This article aims to highlight the healthcare issues raised by COVID-19 in Pakistan’s scenario. Initially, Pakistan lacked “standard operating procedures,” and the government had to ship testing kits from China and Japan. Moreover, due to violations of the lockdown and standard operating procedures (SOPs), the rapidly increasing number of cases created a burden on the healthcare system. More and more, this pandemic and its impact have grown. As vaccine development has not been successful yet, “herd immunity” can only be achieved (...) if about three quarters of the population contract the virus—requiring immunocompromised citizens to be sacrificed for the sake of the country. Moreover, Pakistan has limited testing capacity, so most COVID-19 tests are missing their mark even as the virus spreads. The current scenario is also raising several concerns about the capacity of the government to tackle the prevailing healthcare crisis. In this regard, healthcare professionals suggest that the government must act responsibly to ensure better security provided to healthcare professionals. Identifying suspected cases, introducing personal protective equipment, and taking administrative measures to ensure that better security is provided to healthcare professionals are the needs of the hour to improve outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Testing, tracking, and lockdowns must be focused on areas where clusters are detected. The healthcare professionals must be given utmost protection before this pandemic could wreak havoc in terms of fatalities. Investing in the chronically underfunded healthcare system is needed, so that Pakistan can build capacity to fight the pandemic. (shrink)
During the current COVID-19 pandemic, misinformation is a major challenge, raising several social and psychological concerns. This article highlights the prevailing misinformation as an outbreak containing hoaxes, myths, and rumours. In comparison to traditional media, online media platforms facilitate misinformation even more widely. To further affirm this ethical concern, the researchers cite relevant studies demonstrating the role of new media in misinformation and its potential consequences. Besides other significant psychosocial impacts, such as xenophobia, psychological distress, LGBT rights violation, gender-based violence, (...) misinformation is undermining healthcare workers’ psychological health and their efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19. In view of the adverse consequences of misinformation, this article addresses it as a massive ethical challenge during the current outbreak. Thus, the researchers make relevant suggestions to evaluate misinformation sources and mitigate the psychosocial impacts attributed to misinformation during crises. They include forming mental health teams comprising of psychologists, psychiatrists, and trained paramedical staff; rapid dissemination of authentic and updated COVID-19 situation reports regularly; establishing helpline services; and recognizing a broader range of personal needs. All health authorities should make clear that they are listening and responding to public concerns. Much effort is needed to counteract COVID-19 misinformation. (shrink)
The aim of this study is to explore social media marketing activities and their impact on consumer intentions. This study also analyzes the mediating roles of social identification and satisfaction. The participants in this study were experienced users of two social media platforms Facebook and Instagram in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. We used an online community to invite Facebook and Instagram users to complete the questionnaire in the designated online questionnaire system. Data were (...) collected from 353 respondents, and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results show that SMMAs have a significant impact on the intentions of users. Furthermore, social identification mediates the relationship between social media activities and satisfaction, and satisfaction mediates the relationship between social media activities and the intentions of users. This will help marketers how to attract customers to develop their intentions. This is the first novel study that used SMMAs to address the user intentions with the role of social identification and satisfaction in the context of Pakistan. (shrink)
This book is at once unique, strikingly bold and far-ranging. It is unique in being the only Indian approach to academic scholarship that has seriously attempted to undertake the swarajist programme of considering modern Western civilization in its entirety from an independent, decolonized Indian perspective.
This article deals with optimal control applied to vaccination and treatment strategies for an SIRS epidemic model with logistic growth and delay. The delay is incorporated into the model in order to modeled the latent period or incubation period. The existence for the optimal control pair is also proved. Pontryagin’s maximum principle with delay is used to characterize these optimal controls. The optimality system is derived and then solved numerically using an algorithm based on the forward and backward difference approximation.
