The De Doctrina Christiana is one of St. Augustine´s most important works, not only because of the reflection and hermeneutic exposed, but because of its special nature, since their composition realizes the vital and intellectual development of the author over two decades. A large section of the specialized reviews say that this work should be understood as a set of two irreconcilable parts, that one written in 396, with a hermeneutical character, the other finished by 426 devoted to rhetoric and (...) the doctrine of grace. While it should not be ignored the difference between these two parts of the work, it is necessary to find a common ground that not only ensures the unity of the work, but also of the whole Christian culture. (shrink)
The formation of the human being is a fundamental subject in Saint Augustine’s thinking. In his first works references to liberal arts are highlighted, and the dialogue form appears as a privileged vehicle of the educative process. In De Ordine, Saint Augustine represents a clear example of the interest and the appropriation of dialogue as a philosophical exercise, which has the double purpose of taking his listeners to the truth and to introduce the reader to the same dynamic.
El presente artículo analiza las violencias e injusticias epistémicas que sufren las mujeres trans*, que se pueden rastrear en enunciados convencionales de los discursos médico, jurídico y mediático en torno al asesinato de mujeres trans*; dichos enunciados se refuerzan entre sí, perpetuando injusticias epistémicas contra estas mujeres en Colombia. Para esto, usaremos la noción de injusticia epistémica de Miranda Fricker y las propuestas de otrxs autorxs contemporáneos, como Moira Pérez, Blas Radi y Judith Butler, y mostraremos cómo los prejuicios identitarios (...) y la injusticia testimonial y hermenéutica a la que se ven expuestas las feminidades trans* implican marginarlas por medio de prácticas sociales de significación. (shrink)
Unger (1974/2000) presents an argument for skepticism that significantly differs from the more traditional arguments for skepticism. The argument is based on two premises, to wit, that knowledge would entitle the knower to absolute certainty, and that an attitude of absolute certainty is always inadmissible from an epistemic viewpoint. The present paper scrutinizes the arguments that Unger provides in support of these premises and shows that none of them is tenable. It thus concludes that Unger's argument for (...) skepticism fails to threaten the possibility of knowledge. (shrink)
In this paper, I explain the curious role played by the Argument from Absolute Terms in Peter Unger's book Ignorance, I provide a critical presentation of the argument, and I consider some outstanding issues and the argument’s contemporary significance.
El presente artículo aborda el debate sobre la posmodernidad conforme la concepción del arte y la experiencia estética, que establece Heidegger al definir la obra de arte como puesta en obra de la verdad, y las teorías de Frederic Jameson y Gianni Vattimo respecto a las características culturales que adopta el sujeto posmoderno, y que coinciden con las de la obra de arte, toda vez que lo estético decanta en una eclosión de su significante gracias a la influencia que juegan (...) en su determinación los medios masivos de comunicación. This essay deals with the debate concerning postmodernity in the light of Heidegger's conception of art and esthetic experience as the putting into effect of truth, and of the theories of Frederic Jameson and Gianni Vattimo regarding the cultural characteristics embraced by the postmodern subject. These agree with the characteristics of works of art insomuch as the esthetic allows the surge of its signifi cant thanks to the influence and role played in its determination by the massive media of communication. (shrink)
Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre aquellas mujeres que siendomadres “optaron” por vincularse a las Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, convirtiéndose la gran mayoría en “obreras de la guerra” para cumplir la función materna de no dejar morir a sus hijos. Son madres combatientesque fueron a la guerra para luchar por sus hijos/as, sacrificando su vida por ese otro que una vez hizo parte de ella. Intento demostrar que dichas madres combatientes, no transgreden las normas de la maternidad hegemónica. Transgreden sí, (...) la visión estereotipada de género, según la cual se considera a la mujer esencialmente “pacífica”. Pero no son efectivamente transgresoras de los ideales asociados a la maternidad vista fundamentalmente como esencia, como un hecho biológico e individual. Finalmente se hace una apuesta por repensar la(s) maternidad(es) en una sociedad en (pos) conflicto como la colombiana. (shrink)
