Depuis son invention par Destutt de Tracy et sa réinvention par Marx et Engels, le concept d'idéologie n'a cessé de faire problème. Passé dans le langage courant, largement utilisé par les sciences humaines, bien qu'en des significations souvent exclusives les unes des autres, il hante la philosophie comme une sorte de mauvais génie perturbateur qui lui rappellerait l'impureté de ses origines et de ses usages, et qu'il lui faudrait toujours s'employer à réduire ou à sublimer. Encore faudrait-il en produire une (...) définition cohérente. Mais comment y parvenir sans une enquête systématique, à la fois analytique et épistémologique, qui tienne compte de la multiplicité des usages et dégage une problématique générale, sans éluder pour autant la question du caractère polémique du concept? C'est ce qu'a entrepris Nestor Capdevila en déterminant le jeu de significations pertinentes, bien que potentiellement contradictoires, qui sont à l'œuvre dans les analyses historiques, anthropologiques ou théologiques contemporaines où l'on peut étudier son fonctionnement. Cette approche nouvelle conteste la thèse accréditée par la tradition sociologique d'une modernité de l'idéologie, totalitaire ou non. Elle montre la valeur d'un modèle religieux fondé sur le concept d'hérésie qui, tout en reconnaissant l'exemplarité idéologique de la religion, ne réduit pas l'idéologie à la religion. Elle critique également les définitions de l'idéologie qui par souci d'objectivité prétendent purifier le concept de son aspect intrinsèquement polémique. Celui-ci fait du concept d'idéologie une illustration exemplaire de la dimension politique des concepts de la politique. (shrink)
In this paper I survey some recent developments in experimental philosophy and discuss their bearing on two leading theories in epistemology: Contextualism and Interest Relative Invariantism. In the first part of the paper, I survey some general issues of how experimental philosophy may be relevant to assessing contextualism and IRI. In the second part, I discuss and critique some of the recent experimental work.
This paper intends to validate the hermeneutic relevance of three core theses: José Matias (i) is demonstrably an “open work”, (ii) it constitutes a philosophical short story and (iii) it illustrates the failure of panlogism. With regard to the first thesis, it is necessary to concede up front that this interpretation of José Matias does not purport to be unique nor does it encompass the richness of the work’s content. Yet, given the second thesis, the paper intends to (...) defy the common notion among critics that the philosophical references that pervade the Queirozian text fulfill a merely rhetorical function, in the pejorative sense of this expression. Finally, the third thesis seeks to bring the reader to realize that after all, in this narrative, we have a subtle literary incarnation of the nineteenth-century crisis of reason, of which ‘scientism’, far from a cure, was nothing but a symptom. (shrink)
Eternalism is the view that all times are equally real. The relativity of simultaneity in special relativity backs this up. There is no cosmically extended, self-existing ‘now.’ This leads to a tricky problem. What makes statements about the present true? I shall approach the problem along the lines of perspectival realism and argue that the choice of the perspective does. To corroborate this point, the Lorentz transformations of special relativity are compared to the structurally similar equations of the Doppler effect. (...) The ‘now’ is perspectivally real in the same way as a particular electromagnetic spectrum frequency. I also argue that the ontology of time licensed by perspectival realism is more credible in this context than its current alternative, the fragmentalist interpretation of special relativity. (shrink)
There is a longstanding debate in the stakeholder literature as to who and what really counts as the stakeholders of the firm. Likewise, there have been discussions on whether nature should be considered a stakeholder of the firm. However, one seldom encounters any definitions of the key concepts, that is of nature or the natural environment . We seek to contribute to the debate by taking a closer look at what this thing called nature actually is. In addition, we discuss (...) the implications of this conceptual refinement for the stakeholder model. In order to reinforce the status of the natural environment in the stakeholder model, we propose that any visualisation of a stakeholder network should be embedded in the natural environment. (shrink)