Our study explores the relationship between psychological contract and voice behavior. The study encourages promoting the development of positive voice behavior since the promotive voice behavior of employees would help the organization to grow and improve as per industry standards especially during the upcoming hi-tech era. If the knowledge workers do not show positive voice behavior, it is difficult for organizations to compete and sustain in such an era of digitalization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for the assessment/validation of the (...) model. Data was collected through a single self-reported questionnaire, filled out by the 89 employees of two private banks, working in 8 different branches. Further, the relationships among variables have been analyzed using structure equation modeling. Results show a strong and positive relationship between psychological contract fulfillment and promotive voice behavior whereas a negative relationship is indicated upon the violations and breach of psychological contract. Job satisfaction/dissatisfaction was also tested as mediators between these variables. Future researchers may test the same in different geographical locations and demographic conditions, whereas various personality traits may also be tested since voice behavior is an individual decision. The study represents the first of its kind on the said topic especially in the Pakistani context. (shrink)
This article examines the different versions of the Treaty which Khālid b. al-Wālid granted to the people of Damascus and notes the variations and textual discrepancies between them by examining both Muslim and non-Muslim sources. We demonstrate how the accounts share a common historical memory in recalling the issuance of treaties in the era of ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb. We argue that the original Treaty with the People of Damascus represented in all likelihood the template for all other treaties given to (...) the inhabitants of Greater Syria, Jordan and Palestine, whose echoes can also be found resonating in Egypt and Iraq. Most important of all, by navigating through the competing and shared historical memories, we conclude that the original Treaty stipulated that the indigenous population’s churches neither be destroyed nor inhabited. We conclude by proposing that this standard policy was not just based on mere pragmatism, but also on some sort of written ordinance that originated with the Prophet Muḥammad. (shrink)
Rationale The holistic aspect of stroke rehabilitation to include psychological well-being is currently neglected, with more emphasis placed on physical recovery despite anxiety and depression being common poststroke. From the limited amount of current literature, it seems that creative strategies such as art therapy can be beneficial in reducing isolation and anxiety among stroke patients.Methods Stroke patients in a hospital rehabilitation unit were invited to participate in two weekly AT sessions for 6 weeks, facilitated by an art psychotherapist using paints, (...) crayons, clay, a camera and an iPad. Hospital anxiety and depression scales and therapy outcome measures were measured at the beginning and end of the study.Results Six male patients were recruited, average age 69 years . Group discussions allowed patients to express openly feelings of frustration as well as hope for physical and emotional recovery: ‘fight like a ferret’, an expression used by a group member. The group produced several art objects and photographic images that were collated using stop-frame animation to produce a 10 min film. Median HAD score for the group was eight points upon entering the study and six points on finishing the study.Key conclusions There is little attention to the emotional needs of stroke patients in rehabilitation. Properly designed research studies exploring the role of AT in addressing anxiety and depression poststroke are needed. Our study showed that AT was a feasible intervention that helped patients explore the sequel of stroke in an open supportive environment. (shrink)
Integral to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is the initial assessment through which the existence of a ‘problem’ is first ascertained. Despite this, there remains limited research on this early part of the diagnostic pathway. In this article, we utilised conversation analysis to examine relevant issues in relation to the practitioner–family interactions that take place within this initial assessment context. Our findings illustrated that parents typically first raised the possibility of the presence of an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis through (...) ‘building a case’, which professionals were then able to ratify or negate. Furthermore, we found that the assessments unfolded sequentially and clinical decisions were typically reached through a distinctive pattern of interaction. These findings have important implications for clinical practice, including for the study of autism spectrum disorder assessments and diagnosis. (shrink)
This paper proposes a new method of construction of Lyapunov functionals for the dynamical systems described by fractional differential equations and fractional partial differential equations. The proposed method is rigorously presented. Furthermore, the method is applied to establish the global stability of some fractional biological models with and without diffusion.