In this quite modestly ambitious essay, I'll generally just assume that, for the most part, our "scientifically informed" commonsense view of the world is true. Just as it is with such unthinking things as planets, plates and, I suppose, plants, too, so it also is with all earthly thinking beings, from people to pigs and pigeons; each occupies a region of space, however large or small, in which all are spatially related to each other. Or, at least, so it is (...) with the bodies of these beings. And, even as each of these ordinary entities extends through some space, so, also, each endures through some time. In line with that, each ordinary entity is at least very largely, and is perhaps entirely, an enduring physical entity (which allows that many might have certain properties that aren't purely physical properties.) Further, each ordinary enduring entity is a physically complex entity: Not only is each composed of parts, but many of these parts, whether or not absolutely all of them, are themselves enduring physical entities, and many of them also are such physically complex continuing entities. When an ordinary entity undergoes a significant change, then, at least generally, this change will involve changes concerning that entity's constituting physical parts, whether it be a rearrangement of (some of) these parts, or a loss of parts, or a gain of parts, or whatever. Often, the entity will still exist even after the change occurs. As we may well suppose, this happens when, from two strokes of an ax, an ordinary log loses just a chip of wood. As we may then say, such a change conforms with the log's "persistence conditions." Somewhat less often, such an ordinary entity undergoes a change that means an end to it: When a bomb's explosion makes our log become just so many widely scattered motes of dust, the log will no longer exist. Such a momentous change doesn't conform with the log's persistence conditions. (shrink)
Michael Nahm’s report in this issue of the JSE deftly presents many of the scholarly offenses perpetrated by Alejandro Parra. Some of those not mentioned had to do with Parra’s submissions to the JSE, and I feel it’s important to add those to the record. JSE published a retraction notice earlier this year (Volume 35, Issue 1) and provided examples of Parra’s plagiarism. Moreover, the Journal rejected another paper in which we found substantial plagiarism. But Parra’s (...) boldest effort was his submission, under his own name, of a paper by an Argentinian author, Anna Conforte—in fact, a paper Parra published in his own newsletter. But Parra never indicated that the paper was written by someone else. Several people independently and carefully compared the English submission to the original Spanish. All agreed that Parra apparently simply auto-translated the paper to clumsy English and presented it as his own work. (shrink)
Peter Unger has recently attempted to defend skepticism by means of a novel and ingenious theory about certain general features of our language. According to his theory, skepticism is a logical consequence of the fact that certain epistemic terms, including ‘certain’ and ‘know,’ belong to a much wider class of absolute terms whose strict meaning is such that they have little or no positive application to things in the world. The purpose of this paper is to enquire whether (...) class='Hi'>Unger's theory of absolute terms provides a stronger basis for skepticism than do other, more familiar, approaches. I shall argue that the theory cannot be regarded as an explication of the ordinary meaning of the terms in question; that the ordinary meaning of these terms can be understood by means of an alternative, if less exciting, model; and that the logic of our language does not commit us to skepticism. (shrink)
El presente artículo aborda de manera breve la obra Pasado Negro de Rubem Fonseca, escritor y guionista del cine brasileño; partiendo del análisis semiótico y lingüístico de su obra, sin dejar de lado el matiz que ofrece en la narrativa clásica del siglo XX.
In these challenging pages, Unger argues for the extreme skeptical view that, not only can nothing ever be known, but no one can ever have any reason at all for anything. A consequence of this is that we cannot ever have any emotions about anything: no one can ever be happy or sad about anything. Finally, in this reduction to absurdity of virtually all our supposed thought, he argues that no one can ever believe, or even say, that anything (...) is the case. (shrink)
RESUMEN Las tensiones y los vínculos posibles entre razón y violencia son un problema mayor para la filosofía. La obra de Eric Weil se consagra precisamente al análisis de las figuras históricas de dicha tensión, y su obra mayor, Logique de la Philosophie, desarrolla lo fundamental de dicho propósito. Se analiza la manera como Weil, desde la categoría de la acción -última categoría concreta de la filosofía-, en vínculo con las categorías precedentes (absoluto, obra, finito) y con las categorías formales (...) (sentido y sabiduría), enfrenta este desafío siempre nuevo para la filosofía. ABSTRACT The tensions and potential links between reason and violence are a significant philosophical problem. Eric Weil's systematic work, as well as his numerous articles and lectures, is dedicated to the analysis of the historical figures of such tensions. His major work, Logique de la Philosophie, develops that objective. The article analyzes how Weil faces this always new challenge for philosophy, on the basis of the category of action -the last concrete category of his philosophy-, together with the preceding categories (absolute, unmediated particular, finite) and the formal categories (meaning and wisdom). RESUMO As tensões e os vínculos possíveis entre razão e violência são um problema maior para a filosofia. A obra de Eric Weil se consagra precisamente à análise das figuras históricas dessa tensão, e sua obra maior, Logique de la Philosophie, desenvolve o fundamental desse propósito. Analisa-se a maneira como Weil, a partir da categoria da ação -última categoria concreta da filosofia-, em vínculo com as categorias precedentes (absoluto, obra, finito) e com as categorias formais (sentido e sabedoria), enfrenta esse desafio sempre novo para a filosofia. (shrink)