Eternalism is the view that the past, the present and the future exist simpliciter. A typical argument in favor of this view leans on the relativity of simultaneity. The ‘equally real with’ relation is assumed to be transitive between spacelike separated events connected by hyperplanes of simultaneity. This reasoning is in tension with the conventionality of simultaneity. Conventionality indicates that, even within a specific frame, simultaneity is based on the choice of the synchronization parameter. Hence the argument for eternalism is (...) compromised. This paper lays out alternative eternalist strategies which do not hinge on hyperplanes. While we lack a rigorous proof for eternalism, there are still cogent reasons to prefer eternalism over presentism. (shrink)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats genome editing has already reinvented the direction of genetic and stem cell research. For more complex diseases it allows scientists to simultaneously create multiple genetic changes to a single cell. Technologies for correcting multiple mutations in an in vivo system are already in development. On the surface, the advent and use of gene editing technologies is a powerful tool to reduce human suffering by eradicating complex disease that has a genetic etiology. Gene drives are (...) CRISPR mediated alterations to genes that allow them to be passed on to subsequent populations at rates that approach one hundred per cent transmission. Therefore, from an anticipatory biomedical ethics perspective, it is possible to conceive gene drive being used with CRISPR to permanently ameliorate aberrant genes from wild-type populations containing mutations. However, there are also a number of possible side effects that could develop as the result of combining gene editing and gene drive technologies in an effort to eradicate complex diseases. In this paper, we critically analyse the hypothesis that the combination of CRISPR and gene drive will have a deleterious effect on human populations from an ethical perspective by developing an anticipatory ethical analysis of the implications for the use of CRISPR together with gene drive in humans. (shrink)
Giorgio Agamben and Ludwig Wittgenstein seem to have very little in common: the former is concerned with traditional ontological issues while the latter was interested in logics and ordinary language, avoiding metaphysical issues as something we cannot speak about. However, both share a crucial notion for their philosophical projects: form of life. In this paper, I try to show that, despite their different approaches and goals, form of life is for both a crucial notion for thinking ethics and life in-common. (...) Addressing human existence in its constitutive relation to language, this notion deconstructs traditional dichotomies like bios and zoé, the cultural and the biological, enabling both authors to think of a life which cannot be separated from its forms, recognizing the commonality of logos as the specific trait of human existence. Through an analogical reading between both theoretical frameworks, I suggest that the notion of form-of-life, elaborated by Wittgenstein to address human production of meaning, becomes the key notion in Agamben's affirmative thinking since it enables us to consider the common ontologically in its relation to Human potentialities and to foresee a new, common use of the world and ourselves. Giorgio Agamben e Ludwig Wittgenstein parecem ter muito pouco em comum: o primeiro se ocupa de questões ontológicas tradicionais, enquanto o segundo estava interessado na Lógica e na linguagem corrente, evitando os problemas metafísicos como algo de que não podemos falar. No entanto, ambos partilham um conceito crucial para seus projetos filosóficos respectivos: forma de vida. Este artigo tento mostrar que, apesar de seus diferentes enfoques e objetivos, a noção de forma de vida é fundamental no momento de pensar a ética e a vida em-comum. Abordando a existência humana em sua relação constitutiva com a língua, essa noção desconstrói dicotomias tradicionais como bios e zoe, o cultural e o biológico, permitindo-lhes pensar uma vida que não pode ser separada de suas formas, e reconhecendo o caráter comum do logos como o traço específico da existência humana. Através de uma leitura analógica entre ambos quadros teóricos, sugiro que a noção de forma-de-vida, elaborada por Wittgenstein para abordar a produção humana de significados, tornase o conceito-chave do pensamento afirmativo de Agamben, já que nos permite considerar o comum ontologicamente em sua relação com as potencialidades humanas e vislumbrar um uso novo e comum do mundo e de nós mesmos. (shrink)
