This is a new revised version of Dr. Laslett's standard edition of Two Treatises. First published in 1960, and based on an analysis of the whole body of Locke's publications, writings, and papers. The Introduction and text have been revised to incorporate references to recent scholarship since the second edition and the bibliography has been updated.
John Locke's subtle and influential defense of religious toleration as argued in his seminal _Letter Concerning Toleration_ appears in this edition as introduced by one of our most distinguished political theorists and historians of political thought.
As one of the early Enlightenment philosophers in England, John Locke sought to bring reason and critical intelligence to the discussion of the origins of civil society. Endeavoring to reconstruct the nature and purpose of government, a social contract theory is proposed. The Second Treatise sets forth a detailed discussion of how civil society came to be and the nature of its inception. Locke's discussion of tacit consent, separation of powers, and the right of citizens to revolt against repressive governments, (...) has made The Second Treatise one of the most influential essays in the history of political philosophy. (shrink)
'Man being born...to perfect freedom...hath by nature a power...to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate.'Locke's Second Treatise of Government is one of the great classics of political philosophy, widely regarded as the foundational text of modern liberalism. In it Locke insists on majority rule, and regards no government as legitimate unless it has the consent of the people. He sets aside people's ethnicities, religions, and cultures and envisages political societies which command our assent because they meet (...) our elemental needs simply as humans. His work helped to entrench ideas of a social contract, human rights, and protection of property as the guiding principles for just actions and just societies.Published in the same year, A Letter Concerning Toleration aimed to end Christianity's wars of religion and called for the separation of church and state so that everyone could enjoy freedom of conscience. In this edition of these two major works, Mark Goldie considers the contested nature of Locke's reputation, which is often appropriated by opposing political and religious ideologies. (shrink)
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps, and other notations in the work.This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely (...) copy and distribute this work, as no entity has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant. (shrink)
E. S. de Beer>'s eight-volume edition of the correspondence of John Locke is a classic of modern scholarship. The intellectual range of the correspondence is universal, covering philosophy, theology, medicine, history, geography, economics, law, politics, travel and botany. This first volume covers the years 1650 to 1679.
It has long been claimed that Homo sapiens is the only species that has language, but only recently has it been recognized that humans also have an unusual pattern of growth and development. Social mammals have two stages of pre-adult development: infancy and juvenility. Humans have two additional prolonged and pronounced life history stages: childhood, an interval of four years extending between infancy and the juvenile period that follows, and adolescence, a stage of about eight years that stretches from juvenility (...) to adulthood. We begin by reviewing the primary biological and linguistic changes occurring in each of the four pre-adult ontogenetic stages in human life history. Then we attempt to trace the evolution of childhood and juvenility in our hominin ancestors. We propose that several different forms of selection applied in infancy and childhood; and that, in adolescence, elaborated vocal behaviors played a role in courtship and intrasexual competition, enhancing fitness and ultimately integrating performative and pragmatic skills with linguistic knowledge in a broad faculty of language. A theoretical consequence of our proposal is that fossil evidence of the uniquely human stages may be used, with other findings, to date the emergence of language. If important aspects of language cannot appear until sexual maturity, as we propose, then a second consequence is that the development of language requires the whole of modern human ontogeny. Our life history model thus offers new ways of investigating, and thinking about, the evolution, development, and ultimately the nature of human language. (shrink)
"Highly recommended for general readers or professionals seeking to understand the origins of many current educational theories and practices."--Choice This book, one of John Locke's major works, is primarily about moral education--its role in creating a responsible adult and the importance of virtue as a transmitter of culture. However, Locke's detailed and comprehensive guide also ranges over such practical topics as the effectiveness ofphysical punishment, how best to teach foreign languages, table manners, and varieties of crying.
This paperback edition reproduces the complete text of the Essay as prepared by professor Nidditch for The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke. The Register of Formal Variants and the Glossary are omitted and Professor Nidditch has written a new foreword.
