29 found
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  1.  21
    Sustainability principle for the ethics of healthcare resource allocation.Christian Munthe, Davide Fumagalli & Erik Malmqvist - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):90-97.
    We propose a principle of sustainability to complement established principles used for justifying healthcare resource allocation. We argue that the application of established principles of equal treatment, need, prognosis and cost-effectiveness gives rise to what we call negative dynamics: a gradual depletion of the value possible to generate through healthcare. These principles should therefore be complemented by a sustainability principle, making the prospect of negative dynamics a further factor to consider, and possibly outweigh considerations highlighted by the other principles. We (...)
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  2.  14
    “Paid to Endure”: Paid Research Participation, Passivity, and the Goods of Work.Erik Malmqvist - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):11-20.
    A growing literature documents the existence of individuals who make a living by participating in phase I clinical trials for money. Several scholars have noted that the concerns about risks, consent, and exploitation raised by this phenomenon apply to many (other) jobs, too, and therefore proposed improving subject protections by regulating phase I trial participation as work. This article contributes to the debate over this proposal by exploring a largely neglected worry. Unlike most (other) workers, subjects are not paid to (...)
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  3.  47
    Better to Exploit than to Neglect? International Clinical Research and the Non‐Worseness Claim.Erik Malmqvist - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):474-488.
    Clinical research is increasingly ‘offshored’ to developing countries, a practice that has generated considerable controversy. It has recently been argued that the prevailing ethical norms governing such research are deeply puzzling. On the one hand, sponsors are not required to offshore trials, even when participants in developing countries would benefit considerably from these trials. On the other hand, if sponsors do offshore, they are required not to exploit participants, even when the latter would benefit from and consent to exploitation. How, (...)
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  4.  99
    Are Bans on Kidney Sales Unjustifiably Paternalistic?Erik Malmqvist - 2012 - Bioethics 28 (3):110-118.
    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller and Alan (...)
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  5.  67
    Kidney Sales and the Analogy with Dangerous Employment.Erik Malmqvist - 2015 - Health Care Analysis 23 (2):107-121.
    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear (...)
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  6.  8
    ‘Green’ bioethics widens the scope of eligible values and overrides patient demand: comment on Parker.Anders Herlitz, Erik Malmqvist & Christian Munthe - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (2):100-101.
    Parker’s article is a welcome attempt to address the importance of environmental sustainability in the realm of clinical ethics.1 We support the recent movement to seriously consider the environmental impact of healthcare institutions in bioethics.2 3 Still, we find two partly linked weaknesses of Parker’s analysis and guideline suggestion. These relate to a need in ‘green’ bioethics to see beyond the normal healthcare ethical focus on health-related values related to individual patients, and to primarily adopt institutional ways of framing central (...)
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  7.  52
    Taking Advantage of Injustice.Erik Malmqvist - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (4):557-580.
    What, if anything, is wrong with taking advantage of people’s unjust circumstances when they both benefit from and consent to the exchange? The answer, some believe, is that such exchanges are wrongfully exploitative. I argue that this answer is incomplete at best, and I elaborate a different one: to take advantage of injustice is to become complicit in its reproduction. I also argue that the case for third-party interference with mutually beneficial and consensual exchanges, while normally considered weak, is strengthened (...)
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  8.  5
    What High-Income States Should Do to Address Industrial Antibiotic Pollution.Erik Malmqvist & Christian Munthe - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):275-287.
    Antibiotic resistance is widely recognized as a major threat to public health and healthcare systems worldwide. Recent research suggests that pollution from antibiotics manufacturing is an important driver of resistance development. Using Sweden as an example, this article considers how industrial antibiotic pollution might be addressed by public actors who are in a position to influence the distribution and use of antibiotics in high-income countries with publicly funded health systems. We identify a number of opportunities for these actors to incentivize (...)
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  9.  11
    Clinical trials of germline gene editing: The exploitation problem.Erik Malmqvist - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (7):688-695.
    Bioethics, Volume 35, Issue 7, Page 688-695, September 2021.
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  10. Exploitation and Remedial Duties.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):55-72.
    The concept of exploitation and potentially exploitative real-world practices are the subject of increasing philosophical attention. However, while philosophers have extensively debated what exploitation is and what makes it wrong, they have said surprisingly little about what might be required to remediate it. By asking how the consequences of exploitation should be addressed, this article seeks to contribute to filling this gap. We raise two questions. First, what are the victims of exploitation owed by way of remediation? Second, who ought (...)