This article explores the strategic management of government affairs in companies active in the EU. The article relies on a unique large-N dataset on the functioning and staffing of EU government affairs. The analysis shows that companies delegate government affairs functions to in-house managers with specific competences, who stay in office for long periods and who have an extensive knowledge of the core competences of the company, thanks to their educational background and work experience in the private sector. These findings (...) suggest that how companies strategically manage and staff government affairs in Brussels rests on the distinct structure of business–government relations in the EU, which are based on the exchange of technical information and the establishment of credibility and long-run trust arrangements. (shrink)
In several previous papers we have argued for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the “arrow” is only a metaphorical way of expressing the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe. We have also shown that, under definite conditions, this global time-asymmetry can be transferred to local contexts as an energy flow that points to the same temporal direction all over the spacetime. The aim of this paper is to complete the global (...) and non-entropic program by showing that our approach is able to account for irreversible local phenomena, which have been traditionally considered as the physical origin of the arrow of time. (shrink)
For the last forty years, Hume's Newtonianism has been a debated topic in Hume scholarship. The crux of the matter can be formulated by the following question: Is Hume a Newtonian philosopher? Debates concerning this question have produced two lines of interpretation. I shall call them ‘traditional’ and ‘critical’ interpretations. The traditional interpretation asserts that there are many Newtonian elements in Hume, whereas the critical interpretation seriously questions this. In this article, I consider the main points made by both lines (...) of interpretations and offer further arguments that contribute to this debate. I shall first argue, in favor of the traditional interpretation, that Hume is sympathetic to many prominently Newtonian themes in natural philosophy such as experimentalism, criticality of hypotheses, inductive proof, and criticality of Leibnizian principles of sufficient reason and intelligibility. Second, I shall argue, in accordance with the critical interpretation, that in many cases Hume... (shrink)
I examine an intuitive property of folk-psychological explanations I call self-sufficiency. I argue that individualism cannot honor this property and work toward distilling an account of psychological explanation that does honor it, given some fairly standard assumptions. In doing so, my preference for an Externalist individuation of intentional state will emerge unambiguously. The assumptions I rely on are fairly standard but not uncontroversial. Yet not always do I attempt to defend them from objections. My goal is an account of folk (...) psychology consistent with our every-day practices rather than the deduction of an idealized psychology from first principles. I conclude with some applications offered as evidence that the goal was achieved. (shrink)
Fear, which has always been one of the most powerful of human passions, has grown in importance during modernity. First with Machiavelli and later especially with Hobbes, fear has become one of the foundational ideas of modern political philosophy. If fear, especially fear of death, does indeed occupy a central place in the foundation of modern politics, then it is necessary to study carefully the implications and consequences of the transhumanist attempt to overcome death. Among the main aspirations of transhumanism (...) is the search for almost infinite longevity and, eventually, the total abolition of aging. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the specific role that fear of death has played in modern political philosophy to understand the possible effects that an eventual overcoming of death would have, albeit partial, as wanted by transhumanists. While the possibility of achieving immortality seems unlikely, this doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t study what’s behind this transhumanist aspiration. In this way, transhumanism seems the final consequence of modern development, since it’s in continuity with the modern attempt to respond to the fear of death, but it does so by trying an ultimate solution to it through the elimination of death, at least by sickness and old age. In this paper, we will review the role of fear of death in the founding of modern political philosophy by Machiavelli and Hobbes, and then we will analyse the transhumanist attempt to overcome death as a consequence of this fear and its possible political effects. (shrink)
This book contextualizes David Hume's philosophy of physical science, exploring both Hume's background in the history of early modern natural philosophy and its subsequent impact on the scientific tradition.
