The current article discusses the distinction between affective valence—the degree to which an affective response represents pleasure or displeasure—and semantic valence, the degree to which an object or event is considered positive or negative. To date, measures that reflect positivity and negativity are usually placed under the same conceptual umbrella, with minimal distinction between the modes of valence they reflect. Recent work suggests that what might seem to reflect a monolithic structure of valence has at least two different, confounding underlying (...) sources, affective and semantic, that are fundamentally distinct, dissociable, and that obey different, recognizable rules. The current work discusses this distinction and provides implications for affective science from both the theoretical and the empirical perspective. (shrink)
The paper reviews historical and regional studies publications of Volyn periodicals in the 19 th -20 th centuries, which covered the Ukrainian-Polish-Russian relations. Their key theme lines are indicated, specifically a socio-economic line which addressed social inequality problems, enslavement of Ukrainian peasants by Polish gentry at the time when some Ukrainian regions were a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; a religious line which covered consequences of Polonization, threats to Orthodoxy, feats and courage of its defenders; an ethnographic line which attempted (...) to describe the history of origin of nations and the specifics of their national self-identification. It is shown that all these lines of publications featured different ideological tendencies. Thus some articles from ‘Volynskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti’, ‘Pochayevskiye Izvestiya’ and ‘Volynskiye Yeparkhialniye Vedomosti’ were analyzed, which allowed to trace propaganda of the Russian Empire in the spirit of Russian monarchism and chauvinism spreading via press. Those processes had a rather negative impact on social and interethnic moods of the Ukrainian-Polish-Russian relations in the imperialist context. By contrast with the above, journalists of the democratic newspaper ‘Vestnik Volyni’ advocated the Polish and Ukrainian self-identification. (shrink)
Ukrainian national pedagogy in its development was based on the organic combination of national and Christian ideals. Christian humanity was the norm of interpersonal, interethnic, and everyday social existence of our people. Modern Ukrainian society needs spiritual rehabilitation, which is obviously only possible in the interaction of four fundamental factors: state, church, education system and family. Today it is right to mention the outstanding Ukrainian educator G.Vaschenko, who insisted, first of all, on the implementation of the principle of educational education, (...) which should go under the slogan "service to God and the Motherland", and therefore it is necessary to ensure the unity of national and Christian ideals in the present being of the titular nation. The words of the Ukrainian enlightener A.Richinsky sound like a bitter prophecy: "The result of spiritual fatigue is that the life of the people becomes too materialistic, with the decline of national shrines and unifying ideology, everyone cares only about private interest, the provision of material well-being, feeling already unable to dream about the higher ideals of the nation ". It is the religious worldview that gives a believer a certain amount of values through which he solves the question of the meaning of his existence, his attitude to the world, to the state in which he lives. (shrink)
The global coronavirus pandemic has had an impact on the socio-economic development of the world. The article assesses the economic growth in the EAEU member States for 2020. Specific features of the development of the Union's economies are defined. Recommendations for increasing the rate of economic growth are formulated.
In the Theaetetus Socrates provides an elaboration and discussion of Protagoras’ measure doctrine, grounding it in a “secret doctrine” of flux. This paper argues that the anthropology of the myth in the Protagoras provides an earlier, very different way to explain the measure doctrine, focusing on its application to civic values, such as “just,” “fine,” and “pious.” The paper shows that Protagoras’ explanation of the dual etiology of virtue – that it is acquired both by nature and by nurture – (...) tracks the two meanings of “anthropos” in his formulation of the measure doctrine, as “humankind” and “individual human.” On Protagoras’ account, humankind’s survival can be explained by the fact that humans share shame and justice, which enables them to live together in cities. (shrink)
Publication date: 24 January 2019 Source: Author: Oksana Koshulko The article presents the results of studies on reasons why female immigrants coming to Turkey as well as basic problems for married female immigrants in Turkey. The article has presented several groups of female immigrants and reasons why female immigrants coming to Turkey. The first group were married female immigrants who gave their reason for coming to Turkey as marriage; the second group were female labor immigrants who came to Turkey (...) seeking work; and the third group were females who wanted to work but they were, or may have been, members or victims of criminal organizations. According to the results of the article, female immigrants face many challenges in the country, within their families and in outside society. Female immigrants, who are considering living in Turkey for any length of time or even for forever, should understand and analyze all possible difficulties and challenges that may arise in their lives in Turkey. At the same time, the country holds wonderful prospects for developing female immigrants and the most important thing is for them to find the means of benefitting from all that is offered. (shrink)
The author responds to the article by L. Fylypovych "Does Contemporary Ukrainian Religious Studies have a Strategy for Survival and Development?", where she gives her recommendations for overcoming the crisis in humanities in general and in religious studies in particular.
