LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English. 每當我們提及生命倫理學時，不可避免要提及的話題：生命倫理的終極指徵是什麼？是從道德的層面教導人類向善？還是要從技術的維度延長人類的壽命？是要規範人類的行為準則？亦或是要恪守人類的道德底線？誠然，從不同 的學科分野下，對於生命倫理學的探究一直未曾停止，但是Joseph Tham “Bioethics: Cross-Cultural Explorations”一文：卻從更為原初的層面向我們闡釋了生命或者説是理念的價值所在。(撮要取自內文首段) Emerging developments in science and technology have changed the “relationships” between people in the traditional sense, and life has been carved more and more rounded, but at the same time, it has smoothed out the “edges” of life. Science and technology have begun to erode bioethics under the guise of reason, as the standards for “good” or “evil” are no longer defined by human morality, (...) but by data. We seem to have forgotten our most original pursuit and neglected to ponder the original meaning of life. Through his work, “Bioethics: Cross-Cultural Explorations,” Tham hopes to make people stop, re-examine, and look at the values and attributes of bioethics from multiple dimensions, such as religion, history, and culture, and reawaken human beings' interest in beauty and moral cognition. (shrink)
6. Seeing With the Mind ’ s Eye 1 : The Puzzle of Mental Imagery 6. 1 What is the puzzle about mental imagery? 6. 2 Content, form and substance of representations 6. 3 What is responsible for the pattern of results obtained in imagery studies?
XVI. asrın sonu ile XVII. asrın başlarında Mısır’da yaşadığı bilinen Ubûdî, Gülşenî dervişi şairlerinden biridir. Bilinen tezkire ve biyografik kaynaklarda ismi geçmeyen bu gözlerden uzak kalmış şairin hayatı hakkında bildiklerimiz, Menâkıb-ı Evliyâ-yı Mısr adlı eseri dolayısıyladır. Onun bir diğer eseri de ilim ile amelin fazileti ve cehalet ile tembelliğin çirkinliği konulu mesnevisidir. Ayet ve hadislerden iktibas ve tercümelerle vücuda getirilmiş 359 beyitlik bu eserde; dinî bir yükümlülük olarak cehalet ve tembellikten sakınarak ilim tahsilinin ve onunla amel etmenin faziletlerinden bahsedilmektedir. Bu (...) makalede, Ubûdî-i Gülşenî’nin hayatı, eserleri ve şiirlerinden kısaca bahsedildikten sonra ilim ile amelin fazileti hakkındaki mesnevisinin tanıtımı yapılacak, ardından dil, şekil ve muhteva özellikleri hakkında değerlendirmelerde bulunulacaktır. Dinî-didaktik tarzda kaleme alınan bu mesnevide, okuyucuya ilim tahsilinin hikmet ve faziletlerinden bahsederek yer yer öğütlerde bulunulmaktadır. Makalenin son bölümünde, Ubûdî’nin ilim ile amelin fazileti ve cehalet ile tembelliğin çirkinliği konulu Der Fazîlet-i İlm ü Amel ve Kabâhat-i Cehl ü Kesel adlı mesnevisinin metni verilerek ayet ve hadislerden yapılan iktibasların tercüme ve kaynakları sunulmaktadır. (shrink)
Understanding a proposition for an intelligent agent is an important epistemic concept. We first discuss intuitively general logic characteristics of understanding, and give a language and a semantics containing understanding as a modal operator. Secondly, we develop the system LU for the operator, give some results of its proof theory, and then we prove the frame soundness and frame completeness of LU.
Despite numerous published writings on China's regional role, the world still knows very little about Beijing's perception and strategy. This article seeks to make an intellectual contribution in understanding China's foreign policy and its efforts to participate in East Asian integration. This article argues that under the rhetoric of peaceful development and community building, China's foreign policy is pragmatic and changes with the tide of events in international relations. China's participation in regional integration serves as a good case for examining (...) changes in Beijing's strategy. In the past two decades, China has moved from a reluctant participant of regional affairs to an active participant and potential future leader. China's adjusting role is a consequence of Beijing's pragmatism in policy and its growing economic confidence. Pragmatism has led China to and wait for the proper timing to step onto the world stage. (shrink)
Thi s w or k i s pa r t o f a r e visio n i n p r o g r es s r e visitin g o f mode r n Antidiscrimination L a w tha t th e author s h a v e bee n ca r r yin g ou t o v e r th e las t f iftee n y ears . Th e f irs t pa r t e (...) xamine s t e xt s by a U S politica l philosophe r an d t w o l e ga l scholar s (I . M . Y oung , C . A. MacKinno n an d K . Crensh a w) , tha t h a v e inspire d a propose d concep t o f discriminatio n and a n understandin g o f intersectionalit y base d o n th e ackn o wledgemen t o f system s o f oppres- sion . Th e secon d pa r t focuse s o n th e ana l ysi s o f th e concep t o f multipl e o r intersectional discriminatio n propose d by th e Spanis h l e ga l doctrin e sta r tin g fro m th e l e ga l cas e o f “La Nena” , a w oma n ma r rie d by th e Gips y ritua l tha t w a s denie d he r wid o w ’ s bene f its . F rom th e ab o v e , th e pape r conclude s wit h a serie s o f proposals , amon g w hic h thos e relate d to th e nee d t o a v oi d tha t th e intersectionalit y discours e disag g r e gate s g rou p politica l identity int o ind i vidualit y , reinforce s th e s e x-gende r system , o r strengthen s a n e xcess i v e ly judge- base d Antidiscriminatio n L a w. (shrink)