This volume is the first of three which will contain all of Locke's extant writings on philosophy which relate to An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, other than those contained in volumes of the Clarendon Edition of John Locke such as the Correspondence. The book contains the two earliest known drafts of the Essay, both written in 1671, and provides for the first time an accurate version of Locke's text together with a record of virtually all his changes, in notes at (...) the foot of each page. (shrink)
n 1695 John Locke published The Reasonableness of Christianity, an enquiry into the foundations of Christian belief. He did so anonymously, to avoid public involvement in the fiercely partisan religious controversies of the day. In the Reasonableness Locke considered what it was to which allChristians must assent in faith; he argued that the answer could be found by anyone for themselves in the divine revelation of Scripture alone. He maintained that the requirements of Scripture were few and simple, and therefore (...) offered a basis for tolerant agreement among all Christians, and thepromise of peace, stability, and security through toleration. This is the first critical edition of the Reasonableness: for the first time an authoritative annotated text is presented, with full information about sources, variants, amendments, and the publishing history of the work. Also provided in the editorial notes are cross-references, references to otherworks by Locke, definitions of terms, and other information conducive to an understanding of the text.Though modern interest has focused particularly on Locke's philosophy and political theory, increasing attention is being paid to his religious thought. These different strands cannot be understood properly in isolation from each other: so the broader aim of this edition is to help towards animproved understanding of his religious thought in the context of his work as a philosopher, political theorist, and exponent of religious toleration. In his editorial introduction John Higgins-Biddle investigates how Locke's ideas developed, and offers a critical assessment of the three maincontemporary and subsequent interpretations of Locke's religious thought, all of which are shown to be unsatisfactory. (shrink)
John Locke (29 August 1632 - 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as (...) well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as David Hume, Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception. This is now known as empiricism. An example of Locke's belief in Empiricism can be seen in his quote, "whatever I write, as soon as I discover it not to be true, my hand shall be the forwardest to throw it into the fire." This shows the ideology of science in his observations in that something must be capable of being tested repeatedly and that nothing is exempt from being disproven. Challenging the work of others, Locke is said to have established the method of introspection, or observing the emotions and behaviors of one's self.Locke's concept of man started with the belief in creation. We have been "sent into the World by order, and about his business, are his Property, whose Workmanship are, made to last during his, not one anothers Pleasure." Like the two other very influential natural-law philosophers, Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf, Locke equated natural law with the biblical revelation, since in their view both had originated in God and could therefore not contradict each other. "As a philosopher, Locke was intensely interested in Christian doctrine, and in the Reasonableness he insisted that most men could not hope to understand the detailed requirements of the law of nature without the assistance of the teachings and example of Jesus.". (shrink)
Although all natural languages are spoken, there is no accepted account of the evolution of a skill prerequisite to language—control of the movements of speech. If selection applied at sexual maturity, individuals achieving some command of articulate vocal behavior in previous stages would have enjoyed unusual advantages in adulthood. I offer a parental selection hypothesis, according to which hominin parents apportioned care, in part, on the basis of their infants’ vocal behavior. Specifically, it is suggested that persistent or noxious crying (...) reduced care to individuals who would have had difficulty learning complex behaviors, and that cooing and babbling increased social interaction and care as well as control over complex oralmotor activity of the sort required by spoken language. Several different tests of the hypothesis are suggested. (shrink)
His politicalthought inspired and helped to justify the American Revolution anddeeply influenced the American constitution, and his arguments in favorof human rights, political equality, and government by consent are nowaccepted worldwide. This comprehensive collection is the only student edition of Locke'swritings that includes, in addition to his pioneering political texts,selections from his ethical, epistemological, and religious writings. "Sources" includes writings by the major political theorists whoinfluenced Locke, including Richard Hooker, Hugo Grotius, and ThomasHobbes. Twenty-one "Interpretations" cover the major critical comments (...) andcontroversies surrounding Locke's political thought, including work byLeo Strauss, C. B. Macpherson, Alan Ryan, Ruth Grant, and JeremyWaldron. A Selected Bibliography is also included. (shrink)
Falk claims that human language took a step forward when infants lost their ability to cling and were placed on the ground, increasing their fears, which mothers assuaged prosodically. This claim, which is unsupported by anthropological and psychological evidence, would have done little for the syllabic and segmental structure of language, and ignores infants' own contribution to the process.
