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Simon Garrod [31]S. Garrod [4]S. C. Garrod [2]
  1. An integrated theory of language production and comprehension.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):329-347.
    Currently, production and comprehension are regarded as quite distinct in accounts of language processing. In rejecting this dichotomy, we instead assert that producing and understanding are interwoven, and that this interweaving is what enables people to predict themselves and each other. We start by noting that production and comprehension are forms of action and action perception. We then consider the evidence for interweaving in action, action perception, and joint action, and explain such evidence in terms of prediction. Specifically, we assume (...)
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  2. Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):169-190.
    Traditional mechanistic accounts of language processing derive almost entirely from the study of monologue. Yet, the most natural and basic form of language use is dialogue. As a result, these accounts may only offer limited theories of the mechanisms that underlie language processing in general. We propose a mechanistic account of dialogue, the interactive alignment account, and use it to derive a number of predictions about basic language processes. The account assumes that, in dialogue, the linguistic representations employed by the (...)
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  3. Brain-to-brain coupling: a mechanism for creating and sharing a social world.Uri Hasson, Asif A. Ghazanfar, Bruno Galantucci, Simon Garrod & Christian Keysers - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):114-121.
  4.  51
    Saying what you mean in dialogue: A study in conceptual and semantic co-ordination.Simon Garrod & Anthony Anderson - 1987 - Cognition 27 (2):181-218.
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  5.  92
    Why is conversation so easy?Simon Garrod & Martin J. Pickering - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (1):8-11.
  6.  52
    Foundations of Representation: Where Might Graphical Symbol Systems Come From?Simon Garrod, Nicolas Fay, John Lee, Jon Oberlander & Tracy MacLeod - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (6):961-987.
    It has been suggested that iconic graphical signs evolve into symbolic graphical signs through repeated usage. This article reports a series of interactive graphical communication experiments using a ‘pictionary’ task to establish the conditions under which the evolution might occur. Experiment 1 rules out a simple repetition based account in favor of an account that requires feedback and interaction between communicators. Experiment 2 shows how the degree of interaction affects the evolution of signs according to a process of grounding. Experiment (...)
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  7.  75
    Joint Action, Interactive Alignment, and Dialog.Simon Garrod & Martin J. Pickering - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):292-304.
    Dialog is a joint action at different levels. At the highest level, the goal of interlocutors is to align their mental representations. This emerges from joint activity at lower levels, both concerned with linguistic decisions (e.g., choice of words) and nonlinguistic processes (e.g., alignment of posture or speech rate). Because of the high‐level goal, the interlocutors are particularly concerned with close coupling at these lower levels. As we illustrate with examples, this means that imitation and entrainment are particularly pronounced during (...)
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  8.  51
    Joint Action, Interactive Alignment, and Dialog.M. J. Pickering & S. Garrod - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):292-304.
    Dialog is a joint action at different levels. At the highest level, the goal of interlocutors is to align their mental representations. This emerges from joint activity at lower levels, both concerned with linguistic decisions (e.g., choice of words) and nonlinguistic processes (e.g., alignment of posture or speech rate). Because of the high‐level goal, the interlocutors are particularly concerned with close coupling at these lower levels. As we illustrate with examples, this means that imitation and entrainment are particularly pronounced during (...)
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  9.  82
    How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System.Nicolas Fay, Michael Arbib & Simon Garrod - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1356-1367.
    How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified items to a partner using repeated non-linguistic vocalization, repeated gesture, or repeated non-linguistic vocalization plus gesture (but without using their existing language system). Gesture proved more effective (measured (...)
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  10.  40
    Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions.Simon Garrod & Gwyneth Doherty - 1994 - Cognition 53 (3):181-215.
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  11.  64
    The Interactive Evolution of Human Communication Systems.Nicolas Fay, Simon Garrod, Leo Roberts & Nik Swoboda - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (3):351-386.
    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants’ horizontal, pair‐wise interactions led (...)