Volumul de articole, studii, cuvântări şi Pastorale publicat la Editura Mitropolia Olteniei din Craiova în anul 1986 trebuie văzut şi analizat, pentru o bună şi corectă înţelegere, în lumina vremurilor în care a apărut. În acelaşi timp, ideile pe care IPS Nestor Vornicescu, Arhiepiscopul Craiovei şi Mitropolitul Olteniei, le dezvoltă în scrierile sale sunt actuale şi după aproape 30 de ani de la strângerea lor între paginile aceleaşi cărţi, după ce văzuseră lumina tiparului cu ani în urmă în diferite reviste (...) din ţară şi străinătate, semn că autorul dovedeşte o putere impresionantă de a rămâne viu prin scrierile sale într-o epocă în care totul era dictat şi atent controlat şi cenzurat de la centru. În zilele noastre, într-o perioadă în care cei ce abordează teme ca „patriotism”, „românism”, „idealul strămoşilor”, „istoria naţională”, „pacea pe pământ”, „munca”, „dreptatea” ş.a. sunt consideraţi a fi spirite retrograde şi contaminate de perioada apusă şi de tristă amintire, cuvintele IPS Nestor Vornicescu referitoare la aceste idei rămân de o actualitate ce îi lasă pe mulţi fără replică. În ciuda faptului că anumite cuvinte şi expresii au fost acaparate de doctrina comunistă, schimbându-li-se sensul, ele reprezintă constante şi permanenţe atât ale spiritului nostru naţional, cât şi virtuţi creştine despre care s-a vorbit şi trebuie să se vorbească şi să fie respectate pentru a putea să ne orientăm într-o Europă din care ele nu au dispărut nicio clipă din discursul oficial sau particular şi în care România îşi caută coordonatele naţionale pentru a se adapta după integrarea atât de mult dorită de toţi. „Volumul Pace pe pământ îl adevereşte pe Mitropolitul şi Academicianul Nestor Vornicescu ca ierarh şi teolog pe linia învăţăturii şi a tradiţiei Ortodoxiei româneşti, iubitor şi luptător pentru ţară şi popor, pentru pace şi înţelegere între oameni şi neamuri, pentru apărarea păcii şi a vieţii. Concluzia categorică este că pacea – salvgardarea, apărarea, întărirea, impunerea şi permanentizarea ei urbi et orbi – constituie imperativul vital al zilelor noastre, cum arată autorul pe bună dreptate”.2. (shrink)
McTaggart famously introduced the A- and B-series as rival metaphysical accounts of time. This paper shall reorient the debate over the original distinction. Instead of treating the series as competing theories about the nature of time, it will be argued that they are different viewpoints on a world that is fundamentally physical. To that end, non-reductive physicalism is proposed to reconcile the series.
According to a widespread view, Einstein’s definition of time in his special relativity is founded on the positivist verification principle. The present paper challenges this received outlook. It shall be argued that Einstein’s position on the concept of time, to wit, simultaneity, is best understood as a mitigated version of concept empiricism. He contrasts his position to Newton’s absolutist and Kant’s transcendental arguments, and in part sides with Hume’s and Mach’s empiricist arguments. Nevertheless, Einstein worked out a concept empiricism that (...) is considerably more moderate than what we find in the preceding empiricist tradition and early logical positivism. He did not think that the origin of concepts is in observations, but in conventions, and he also maintained a realist ontology of physical events, which he thought is necessary for his theory. Consequently, his philosophy of time in special relativity is not couched in terms of an anti-metaphysical verificationism. (shrink)
In this paper, I aim to show the evolution of Kierkegaard’s views on the state scattered in his Papers. To do this, I will carry out an analysis divided into chronological periods, and I will characterize each period in terms of its main features. The goal is to give a comprehensive account of Kierkegaard as a champion of the monarchical and authoritative state, who loses his patience and attacks the established order only when he thinks that Christianity’s truth is at (...) the greatest risk. This interpretation contrasts both with a mere despotic Kierkegaard and with a more liberal one. (shrink)
Some authors, inspired by the theoretical requirements for the formulation of a quantum theory of gravity, proposed a relational reconstruction of the quantum parameter-time—the time of the unitary evolution, which would make quantum mechanics compatible with relativity. The aim of the present work is to follow the lead of those relational programs by proposing a relational reconstruction of the event-time—which orders the detection of the definite values of the system’s observables. Such a reconstruction will be based on the modal-Hamiltonian interpretation (...) of quantum mechanics, which provides a clear criterion to select which observables acquire a definite value and to specify in what situation they do so. (shrink)