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English. COVID-19疫情的爆發，突顯出公共健康倫理中自主性與公共健康之間的緊張關係。以“publichealth”、“ethics”、“autonomy”為主題詞在WebofScience核心合集數據庫中 進行文獻收集，借助CiteSpace6.1軟件進行信息可視化分析，發現2020年1月1日至2022年5月14日期間，生命倫理/公共健康倫理領域對於“自主性”概念的討論大體上集中在“知情同意”、“健康保 健政策"、“健康質量”、“信息技術”和“老年歧視/老年群體”範圍。本文在此基礎上提煉分析COVID-19疫情中的四個“自主性‘‘難題 如何避免以公共健康/公共利益為名過度限制自主性、在數字技術應用中如何保障自主性、如何保障老年群體的自主性和生命權，如何通過促進自主性來推動公共健康目標的實現。COVID-19疫情是一個重塑公共健康倫理 自主性概念的歷史契機。冷酷的病毒已經作為一種媒介把人類的命運緊密地聯繫起來，而基於關懷倫理和共同體倫理重塑的自主性概念則有望給疫情下的世界帶來團結、温暖和希望。 In the field of public health ethics, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the tension between autonomy and public health. Using CiteSpace 6.1 software and information visualization analysis, we performed a search of literature in the Web of Science core collection database using thematic words such as “public health”, “ethics” and “autonomy”, we found that from January 1, 2020 to May 14, 2022, discussions on the concept of “autonomy” (...) within the field of bioethics/public health ethics were generally focused on the following topics: “informed consent”, “health care policy”, “health quality”, “information technology”, “ageism” and “elderly group”. In this paper, we distill and analyze four controversial issues: how can we avoid excessive restrictions on autonomy in the name of public health/public interest? How can we protect autonomy when using digital technology? How can we protect the autonomy and rights of the elderly? How can we advance the goals of public health by promoting autonomy? The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique historical opportunity to reshape the concept of autonomy within the field of public health ethics. Although the virus has bound the fate of humanity together, a reinvented concept of autonomy based on care and community ethics holds the promise of bringing solidarity, comfort, and hope to the world in the midst of the pandemic. (shrink)
This study examines the frequency of consanguineous marriage and the coefficient of inbreeding in the United Arab Emirates. The study was conducted in Al Ain and Dubai cities between October 1994 and March 1995. A sample of 2033 married UAE females aged 15 years and over participated. The degree of consanguinity between each female and her spouse, and the degree of consanguinity between their parents were recorded. The rate of consanguinity in the present generation was high with a coefficient of (...) inbreeding of 0·0222. The commonest type of consanguineous marriage was between first cousins. Double first cousin marriages were common compared to other populations. The consanguinity rate in the UAE has increased from 39% to 50·5% in one generation. The level of consanguinity was higher in Al Ain than in Dubai. (shrink)
Abduction and metaphor are two significant concepts in cognitive science. It is found that the both mental processes are on the basis of certain similarity. The similarity inspires us to seek the answers to the following two questions: Whether there is a common cognitive mechanism behind abduction and metaphor? And if there is, whether this common mechanism could be interpreted within the unified frame of modern intelligence theory? Centering on these two issues, the paper attempts to characterize and interpret the (...) generation and evolution of scientific metaphors from the perspective of the cognitive mechanism of abductive inference. Then it interprets the common cognitive mechanism behind abduction and metaphor within Hawkins’ frame of intelligence theory. The commonality between abduction and metaphor indicates the potential to further explore human intelligence. (shrink)
Many philosophers hold that physical laws have a unique modal status known as nomic necessity which is weaker than metaphysical necessity. This orthodox view has come into question in the past few decades. In particular, the metaphysical view known as essentialism has provided an argument that the laws of nature are necessary in the strongest possible sense. It seems obvious to many that at least some essentialist arguments in favor of the necessity of scientific claims are going to be sound. (...) For example, the view that claims like "water is H2O" are necessary has itself 2 become an orthodox view. However, the question of whether laws, like the law of conservation of energy, or the law of gravity, are necessary is far more contentious. Philosophers divide roughly into two camps, law necessitarians1 who hold that the laws are necessary in the strongest sense and contingency theorists who hold that they are at least in some sense contingent. One argument for the necessitarian position is via an essentialist theory of the transworld identity of properties. In this paper I defend such a theory of the identity of properties and its necessitarian consequences from one major criticism. To focus the paper, I center the discussion on a single critic, E. J. Lowe. In his book, The Four Category Ontology, he offers a criticism of the essentialist argument for necessitarianism via an analogy with other forms of transworld identity and intuitions about the contingency of the physical constants2. I undermine the usefulness of Lowe's analogy by examining the purposes of attributions of properties. I also show that the essentialist's position can allow it to accommodate the intuitions of contingency in a way that fits best with the purpose behind property attributions. (shrink)