In the Article of Oksana Shepetyak "Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between the Numbers of Christian Churches of the Middle East"is analyzed the modernity of the Christians communities in their historical regions and tendency in their development. The diversity of Eastern Christianity requires a broad and multifaceted study. Most researchers focus on the history of formation, theological and liturgical aspects, and contemporaneity. This study is devoted to the comparison of only statistics, which, however, reveal an entirely new picture of (...) the Christian East. The comparison of the number of believers in the Eastern Churches shows that the Oriental non-orthodox churches dominate in the Alexandrian tradition, while the Eastern Catholic Churches predominate in the East Syrian and Western-Syrian tradition. Instead, the Churches of the Byzantine tradition in the Middle East turned into small religious communities. (shrink)
У статті аналізується питання розколу українського православ'я з акцентом на політичну складову цього процесу. Співіснування трьох юрисдикцій православної церкви цілком може сприйматися як невід'ємна складова функціонування світської держави, натомість у випадку України це стало однією з найнагальніших проблем у процесі становлення держави. Автор пов'язує такий стан речей, зокрема, із процесом медіатизації, який, будучи яскраво представлений у релігійній сфері, створює умови для широкого обговорення окресленого питання.
У статті розглядаються погляди на феномен релігії представника наукової думки ХІХ століття М. І. Костомарова, якого частіше презентують як історика, упускаючи важливі для української науки сторони його творчості. Прикладом такого стану речей є його релігієзнавчий спадок, який досі залишається маловивченим й аспекти якого слід розглядати в контексті світової релігієзнавчої думки. За творами М. І. Костомарова встановлено розуміння ним сутності релігії, зіставлено ідеї дослідника з поглядами представників релігієзнавства й виявлено, що деякі з них передували ідеям, розвинутим релігієзнавчою думкою в майбутньому.
. In her article the author analyzes the way in which academic scholars combine professional competence and social activity. Academic Studies of Religious is a strategic branch of the humanities, that the practical consequences of theoretical achievements contribute to the establishment of mutual understanding in the multiconfessional and polyscriptive social context. Ukrainian academic scholars jf religious are at the same time scholars as theoreticians and citizens of modern Ukraine. Therefore, they often continue their professional scientific and cognitive activities in the (...) educational and public sector. It is ascertained that, as guided by the principle of scientific prudence and at the same time civic engagement, contemporary Ukrainian academic religious scholars influence social reality as a means of public activity. While staying with theoretical scholars, but at the same time being active citizens included in the epicenter of the reality of modern Ukraine, Ukrainian academic religious scholars seek not only to reason and express themselves, but also to act responsibly both before the scientific community and before the civil community in order to achieve positive practical consequences of their professional achievements. It is proposed to classify the social activities of academic religious scholars according to the criteria a) collective-individuality - UAR and individual action; b) target orientation - different target groups and levels from local to international; c) the sphere of social existence - education and action in different directions; d) qualitative characteristics: whether the use of professional knowledge in public activities or professional activities in favor of the community. Religious professional competence contributes to responsible public activity, creates conditions for positive influence on the development of inter-confessional relations in a multiconfessional modern Ukraine, the formation of a developed civil society in which religious actors are effective and influential actors, rather than "hostages of processes" or "factors for account". Therefore, Ukrainian academic religious scholars and their professional activities in its subject and educational orientation, and their social activities, based on their professional competence, are included in the contemporary social and civil processes involved in such. (shrink)
German Dadaists, Italian and Russian Futurists and Constructivists created in their experiments multi-medial orthopedic bodies as products of collage and montage. Sergei Eisenstein, who was influenced by these experiments, organized his theatrical productions as a chain of independent fragments capable of entering any possible combination/recombination and labelled this method “montage of attractions”. He used the same montage principle not only for a new theatrical or cinematic narrative but also to conceptualize the expressive movement of the theatrical or cinematic body created (...) on stage and on screen. Finally he conceptualized montage not only as a means of conveying movement, but also of conveying a way of thinking. This inspired him to create a new form of scientific narrative in his two unfinished books. The subject to be analysed in the first book from 1929 – montage – inspired him to look for a new structure by organizing different texts in the form of a sphere. This form defined the method of writing his second project on the theory of the arts as a hypertext. Eisenstein gave this book the title Method. (shrink)