El punto de partida de este trabajo es el objetivo general de explorar las resonancias conceptuales entre la filosofía de Deleuze y Guattari y el pensamiento oriental. Este artículo desarrolla dos series de figuras del Oriente presentes en Mil mesetas, explicitando sus conexiones con diversos temas deleuziano-guattarianos. La primera serie comprende juegos y artes marciales que los autores utilizan para ejemplificar los conceptos "espacio liso" y "máquina de guerra"; la segunda comprende las prácticas sexuales taoístas como un caso, entre otros, (...) de la libre circulación del deseo en un cuerpo sin órganos. El énfasis está puesto en aclarar cómo operan estas figuras del Oriente en el texto de Mil mesetas, así como en exponer algunas fuentes que Deleuze y Guattari suelen dejar en las sombras. Por último, se adelantará el trasfondo sobre el cual el pensamiento oriental y la filosofía de Deleuze y Guattari tejen sus "perturbadoras afinidades". The starting point for this work is a general aim to explore the conceptual resonances between Deleuze and Guattari's philosophy and the Eastern thought. This paper develops two series of figures from the East that appear in A Thousand Plateaus and brings out their connection with various Deleuzian-Guattarian themes. The first series includes some games and martial arts used by the authors as examples for the concepts "smooth space" and "war machine". The second series includes some Taoist sexual practices as one of many cases for the free circulation of desire within a body without organs. The emphasis is laid on clarifying the role these figures from the East play in A Thousand Plateaus, as well as on unveiling some sources the authors usually leave hidden behind. Finally, i figure out the background against which the Eastern thought and Deleuze and Guattari's philosophy weave their 'disturbing affinities'. (shrink)
RESUMENEste trabajo desarrolla algunas «figuras del Oriente» presentes en la obra de Deleuze y Guattari: en primer lugar, los hexagramas del Libro de los Cambios como un caso límite entre el pensamiento por figuras y el pensamiento por conceptos, y entre sabiduría y filosofía; en segundo lugar, los paisajes «típicamente» orientales y occidentales que pueblan Mil mesetas y ¿Qué es la filosofía?; por último, la figura del pintor–poeta chino como realizador del devenir–imperceptible. El objetivo es explorar las resonancias conceptuales entre (...) ambos autores y el pensamiento oriental, especialmente en cuanto a la articulación entre ontología y ética.PALABRAS CLAVEORIENTE, CHINA, DELEUZE, GUATTARI, DEVENIRABSTRACTThis paper develops some «figures from the Orient» that appear in Deleuze and Guattari’s work: firstly, the hexagrams from the Book of Changes, as a limit case in the distinctions between thinking through figures and thinking through concepts, and between wisdom and philosophy; secondly, the «typically» oriental and occidental landscapes that populate A Thousand Plateaus and What Is Philosophy?; and lastly, the Chinese painter–poet as achiever of a becoming–imperceptible. The aim is to explore the conceptual resonances between these authors’ philosophy and oriental thought, especially regarding the articulation between ontology and ethics.KEY WORDSORIENT, CHINA, DELEUZE, GUATTARI, BECOMING. (shrink)
En confrontación con las interpretaciones que asignan un significado religioso o teológico a las referencias a los dioses, a lo sagrado, o al “último dios” presentes en la obra de Martin Heidegger, este trabajo defiende una lectura en clave estrictamente ontológica de tales referencias. Para ello, se remite al diálogo que Heidegger mantiene con la poesía de Hölderlin y se argumenta que el significado que atribuye a la invocación hölderliniana a los “dioses huidos” depende del carácter ontológico que, en otro (...) contexto, concede a la nominación de los dioses característica del decir poético griego. Ese mismo carácter se pone de manifiesto en el sentido que, según Heidegger, ostenta la apelación a “lo sagrado” de la poesía de Hölderlin como nombre poético del ser en su despliegue histórico. Finalmente, dicha interpretación se hace extensiva a la figura del “último dios”, resaltando que su comprensión pasa por atender a la exégesis heideggeriana de la cuestión de la huida de los dioses en la obra poética de Hölderlin. (shrink)