Fuzzy c-means is an efficient algorithm that is amply used for data clustering. Nonetheless, when using this algorithm, the designer faces two crucial choices: choosing the optimal number of clusters and initializing the cluster centers. The two choices have a direct impact on the clustering outcome. This paper presents an improved algorithm called automatic genetic fuzzy c-means that evolves the number of clusters and provides the initial centroids. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm with a new crossover operator, a (...) new mutation operator, and modified tournament selection; further, it defines a new fitness function based on three cluster validity indices. Real data sets are used to demonstrate the effectiveness, in terms of quality, of the proposed algorithm. (shrink)
With the ever increasing demand of higher education in the country, several measures have been adopted to fill the gap between demand and supply. Therefore, to meet the challenge number of new universities had been established in both the public and private sector during the last decade. Consequently, there is a competition between public and private sector universities for attracting the students. Claims of providing high quality education at an affordable price are being promulgated by both the sectors. The present (...) study is an attempt to compare the fee charged and on-campus facilities provided to students by public and private sector universities. To conduct the study a sample of 218 social sciences MS/MPhil level students from public and private sector universities were selected. Facility Identification Inventory was used to collect data. Analysis of the data reflected that very high fee is being charged by the private sector universities as compared to public sector. As far as the facilities are concerned the private sector is providing fewer facilities. Moreover, there existed no relationship between total fee and the facilities provided to students in the universities. (shrink)
This study examines the impact of Islamic Work Ethic on organizational citizenship behaviors and knowledge-sharing behaviors among university employees in Pakistan. A total of 215 respondents from public sector educational institutions participated in this research. The findings suggest that IWE has a positive effect on OCBs. In other words, individuals with high IWE demonstrate more citizenship behaviors than those with low IWE. The findings also suggest a positive effect of IWE on KSBs. Individuals with high IWE exhibit more KSBs than (...) those with low IWE. The paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (shrink)
In recent years, the important and fast growth in the development and demand of multimedia products is contributing to an insufficiency in the bandwidth of devices and network storage memory. Consequently, the theory of data compression becomes more significant for reducing data redundancy in order to allow more transfer and storage of data. In this context, this paper addresses the problem of lossy image compression. Indeed, this new proposed method is based on the block singular value decomposition power method that (...) overcomes the disadvantages of MATLAB’s SVD function in order to make a lossy image compression. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better compression performance compared with the existing compression algorithms that use MATLAB’s SVD function. In addition, the proposed approach is simple in terms of implementation and can provide different degrees of error resilience, which gives, in a short execution time, a better image compression. (shrink)
Today, we witness the appearance of many lifelogging cameras that are able to capture the life of a person wearing the camera and which produce a large number of images everyday. Automatically characterizing the experience and extracting patterns of behavior of individuals from this huge collection of unlabeled and unstructured egocentric data present major challenges and require novel and efficient algorithmic solutions. The main goal of this work is to propose a new method to automatically assess day similarity from the (...) lifelogging images of a person. We propose a technique to measure the similarity between images based on the Swain’s distance and generalize it to detect the similarity between daily visual data. To this purpose, we apply the dynamic time warping combined with the Swain’s distance for final day similarity estimation. For validation, we apply our technique on the Egocentric Dataset of University of Barcelona of 4912 daily images acquired by four persons with preliminary encouraging results. Methods The search strategy was designed for high sensitivity over precision, to ensure that no relevant studies were lost. We performed a systematic review of the literature using academic databases focusing on themes of day similarity, automatically assess day similarity, assess day similarity on EDUB, and assess day similarity using visual lifelogs. The study included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies published between 2006 and 2017. (shrink)
Research on the base-of-the-pyramid approach and the associated business case for deprived participants in informal markets now appears frequently in a range of business ethics and management-related journals. The present analysis of how supply chain management and sustainable supply chain management concepts are habitually used in base-of-the-pyramid research serves to strengthen the theoretical foundation of BoP research by addressing the related business case. Based on a content analysis of BoP papers published in English-speaking peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014 from (...) the Web of Science database, this literature review comprehends existing research in the context of established SCM and SSCM frameworks, using both frequency and contingency analyses. The frequency analysis indicates that supply chain management and sustainable supply chain management [SCM] constructs regularly discussed in the BoP literature include supplier integration, strategic purchasing, decommoditization, long-term relationship and enhanced communication among supply chain actors. The identified contingencies