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  12.  58
    Can iterated learning explain the emergence of graphical symbols?Simon Garrod, Nicolas Fay, Shane Rogers, Bradley Walker & Nik Swoboda - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (1):33-50.
    This paper contrasts two influential theoretical accounts of language change and evolution – Iterated Learning and Social Coordination. The contrast is based on an experiment that compares drawings produced with Garrod et al’s ‘pictionary’ task with those produced in an Iterated Learning version of the same task. The main finding is that Iterated Learning does not lead to the systematic simplification and increased symbolicity of graphical signs produced in the standard interactive version of the task. A second finding is that (...)
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  13.  36
    The use of content and timing to predict turn transitions.Simon Garrod & Martin J. Pickering - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  14.  51
    Iconicity: From sign to system in human communication and language.Nicolas Fay, Mark Ellison & Simon Garrod - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):244-263.
    This paper explores the role of iconicity in spoken language and other human communication systems. First, we concentrate on graphical and gestural communication and show how semantically motivated iconic signs play an important role in creating such communication systems from scratch. We then consider how iconic signs tend to become simplified and symbolic as the communication system matures and argue that this process is driven by repeated interactive use of the signs. We then consider evidence for iconicity at the level (...)
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  15.  52
    Iconicity.Nicolas Fay, Mark Ellison & Simon Garrod - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):244-263.
    This paper explores the role of iconicity in spoken language and other human communication systems. First, we concentrate on graphical and gestural communication and show how semantically motivated iconic signs play an important role in creating such communication systems from scratch. We then consider how iconic signs tend to become simplified and symbolic as the communication system matures and argue that this process is driven by repeated interactive use of the signs. We then consider evidence for iconicity at the level (...)
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  16.  37
    Can iterated learning explain the emergence of graphical symbols?Simon Garrod, Nicolas Fay, Shane Rogers, Bradley Walker & Nik Swoboda - 2010 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 11 (1):33-50.
    This paper contrasts two influential theoretical accounts of language change and evolution – Iterated Learning and Social Coordination. The contrast is based on an experiment that compares drawings produced with Garrod et al’s ‘pictionary’ task with those produced in an Iterated Learning version of the same task. The main finding is that Iterated Learning does not lead to the systematic simplification and increased symbolicity of graphical signs produced in the standard interactive version of the task. A second finding is that (...)
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  17.  63
    Forward models and their implications for production, comprehension, and dialogue.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):377-392.
    Our target article proposed that language production and comprehension are interwoven, with speakers making predictions of their own utterances and comprehenders making predictions of other people's utterances at different linguistic levels. Here, we respond to comments about such issues as cognitive architecture and its neural basis, learning and development, monitoring, the nature of forward models, communicative intentions, and dialogue.
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  18.  15
    Understanding Dialogue: Language Use and Social Interaction.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Linguistic interaction between two people is the fundamental form of communication, yet almost all research in language use focuses on isolated speakers and listeners. In this innovative work, Garrod and Pickering extend the scope of psycholinguistics beyond individuals by introducing communication as a social activity. Drawing on psychological, linguistic, philosophical and sociological research, they expand their theory that alignment across individuals is the basis of communication, through the model of a 'shared workspace account'. In this workspace, interlocutors are actors who (...)
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  19.  62
    Experimental semiotics: A new approach for studying the emergence and the evolution of human communication.Bruno Galantucci & Simon Garrod - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (1):1-13.
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  20.  39
    Experimental semiotics: A new approach for studying the emergence and the evolution of human communication.Bruno Galantucci & Simon Garrod - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (1):1-13.
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  21.  7
    Experimental semiotics.Bruno Galantucci & Simon Garrod - 2010 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 11 (1):1-13.
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  22.  47
    How to Create Shared Symbols.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):241-269.
    Human cognition and behavior are dominated by symbol use. This paper examines the social learning strategies that give rise to symbolic communication. Experiment 1 contrasts an individual-level account, based on observational learning and cognitive bias, with an inter-individual account, based on social coordinative learning. Participants played a referential communication game in which they tried to communicate a range of recurring meanings to a partner by drawing, but without using their conventional language. Individual-level learning, via observation and cognitive bias, was sufficient (...)