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  11. Exploitation and Joint Action.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (3):280-300.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  12. Early Stopping of Clinical Trials: Charting the Ethical Terrain.Erik Malmqvist, Niklas Juth, Niels Lynöe & Gert Helgesson - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):51-78.
    Randomized and double-blind clinical trials are widely regarded as the most reliable way of studying the effects of medical interventions. According to received wisdom, if a new drug or treatment is to be accepted in clinical practice, its safety and efficacy must first be demonstrated in such trials. For ethical and scientific reasons, it is generally considered necessary to monitor a trial in various ways as it proceeds and to analyze data as they accumulate. Monitoring and interim analyses are often (...)
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  13. Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies.Erik Malmqvist & Kristin Zeiler - 2015 - Routledge.
    Medical therapy, research and technology enable us to make our bodies, or parts of them, available to others in an increasing number of ways. This is the case in organ, tissue, egg and sperm donation as well as in surrogate motherhood and clinical research. Bringing together leading scholars working on the ethical, social and cultural aspects of such bodily exchanges, this cutting-edge book develops new ways of understanding them. Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing both probes the established giving and (...)
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  14.  21
    Analysing our qualms about “designing” future persons: Autonomy, freedom of choice, and interfering with nature. [REVIEW]Erik Malmqvist - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (4):407-416.
    Actually possible and conceivable future uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and germ-line genetic intervention in assisted reproduction seem to offer increasing possibilities of choosing the kind of persons that will be brought to existence. Many are troubled by the idea of these technologies being used for enhancement purposes. How can we make sense of this worry? Why are our thoughts about therapeutic genetic interventions and non-genetic enhancement (for instance education) not accompanied by the same intuitive uneasiness? I argue that (...)
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  15.  16
    A Further Lesson From Existing Kidney Markets.Erik Malmqvist - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):27-29.
    The target article challenges the increasingly popular portrayal of living kidney sale as potentially a mutually beneficial arrangement, capable not only of saving or improving the lives of patients in need of transplants but also of significantly benefiting poor vendors. Carefully reviewing the literature on harms to vendors in illegal kidney markets and in Iran’s legal market, Koplin argues that many of these harms would persist in the sort of legal regulated system that kidney sale advocates envision. This is an (...)
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  16.  34
    REPROGENETICS and the “Parents Have Always Done It” Argument.Erik Malmqvist - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (1):43-49.
    A common argument in favor of using reprogenetic technologies to enhance children goes like this: parents have always aimed at enhancing their children through upbringing and education, so why not use new tools to accomplish the same goal? But reprogenetics differs significantly from good childrearing and education, in its means, if not its ends.
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  17.  24
    The ethics of implementing human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries.Erik Malmqvist, Gert Helgesson, Johannes Lehtinen, Kari Natunen & Matti Lehtinen - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):19-27.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection. It is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death in cancer among women worldwide, and is also believed to cause other anogenital and head and neck cancers. Vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing HPV types have recently become available, and different countries have taken different approaches to implementing vaccination. This paper examines the ethics of alternative HPV vaccination strategies. It devotes particular (...)
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  18.  40
    Good Parents, Better Babies : An Argument about Reproductive Technologies, Enhancement and Ethics.Erik Malmqvist - unknown
    This study is a contribution to the bioethical debate about new and possibly emerging reproductive technologies. Its point of departure is the intuition, which many people seem to share, that using such technologies to select non-disease traits – like sex and emotional stability - in yet unborn children is morally problematic, at least more so than using the technologies to avoid giving birth to children with severe genetic diseases, or attempting to shape the non-disease traits of already existing children by (...)
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  19.  2
    Pharmaceutical Pollution from Human Use and the Polluter Pays Principle.Erik Malmqvist, Davide Fumagalli, Christian Munthe & D. G. Joakim Larsson - 2023 - Public Health Ethics 16 (2):152-164.
    Human consumption of pharmaceuticals often leads to environmental release of residues via urine and faeces, creating environmental and public health risks. Policy responses must consider the normative question how responsibilities for managing such risks, and costs and burdens associated with that management, should be distributed between actors. Recently, the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) has been advanced as rationale for such distribution. While recognizing some advantages of PPP, we highlight important ethical and practical limitations with applying it in this context: PPP (...)
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  20.  9
    Does the ethical appropriateness of paying donors depend on what body parts they donate?Erik Malmqvist - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (3):463-473.
