14 found
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  1. Transparency in Algorithmic and Human Decision-Making: Is There a Double Standard?John Zerilli, Alistair Knott, James Maclaurin & Colin Gavaghan - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (4):661-683.
    We are sceptical of concerns over the opacity of algorithmic decision tools. While transparency and explainability are certainly important desiderata in algorithmic governance, we worry that automated decision-making is being held to an unrealistically high standard, possibly owing to an unrealistically high estimate of the degree of transparency attainable from human decision-makers. In this paper, we review evidence demonstrating that much human decision-making is fraught with transparency problems, show in what respects AI fares little worse or better and argue that (...)
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  2.  37
    A Citizen's Guide to Artificial Intelligence.James Maclaurin, John Danaher, John Zerilli, Colin Gavaghan, Alistair Knott, Joy Liddicoat & Merel Noorman - 2021 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    A concise but informative overview of AI ethics and policy. -/- Artificial intelligence, or AI for short, has generated a staggering amount of hype in the past several years. Is it the game-changer it's been cracked up to be? If so, how is it changing the game? How is it likely to affect us as customers, tenants, aspiring homeowners, students, educators, patients, clients, prison inmates, members of ethnic and sexual minorities, and voters in liberal democracies? Authored by experts in fields (...)
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  3.  19
    Algorithmic Decision-Making and the Control Problem.John Zerilli, Alistair Knott, James Maclaurin & Colin Gavaghan - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):555-578.
    The danger of human operators devolving responsibility to machines and failing to detect cases where they fail has been recognised for many years by industrial psychologists and engineers studying the human operators of complex machines. We call it “the control problem”, understood as the tendency of the human within a human–machine control loop to become complacent, over-reliant or unduly diffident when faced with the outputs of a reliable autonomous system. While the control problem has been investigated for some time, up (...)
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    Algorithmic Decision-Making and the Control Problem.John Zerilli, Alistair Knott, James Maclaurin & Colin Gavaghan - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):555-578.
    The danger of human operators devolving responsibility to machines and failing to detect cases where they fail has been recognised for many years by industrial psychologists and engineers studying the human operators of complex machines. We call it “the control problem”, understood as the tendency of the human within a human–machine control loop to become complacent, over-reliant or unduly diffident when faced with the outputs of a reliable autonomous system. While the control problem has been investigated for some time, up (...)
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  5.  12
    Mature Minors and Gender Dysphoria: A Matter for Clinicians Not Courts.John McMillan & Colin Gavaghan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11):717-718.
    Lord Scarman’s judgment about when someone under the age of 16 years should have the right to make their own medical decisions emphasised the decision-making abilities of the particular child. He said: > …the parental right to determine whether or not their minor child below the age of 16 will have medical treatment terminates if and when the child achieves a sufficient understanding and intelligence to enable him or her to understand fully what is proposed.1 That created a duty on (...)
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    Saviour Siblings: No Avoiding the Hard Questions.Colin Gavaghan - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (12):931-932.
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  7.  12
    Pregnancy and the Culture of Extreme Risk Aversion.Angela Ballantyne, Colin Gavaghan, John McMillan & Sue Pullon - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (2):21-23.
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  8.  43
    Deregulating the Genetic Supermarket: Preimplantation Screening, Future People, and the Harm Principle.Colin Gavaghan - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (2):242-260.
    Robert Nozick, in what is surely one of the most intriguing and provocative footnotes in modern philosophical writing, referred in Anarchy,StateandUtopia to the notion of a In keeping with the central arguments of that text, his suggestion was that choices about the genetic composition of future generations should, as far as possible, be left in the hands of private individuals, and should not be determined or restricted by the state. This free market in genetic screening would meet and would possess (...)
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  9. A whole new... you? ‘Personal identity’, emerging technologies and the law.Colin Gavaghan - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):423-434.
    In this article, I argue that lawmakers must abandon their previous reluctance to engage with questions of personal identity. While frequently seen as an esoteric subject, of limited interest outside of academic philosophy departments, I attempt to show that, in fact, assumptions about PI—and its durability in the face of certain psychological or genetic changes—underpin many current legal rules. This is most perhaps obviously exemplified with regard to reproductive technologies. Yet the Parfitian challenge to identify a victim of ‘bad’ reproductive (...)
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  10.  96
    The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Jobs and Work in New Zealand.James Maclaurin, Colin Gavaghan & Alistair Knott - 2021 - Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Law Foundation.
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a diverse technology. It is already having significant effects on many jobs and sectors of the economy and over the next ten to twenty years it will drive profound changes in the way New Zealanders live and work. Within the workplace AI will have three dominant effects. This report (funded by the New Zealand Law Foundation) addresses: Chapter 1 Defining the Technology of Interest; Chapter 2 The changing nature and value of work; Chapter 3 AI and (...)
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  11.  13
    " No Gene for Fate?Colin Gavaghan - 2009 - In Sandra Shapshay (ed.), Bioethics at the Movies. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 75.
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  12.  21
    Off-the-Peg Offspring in the Genetic Supermarket.Colin Gavaghan - 1998 - Philosophy Now 22:18-21.
  13.  13
    George J. Agich, Ph. D., is the FJ O'Neil Chair in the Department of Bioethics, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. Bette Anton, MLS, is the Head Librarian of the Optometry Library/Health Sciences Information Service. This Library Serves the University of California at Berkeley–University of California at San Francisco Joint Medical Program And. [REVIEW]Norman L. Cantor, Ann Freeman Cook, Linda L. Emanuel, Colin Gavaghan, Katarina Guttmannova, Carlton Hegwood Jr & Helena Hoas - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9:147-149.
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  14.  53
    Right Problem, Wrong Solution: A Pro-Choice Response to “Expressivist” Concerns About Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.Colin Gavaghan - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (1):20-34.
    In August 2005, the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority launched a public consultation, seeking views on the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for the detection of cancer genes. The issue was considered by the Authority to be a possible source of particular controversy because it involved extending the range of conditions for which PGD can be licensed in a potentially important way: As well as testing for genes that would definitely cause disease traits, such as cystic fibrosis and (...)
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