En este breve comentario discuto algunos aspectos de la interpretación de la epistemología de Davidson que sugiere Willian Duica en su reciente libro. Luego de una presentación somera del libro me centro en tres asuntos centrales de la interpretación de Duica. En primer lugar, argumento que su lectura de la crítica de Davidson al dualismo esquema/contenido es muy restrictiva y deja abierta la posibilidad de un realismo directo empirista. En segundo lugar, argumento que en su lectura el propio Duica se (...) compromete inadvertidamente con un empirismo de este tipo y, de este modo, su interpretación entra en tensión con el coherentismo de Davidson. Finalmente, discuto algunos aspectos de la interpretación que hace Duica de la tesis davidsoniana de la triangulación. In this short comment I discuss some aspects of William Duica's interpretation of Davidson's epistemology in a recent book. After a brief review of the book, I focus on three central issues of Duica's interpretation. First, I argue that his reading of Davidson's criticism of the scheme/content dualism is too restrictive and leaves open the possibility of an empiricist direct realism. Second, I argue in his reading Duica inadvertently commits himself to an empiricism of this sort and, as a result, his interpretation is in tension with Davidson's own coherentism. Finally, I discuss some aspects of Duica's interpretation of Davidsonian triangulation. (shrink)
El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el pensamiento de la comunidad en Giorgio Agamben y Roberto Esposito. Ambos interrogan lo común desde una perspectiva impolítica que intenta deconstruir los presupuestos de la metafísica y de la filosofía política tradicionales para poder elaborar una conceptualidad afirmativa en clave ontológica. En estos autores predomina el recurso a la figura de la comunidad, situada luego en el horizonte de la biopolítica, ya que la vida deviene el centro hacia el cual apuntarían los dispositivos de (...) poder y las formas de subjetivación política actuales. El trabajo plantea como interrogante si estos abordajes ontológicos logran dar cuenta plenamente de lo común en términos políticos o sólo éticos. (shrink)
Este artículo tiene como objetivo clarificar algunas nociones fundamentales de la reconstrucción del cristianismo de Søren Kierkegaard . En primer lugar, se hará una distinción entre creencia histórica y fe cristiana, que sirve de base para entender la relación existencial que el individuo puede desarrollar con la enseñanza de Cristo. Seguidamente, se hará alusión al concepto de espíritu que propone el pensador danés, demarcando con esto los estadios kierkegaardianos de la existencia. Y, por último, se conectarán ambos puntos anteriores con (...) lo que entiende Kierkegaard por verdad y libertad en el contexto religioso. (shrink)
Although the main focus of Hume’s career was in the humanities, his work also has an observable role in the historical development of natural sciences after his time. To show this, I shall center on the relation between Hume and two major ﬁgures in the history of the natural sciences: Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and Albert Einstein (1879–1955). Both of these scientists read Hume. They also found parts of Hume’s work useful to their sciences. Inquiring into the relations between Hume and (...) the two scientists shows that his philosophical positions had a partial but constructive role in the formation of modern biology and physics. This is accordingly a clear indication of Hume’s impact on the scientiﬁc tradition. Before proceeding to analyze Hume’s contribution to the history of science, it is important to address his broader role in the history of philosophy of science. Hume’s discussions concerning the topics of causation, induction, the distinction between mathematical and empirical propositions, and laws of nature have been important for the philosophy of science of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (shrink)
Que la philosophie puisse se pratiquer dans toute sa rigueur conceptuelle en s’appliquant à des notions politiques, voilà qui n’a pas été et n’est pas toujours évident pour tous. Le concept d’idéologie de Nestor Capdevila est une lecture tout indiquée pour les sceptiques. Le pari n’est pourtant pas gagné a priori : ce terme, forgé en 1798 par Destutt de Tracy pour désigner la science des idées prises au sens général de perceptions, est on ne peut plus fuyant. S’il n’a (...) pas, à l’origine, la con.. (shrink)
Millikan  has levelled a number of persuasive criticisms against Cummins's  theory of mental representation. In this paper, I pave a middle path in the debate between Cummins  and Millikan  to answer two questions. How are representations applied to targets? How is the content of a representation determined? The result is a new theory of mental representation, which I call narrow structuralism.