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  23.  37
    Self-, other-, and joint monitoring using forward models.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  24. Towards a mechanistic theory of dialog.M. J. Pickering & S. C. Garrod - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):169-190.
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  25.  44
    Referential and Visual Cues to Structural Choice in Visually Situated Sentence Production.Andriy Myachykov, Dominic Thompson, Simon Garrod & Christoph Scheepers - 2011 - Frontiers in Psychology 2.
  26. The interactive-alignment model: Developments and refinements.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):212-225.
    The interactive-alignment model of dialogue provides an account of dialogue at the level of explanation normally associated with cognitive psychology. We develop our claim that interlocutors align their mental models via priming at many levels of linguistic representation, explicate our notion of automaticity, defend the minimal role of “other modeling,” and discuss the relationship between monologue and dialogue. The account can be applied to social and developmental psychology, and would benefit from computational modeling.
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  27.  39
    In and on: investigating the functional geometry of spatial prepositions.Simon Garrod, Gillian Ferrier & Siobhan Campbell - 1999 - Cognition 72 (2):167-189.
  28.  64
    Shared circuits in language and communication.Simon Garrod & Martin J. Pickering - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):26-27.
    The target article says surprisingly little about the possible role of shared circuits in language and communication. This commentary considers how they might contribute to linguistic communication, particularly during dialogue. We argue that shared circuits are used to promote alignment between linguistic representations at many levels and to support production-based emulation of linguistic input during comprehension.
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  29. Campbell, JID, I Chan, D., 217.F. Chua, Y. Kareev, D. G. Kemler Nelson, G. S. Dell, A. Diamond, G. Doherty, D. R. Mandel, C. A. Sevald, S. Garrod & V. Weichbold - 1993 - Cognition 53:265.
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  30.  26
    Discourse influences during parsing are delayed.Keith Rayner, Simon Garrod & Charles A. Perfetti - 1992 - Cognition 45 (2):109-139.
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  31. Plaut, DC, 67.M. Brockbank, M. Brysbaert, S. Campbell, L. Cosmides, Gergely Csibra, S. Eisenbeiss, G. Ferrier, S. Garrod, G. Gergely & W. Hell - 1999 - Cognition 72:319.
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  32.  40
    Universal Principles of Human Communication: Preliminary Evidence From a Cross‐cultural Communication Game.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda, Ichiro Umata, Takugo Fukaya, Yasuhiro Katagiri & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2397-2413.
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  33. Books etcetera-the ascent of babel: An exploration of language, mind and understanding.Simon Garrod - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):281.
  34. Linguistics fit for dialogue.Simon Garrod & Martin J. Pickering - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):678-678.
    Foundations of Language sets out to reconcile generative accounts of language structure with psychological accounts of language processing. We argue that Jackendoff's “parallel architecture” is a particularly appropriate linguistic framework for the interactive alignment account of dialogue processing. It offers a helpful definition of linguistic levels of representation, it gives an interesting account of routine expressions, and it supports radical incrementality in processing.
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  35.  19
    Referential processing in monologue and dialogue with and without access to real world referents.S. C. Garrod - 2011 - In Edward Gibson & Neal J. Pearlmutter (eds.), The Processing and Acquisition of Reference. MIT Press. pp. 273--294.
    This chapter examines the role of the situation model in referential processing and how it can link what appear to be incompatible results from studies of monologue and dialogue as well as studies of reading and visual-world eye tracking. It shows that data from experiments on pronoun resolution in reading indicate a two-step model, in which candidate antecedents for an anaphor are first identified on the basis of gender matching and number matching, then evaluated with respect to the overall situation (...)
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  36. The Ascent of Babel: An Exploration of Language, Mind and Understanding by Gerry TM Altmann.Simon Garrod - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):282-282.
  37. Parsing in discourse-contextual influencs and their limits.Ca Perfetti, A. Britt, K. Rayner & S. Garrod - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):522-522.
     
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