This paper considers Roberto Unger's views on legal reasoning. His account is defended against two misplaced attacks. The first critique is by Emilios Christodoulidis. Using the language of systems theory, Christodoulidis contends that Unger's programme of democratic experimentalism cannot be achieved through law, as the constitutive structure of the legal system is immune to politics. Christodoulidis accuses Unger of attempting to reduce law to politics. It will be argued, however, that Unger does no such thing. The (...) second attack holds that Unger's criticisms of objectivism apply to his own democratic vision and that, as a result, he cannot promote this vision without self-contradiction. Again, it will be argued that this criticism rests on a misunderstanding of Unger's views. The paper concludes with a tentative objection to the substantive proposals of Unger's work, suggesting that they ought to be replaced by a pluralist account of value. (shrink)
ResumoNo início do século xviii, Isaac Newton publicou seu principal trabalho sobre óptica, o Opticks. Impregnado por uma perspectiva indutiva, o livro logo se tornou a principal referência para os estudos sobre a luz e as cores, sendo amplamente popularizado pelos seguidores de Newton. Neste artigo, analisamos como dois importantes livros contribuíram para essa popularização e também qual era a imagem de ciência que tencionavam propagar, o Élements de la philosophie de Newton de Voltaire e o Newtonianismo per le dame (...) de Algarotti. Será possível perceber que ambos os autores distorceram o conteúdo do livro de Newton, no intuito de propagar uma imagem idealizada das ideias newtonianas e da própria filosofia natural.In the beginning of 18th century, Newton published his main work about light and colors, the Opticks. Impregnated by an inductive perspective, the book became the major reference for the studies about light and colors, being widely popularized by Newton's followers. In this article, we analyze how two important works contributed to this process of popularization and also what image of science they intended to propagate: Voltaire's Elements of Newton's philosophie and Algarotti's Sir Isaac Newton's philosophy explain'd for the use of the ladies. We will be notice that both authors distorted the content of the Opticks, in order to propagate an idealized image of Newtonian ideas and natural philosophy itself. (shrink)
By contributing a few hundred dollars to a charity like UNICEF, a prosperous person can ensure that fewer poor children die, and that more will live reasonably long, worthwhile lives. Even when knowing this, however, most people send nothing, and almost all of the rest send little. What is the moral status of this behavior? To such common cases of letting die, our untutored response is that, while it is not very good, neither is the conduct wrong. What is the (...) source of this lenient assessment? In this contentious new book, one of our leading philosophers argues that our intuitions about ethical cases are generated not by basic moral values, but by certain distracting psychological dispositions that all too often prevent us from reacting in accord with our commitments. Through a detailed look at how these tendencies operate, Unger shows that, on the good morality that we already accept, the fatally unhelpful behavior is monstrously wrong. By uncovering the eminently sensible ethics that we've already embraced fully, and by confronting us with empirical facts and with easily followed instructions for lessening serious suffering appropriately and effectively, Unger's book points the way to a compassionate new moral philosophy. (shrink)
Resumen Folil Mapudungun, fruto de doce años de producción y de sistematización de objetivos y contenidos, es un método comunicativo multidimensional de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la lengua mapuche, como segunda lengua, orientado a jóvenes y adultos, en un contexto donde el mapudungun es lengua propia del territorio, lengua heredada y comunitaria. Hasta el momento, el método está integrado por ocho lecciones de estudio, desarrolladas y publicadas. En este artículo se presenta en detalle la organización de contenidos según sus tres ejes: transversal, (...) longitudinal y local. Se concluye que la concurrencia de los ejes definidos permite superar la dicotomía entre contenidos y metodología, a la vez que favorece el desarrollo de las diversas competencias que actúan en la comunicación cotidiana.Folil Mapudungun is a multidimensional method, based on a communicative approach, for teaching and learning Mapuche as a second language. It was designed for adult learners in a context where Mapudungun is a “language specific to the territory”, a heritage language and a community language. It is also the result of twelve years of research aiming to formulate objectives, and produce and systematize contents. At present, the method is constituted by eight lessons, developed and published in a textbook. This paper presents the method content organization according to three axes: transverse organization, longitudinal organization, and local organization. It is claimed that the use of these three axes allows us to overcome the methodology-content dichotomy, and to favor the development of the various communicative competences used in everyday life. (shrink)