reflect linkages between BoP research and SCM constructs. The highest number of links was found between the SCM constructs of strategic purchasing and long-term relationship and the SSCM constructs of supplier integration and communication and coordination with suppliers. These can be regarded as the most crucial SCM constructs in the BoP business environment. This analysis facilitates the development of future research propositions at this intersection, including the use of tools from SCM theories to evaluate BoP propositions and projects. Granted the limited range of BoP-related papers analyzed, the findings provide a coherent understanding of SCM practices crucial to the functioning of BoP markets and why they matter, so contributing to the related ethical rationale. These findings will be of use to researchers and practitioners alike for the formulation of business development strategies and their subsequent implementation in informal market economies. (shrink)
In an Internet of Things environment, IoT devices are typically connected through different network media types such as mobile, wireless and wired networks. Due to the pervasive nature of such devices, they are a potential evidence source in both civil litigation and criminal investigations. It is, however, challenging to identify and acquire forensic artefacts from a broad range of devices, which have varying storage and communication capabilities. Hence, in this paper, we first propose an IoT network architecture for the forensic (...) purpose that uses machine learning algorithms to autonomously detect IoT devices. Then we posit the importance of focusing on the links between different IoT devices, and design an approach to do so. Specifically, our approach adopts a graph for modelling IoT communications’ message flows to facilitate the identification of correlated network traffic based on the direction of the network and the associated attributes. To demonstrate how such an approach can be deployed in practice, we provide a proof of concept using two IoT controllers to generate 480 commands for controlling two IoT devices in a smart home environment and achieve an accuracy rate of 98.3% for detecting the links between devices. We also evaluate the proposed autonomous discovering of IoT devices and their activities in a TCP network by using real-world measurements from a public dataset of a popular off-the-shelf smart home deployed in two different locations. We selected 39 out of 81 different IoT devices for this evaluation. (shrink)
Gender inequality is defined as unequal or unjust treatment because of someone’s gender. Generally, females are the victims of such discrimination.. Inequality in terms of gender represents a significant social problem in Pakistan as well as throughout the world. The fact that women receive fewer privileges in terms of economic benefits and education has become a worldwide issue. Even in Pakistan there is a huge gender gap in terms of allocation of economic benefits and education. Not only that, females encounter (...) discrimination in all other areas of life and face violence which has been mentioned in the study. The case study of different women has been used for this study. A sample size of 15 respondents was taken. A structured questionnaire of 23 questions was prepared. It was found that in Pakistan, the violence against women takes place in many forms such as honour killings, acid attacks, early marriages, human trafficking, rapes, sexual harassment at workplace etc. In addition to that, the Islamic concept of gender equality has been explained in order to examine the Islamic practices that take place in Pakistan in terms of gender equality. The data has been collected through secondary sources as well as primary including the interviews of the victims of gender violence, various research journals, scholarly articles, research papers etc. (shrink)
Characterizing heavy oil viscosity by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time measurements is much more challenging than characterizing light oil viscosities. Crude oils contain a wide range of hydrocarbons, resulting in broad [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions that vary with the oil composition. Most often, a single geometric mean value [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is correlated with the crude oil viscosity, which cannot accurately account for the inherent complexity of the oil constituent information. Furthermore, as (...) the viscosity increases, some of the protons in the oil relax too quickly to be observable by logging or laboratory NMR instruments. This results in deficiencies of relaxation time and signal amplitude that give rise to apparent [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions and apparent hydrogen index. Using [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions in NMR viscosity models could produce erroneous heavy oil viscosity estimations. Several attempts have been made to overcome these challenges by taking into account [Formula: see text] at a fixed interecho time, or a TE-dependent [Formula: see text]. We have developed a new radial-basis-function-based heavy oil viscosity model using the entire [Formula: see text] distribution, rather than [Formula: see text], with an option of including the NMR-derived [Formula: see text]. Because both of these quantities are TE dependent, it is desirable to include multiple TE data to develop the model. In addition, the principal component analysis method was applied to extract major variations of features embedded in the [Formula: see text] distributions, while discarding distribution features that are derived from random noise. The coefficients of the RBFs were derived using laboratory NMR [Formula: see text] measurements at ambient and elevated temperatures between 23.5°C and 39.5°C and corresponding viscosity measurements on 50 oil samples. These oil samples were collected from different parts of a shallow viscous oil reservoir in Kuwait. It was observed that the use of this newly developed RBF method showed significant improvement in terms of the reliability of the viscosity prediction compared to some recently published heavy oil viscosity correlations. (shrink)