The study provides insights on why large Finnish municipalities are engaging in sustainability reporting. The dataset consists of the sustainability disclosures of five large Finnish cities and of a set of interviews conducted with the personnel responsible for composing the sustainability reports in these cities. Preliminary findings suggest that this rising practice is again an example of a fad, arising as the public sector organizations mimic the corporate sector without anyone really pondering whether the municipalities and the public sector as (...) a whole truly need a similar practice the corporations have. We maintain that there are better ways to use a municipality’s scarce resources than imitating the corporate sustainability reporting practices through producing a sustainability report, the main task of which seems to be to exist. (shrink)
This project evaluates the impact of the National Science Foundation's policy to promote education in the responsible conduct of research. To determine whether this policy resulted in meaningful RCR educational experiences, our study examined the instructional plans developed by individual universities in response to the mandate. Using a sample of 108 U.S. institutions classified as Carnegie “very high research activity”, we analyzed all publicly available NSF RCR training plans in light of the consensus best practices in RCR education that were (...) known at the time the policy was implemented. We found that fewer than half of universities developed plans that incorporated at least some of the best practices. More specifically, only 31% of universities had content and requirements that differed by career stage, only 1% of universities had content and requirements that differed by discipline; and only 18% of universities required some face-to-face engagement from all classes of trainees. Indeed, some schools simply provided hand-outs to their undergraduate students. Most universities had plans that could be satisfied with online programs such as the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative's RCR modules. The NSF policy requires universities to develop RCR training plans, but provides no guidelines or requirements for the format, scope, content, duration, or frequency of the training, and does not hold universities accountable for their training plans. Our study shows that this vaguely worded policy, and lack of accountability, has not produced meaningful educational experiences for most of the undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral trainees funded by the NSF. (shrink)
Este trabajo parte de la pregunta por la posibilidad de deducir un planteamiento estrictamente político de los análisis ontológicos de la modernidad llevados a cabo por Martin Heidegger. Con este fin, se examina su interpretación del fenómeno griego de la pólis, así como la distinción que en ella se establece entre esta forma de comunidad y el Estado moderno, fundado para Heidegger en la esencia metafísica de la modernidad. Para clarificar esta cuestión se atiende a la proclamación de valores que (...) Heidegger observa en los diferentes modos de organización estatal que aparecen en la época de la consumación técnica de la metafísica. En conexión con ello, se estudia su visión del nihilismo y se ofrece finalmente una hipótesis sobre la forma de Estado que resultaría coherente con la renuncia a los valores que, a su juicio, exige la manifestación del ente en la modernidad como objeto por entero producible. (shrink)
Category-based induction is an inferential mechanism that uses knowledge of conceptual relations in order to estimate how likely is for a property to be projected from one category to another. During the last decades, psychologists have identified several features of this mechanism, and they have proposed different formal models of it. In this article; we propose a new mathematical model for category-based induction based on distances on conceptual spaces. We show how this model can predict most of the properties of (...) this kind of reasoning while providing a solid theoretical foundation for it. We also show that it subsumes some of the previous models proposed in the literature and that it generates new predictions. (shrink)