    The idea of paying donors in order to make more human bodily material available for therapy, assisted reproduction, and biomedical research is notoriously controversial. However, while national and international donation policies largely oppose financial incentives they do not treat all parts of the body equally: incentives are allowed in connection to the provision of some parts but not others. Taking off from this observation, I discuss whether body parts differ as regards the ethical legitimacy of incentives and, if so, why. (...)
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  21.  15
    Sustainable healthcare resource allocation, grounding theories and operational principles: response to our commentators.Christian Munthe, Davide Fumagalli & Erik Malmqvist - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (1):38-38.
    We proposed adding a sustainability principle to the operational ethical principles guiding public healthcare resources allocation decisions. All our commentators acknowledge our core message: healthcare needs to pay attention to the future. They also strengthen our proposal by offering support by luck egalitarian and Rawlsian arguments, and helpfully point out ambiguities and gaps requiring attention in the further development of the proposal, and its practical implementation.
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  22. A Letter To The Editor From Erik Malmqvist In Response To The Recent Letter From Howard Brody, David Buchanan, And Franklin G. Miller Concerning His Article understanding Exploitation,” Mar-apr 2011).Erik Malmqvist - 2012 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (2):19.
     
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  23. understanding Exploitation.Erik Malmqvist - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (2):1-5.
    The term “exploitation” is notoriously hard to define. Yet it is frequently invoked to frame moral concerns about clinical research. Recently, a group of influential authors have proposed a so-called nonexploitation framework for the ethics of randomized controlled trials that appears to address these concerns. This article challenges one basic assumption of that framework: the idea that nonexploitation in research requires participants to be protected from excessive risks, which are understood to be risks that are not outweighed by the benefits (...)
     
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  24.  18
    Just implementation of human papillomavirus vaccination.Erik Malmqvist, Kari Natunen, Matti Lehtinen & Gert Helgesson - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):247-249.
    Many countries are now implementing human papillomavirus vaccination. There is disagreement about who should receive the vaccine. Some propose vaccinating both boys and girls in order to achieve the largest possible public health impact. Others regard this approach as too costly and claim that only girls should be vaccinated. We question the assumption that decisions about human papillomavirus vaccination policy should rely solely on estimates of overall benefits and costs. There are important social justice aspects that also need to be (...)
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  25.  21
    Back to the Future: Habermas's" The Future of Human Nature".Bernard G. Prusak & Erik Malmqvist - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  26. Cooperative activity, shared intention, and exploitation.Olle Blomberg & Erik Malmqvist - forthcoming - Ethics.
    Jules Salomone-Sehr argues that an activity is cooperative if and only if, roughly, it consists of several participants’ actions that are (i) coordinated for a common purpose (ii) in ways that do not undermine any participant’s agency. He argues that shared intention-guidance is neither necessary nor sufficient for cooperation. Thereby, he claims to “topple an orthodoxy of shared agency theory”. In response, we argue that Salomone-Sehr’s account captures another notion of cooperation than the socio-psychological notion shared agency theory has focused (...)
     
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  27.  1
    Exploitation in Biomedical Research.Erik Malmqvist - 2023 - In Erick Valdés & Juan Alberto Lecaros (eds.), Handbook of Bioethical Decisions. Volume II: Scientific Integrity and Institutional Ethics. Springer Verlag. pp. 2147483647-2147483647.
    Biomedical research on human subjects involves exposing individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of others, and therefore raises concerns about exploitation. While the concept of exploitation has received significant attention in recent research ethical literature, its relevance and implications in this area remain unclear and contested. This chapter explains how this concept is nonetheless important for understanding the ethical complexities of human subject research and the proper design of subject protections. The chapter provides an overview of research practices (...)
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  28.  19
    The Notion of health and the morality of genetic intervention.Erik Malmqvist - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (2):181-192.
    In the present paper it is argued that genetic interventions on human embryos are in principle permissible if they promote the health of the persons that these embryos will one day become and impermissible if they compromise their health. This so called health-intervention principle is reached by, inter alia, rejecting alternative approaches to the problem of the permissibility of genetic intervention. The health-intervention principle can be interpreted in different ways depending on how the notion of health is understood. The central (...)
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  29.  5
    Global Health Impact: Extending Access to Essential Medicines, Nicole Hassoun. Oxford University Press, 2020, xv + 301 pages. [REVIEW]Erik Malmqvist - 2022 - Economics and Philosophy 38 (1):158-164.