Tekst został napisany najprawdopodobniej w roku 1668. Podstawą przekładu są jego dwie edycje: Kennetha Dewhursta, zamieszczona przezeń w monografii Thomas Sydenham. His Life and Original Writings, University and California Press, Berkeley–Los Angeles 1966, s. 85–93 oraz bardziej szczegółowa transkrypcja dokonana przez Jonathana Craiga Walmsleya i zamieszczona w rozprawie doktorskiej John Locke’s Natural Philosophy, opublikowanej elektronicznie: https://core.ac.uk/download/files/99/74250.pdf. Powodem umieszczenia przez Dewhursta tekstu Anatomii w książce poświęconej Sydenhamowi był brak pewności co do jej autorstwa; choć pierwotnie badacz ten przypisał go Locke’owi, po (...) pewnym czasie zmienił zdanie, uznając, że autorem był jednak Sydenham. Powodem był m.in. fakt, że pierwszy akapit napisany został ręką Sydenhama, co skłoniło Dewhursta do przypuszczenia, że rola Locke’a sprowadzała się jedynie do pełnienia obowiązków sekretarza znanego angielskiego lekarza. O autorstwie Sydenhama miała świadczyć także zbieżność poglądów zawartych w tekście z treścią jego Observationes Medicae. Ustalenia te podważyli ostatnio Peter Anstey i John Burrows, którzy analizując źródła i wykorzystując narzędzia statystyczne, rozstrzygnęli – należy sądzić, że ostatecznie – sprawę autorstwa Anatomii na korzyść Locke’a ). (shrink)
Tekst pochodzi najprawdopodobniej z przełomu lat 1666/1667. Podstawą przekładu jest transkrypcja dokonana przez Jonathana Craiga Walmsleya w rozprawie doktorskiej John Locke’s Natural Philosophy, opublikowanej elektronicznie: https://core.ac.uk/ download/files/99/74250.pdf, ten sam tekst wraz z obszernym omówieniem został przezeń opublikowany w artykule Morbus – Locke’s Early Essay On Disease, „Early Science and Medicine” 2000, vol. 5, no. 4, s. 390–393.
Dans les Deux traités du gouvernement, Locke poursuit des fins polémiques, politiques et philosophiques. Le Premier traité s’oppose à la théorie du droit divin des rois lié à la primogéniture, théorie dont Filmer s’était fait le protagoniste. Les arguments du Deuxième traité doivent leur validité à l’effort dont ils procèdent : l’effort de progrès de la raison politique en général. Locke y défend son appui à la cause de la religion constitutionnelle de religion réformée. Il affirme que le gouvernement légitime (...) ne peut se fonder ni sur la conquête, ni sur l’usurpation pas plus que sur la tyrannie. (shrink)
Le succès des Essais de John Locke sur l’origine, les modalités et le but de l’entendement humain fut similaire au triomphe de Newton en physique. Cet ouvrage initie tout le courant empiriste qui le suit, ainsi que la psychologie comme science. Il reste, à ce jour, la plus étudiée des oeuvres de Locke. Les livres I et II, ici édités dans une traduction nouvelle, présentent l’acte fondateur de la thèse sensualiste : la critique de l’innéisme et la source empirique de (...) toute idée. Cette nouvelle traduction offre au lecteur un texte issu d’une lecture enrichie par trois siècles d’exégèse. (shrink)