-range neural feedback mechanisms. These examples open a clarificatory challenge for the enactive approach with respect to (...)
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  42.  20
    Making Sense of the Chronology of Paleolithic Cave Painting From the Perspective of Material Engagement Theory.Tom Froese - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):91-112.
    There exists a venerable tradition of interdisciplinary research into the origins and development of Paleolithic cave painting. In recent years this research has begun to be inflected by rapid advances in measurement techniques that are delivering chronological data with unprecedented accuracy. Patterns are emerging from the accumulating evidence whose precise interpretation demands corresponding advances in theory. It seems that cave painting went through several transitions, beginning with the creation of simple lines, dots and disks, followed by hand stencils, then by (...)
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  43. On the Role of AI in the Ongoing Paradigm Shift Within the Cognitive Sciences.Tom Froese - 2007 - In M. Lungarella (ed.), 50 Years of AI. Springer Verlag.
    This paper supports the view that the ongoing shift from orthodox to embodied-embedded cognitive science has been significantly influenced by the experimental results generated by AI research. Recently, there has also been a noticeable shift toward enactivism, a paradigm which radicalizes the embodied-embedded approach by placing autonomous agency and lived subjectivity at the heart of cognitive science. Some first steps toward a clarification of the relationship of AI to this further shift are outlined. It is concluded that the success of (...)
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  44.  26
    Interactively Guided Introspection is Getting Science Closer to an Effective Consciousness Meter.Tom Froese - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):672-676.
    The ever-increasing precision of brain measurement brings with it a demand for more reliable and fine-grained measures of conscious experience. However, introspection has long been assumed to be too limited and fallible. This skepticism is primarily based on a series of classic psychological experiments, which suggested that more is seen than can be retrospectively reported , and that we can be easily fooled into retrospectively describing intentional choices that we have never made . However, the work by Petitmengin, Remillieux, Cahour, (...)
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  45.  7
    Book Review: Ecology of the Brain: The Phenomenology and Biology of the Embodied Mind. [REVIEW]Tom Froese - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  46. Lost in the Socially Extended Mind: Genuine Intersubjectivity and Disturbed Self-Other Demarcation in Schizophrenia.Tom Froese & Joel Krueger - 2020 - In Christian Tewes & Giovanni Stanghellini (eds.), Time and Body: Phenomenological and Psychopathological Approaches. Cambridge, UK: pp. 318-340.
    Much of the characteristic symptomatology of schizophrenia can be understood as resulting from a pervasive sense of disembodiment. The body is experienced as an external machine that needs to be controlled with explicit intentional commands, which in turn leads to severe difficulties in interacting with the world in a fluid and intuitive manner. In consequence, there is a characteristic dissociality: Others become problems to be solved by intellectual effort and no longer present opportunities for spontaneous interpersonal alignment. This dissociality goes (...)
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  47. Hidden Concepts in the History of Origins-of-Life Studies.Carlos Mariscal, Ana Barahona, Nathanael Aubert-Kato, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Stuart Bartlett, María Luz Cárdenas, Kuhan Chandru, Carol E. Cleland, Benjamin T. Cocanougher, Nathaniel Comfort, Athel Cornish-Boden, Terrence W. Deacon, Tom Froese, Donato Giovanelli, John Hernlund, Piet Hut, Jun Kimura, Marie-Christine Maurel, Nancy Merino, Alvaro Julian Moreno Bergareche, Mayuko Nakagawa, Juli Pereto, Nathaniel Virgo, Olaf Witkowski & H. James Cleaves Ii - 2019 - Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 1.
    In this review, we describe some of the central philosophical issues facing origins-of-life research and provide a targeted history of the developments that have led to the multidisciplinary field of origins-of-life studies. We outline these issues and developments to guide researchers and students from all fields. With respect to philosophy, we provide brief summaries of debates with respect to (1) definitions (or theories) of life, what life is and how research should be conducted in the absence of an accepted theory (...)
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  48. Interactivity Should Aim to Extend, Not Reject, the Conceptual Foundations of Enaction.T. Froese - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):247-249.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition” by Matthew Isaac Harvey, Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Sune Vork Steffensen. Upshot: Enaction is a diverse research program and some of its texts can be interpreted in terms of a critical contrast to interactivity. Yet much of the former has already started to move in a direction favored by the latter: toward systematic studies of how human activity is shaped by social, cultural, and technological influences. Interactivity could therefore help (...)
     
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  49.  1
    Getting Interaction Theory (IT) Together.Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher - 2012 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 13 (3):436-468.
    We argue that progress in our scientific understanding of the ‘social mind’ is hampered by a number of unfounded assumptions. We single out the widely shared assumption that social behavior depends solely on the capacities of an individual agent. In contrast, both developmental and phenomenological studies suggest that the personal-level capacity for detached ‘social cognition’ is a secondary achievement that is dependent on more immediate processes of embodied social interaction. We draw on the enactive approach to cognitive science to further (...)
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  50.  6
    To Understand the Origin of Life We Must First Understand the Role of Normativity.Tom Froese - 2021 - Biosemiotics 14 (3):657-663.
    Deacon develops a minimal model of a nonparasitic virus to explore how nucleotide sequences came to be characterized by a code-like informational at the origin of life. The model serves to problematize the concept of biological normativity because it highlights two common yet typically implicit assumptions: that life could consist as an inert form, were it not for extrinsic sources of physical instability, and that life could have originated as a singular self-contained individual. I propose that the origin of life, (...)
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