Relevance of the article is determined that current conditions in global financial markets to impose competitiveness and solvency of the stock market higher requirements to meet is becoming increasingly difficult given the present realities of economic instability and uncertainty. Defects of the stock market Ukraine is its low capitalization, liquidity, limited range of financial instruments. In this regard it more urgent study of current conditions, trends and characteristics of the stock market. The article is an analysis of the dynamics of (...) the stock market based on the calculation of integrated indicators in individual segments. Integrated indicators are used to obtain information about the state of the securities market as a whole or its individual segments, as well as the qualitative state of the infrastructure market. The integral index is a measure of activity in the securities market within national boundaries, which characterizes the state of domestic markets that exist in this country, or the share of which accounts for a significant portion of the securities market of the country. In the article the estimation of the dynamics and structure of registered volume of securities on the stock market of Ukraine, the number of issues, trading volumes on their stock exchange and OTC segment is given. Analysis is conducted by main financial instruments: stocks, state, municipal, corporate bonds, derivatives, securities, collective investment institutions. The methodical approach to the integrated assessment of the stock market Ukraine on the basis of calculation of integral index is grounded. The reasons of deteriorating it, reducing the share of trading quality financial instruments represented primarily government bonds Ukraine, which are traded on the stock exchange segment, and increase the proportion of shares and securities of joint investment institutions, many of which are not traded on the stock exchange and has low liquidity. (shrink)
This article concerns genealogy of ideas from the Marburg school of neo-Kantian philosophy in’s early works in the context of intellectual and educational tendencies in Europe and the Russian Empire at the turn of the 20th century. Yevhen Spektorskyi (1875–1951) is known as a prominent philosopher and lawyer, professor, and the last president at the Saint Volodymyr University. Analyzing his early works, which were strongly connected to his teaching and scientific activities at the law faculty of Warsaw University, the author (...) recognizes several key factors as the reasons for considerable development of the main neo-Kantian ideas of the philosopher. Firstly, Spektorskyi’s research interests were strongly influenced by the intellectual communication with his teacher, professor, and lawyer Oleksandr Blok (1852–1909), whose research was concentrated on the idea of classification of the sciences and its further substantiating. Secondly, we know that at the beginning of 20th century Spektorskyi was on several long-term educational secondments in European educational institutions, which allowed him to immerse into intellectual life of that time. In the article, the author focuses on analysis of Spektorskyi’s published works and unpublished manuscripts of the years 1903–1910. It is clarified that their main issues concern essential notions and arguments of critical idealism and its implications for the procedures of rational argumentation of sciences (mainly, social sciences) by setting ideal goals and clarification of regulative ideas for the social scientists in their research. The article also examines Spektorskyi’s logical structure of critique of the founder of the Marburg school of Neo-Kantianism Hermann Cohen (1842–1918). The critique concerns the development of ethics as “mathematics of natural science” and argues for the creative and productive rethinking of neo-Kantian ideas by Spektorskyi. (shrink)
From 2014 the number of banks in Ukraine essentially decreased from 180 to 76 for 01.07.2019. The unstable situation was traced in the country for this period of time. Liquidation of 104 banks demonstrated that they couldn’t manage their risks and make correct managerial decisions timely, and also the system of internal control functioned badly. Just this system includes a subdivision of internal auditing that didn’t cope with timely revelation of inexactitudes, so reasonable recommendations as to managerial decisions weren’t elaborated. (...) For providing functions of internal auditing of a bank, the subdivision uses auditing procedures. They include analytical procedures that, in their turn, are principal for attaining aims of an auditing task. The article considers most urgent questions of using analytical procedures in internal bank auditing. The essence of the definition of “analytical procedures” has been considered and specified. Analytical procedures have been separated from the composition of auditing ones, and their theoretical aspect has been analyzed. The classification of methods of analytical procedures has been analyzed for getting auditing evidences. Analytical procedures consist of methods of internal system estimation and bank financial condition analysis and also analysis of their business-processes. Advantages and defects of methodical components of analytical procedures have been presented and analyzed. The stages of an auditing task have been studied. Analytical procedures are considered at three stages of internal auditing: planning, performing the engagement and resulting, demonstrated through the prism of economic analysis. International standards of the professional practice of internal auditing that regulate it are considered. Questions of working papers that generalize a result of using analytical procedures are separated. (shrink)
The analysis of the issues in term studies showcases that the scholars’ attempts to come to the unified approach to the definition of the term has not been successful yet. No longer is the academic world seen as numbers of regional scientific schools across geographies. On the contrary, globalisation has significantly affected academia and the respective product of science. The subject matter of the research links to poly-culturalism and poly-lingual communication in the contemporary world of science. It aims at the (...) description of monomial and polynomial – proposed substitutes for set term expressions in languages for specific purposes when digitized. It is suggested that an interdisciplinary dialogue between linguistics in Saussure’s concept and philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and computer science would ultimately make the world catch up with ICT in the digital era. Robotics, automation of processes are soon to absorb vast domains of specialized knowledge. As formal and logical treatment of language helps employ algebraic tools for linguistic analysis, comparative analysis between terms in terminology and an algebraic expression evidences similarities that may hardly be ignored. Thus, an algorithmic description of terminology could generate an infinite number of products from a finite number of essential elements. (shrink)
In the research process it has been determined, that the full-value development of a pre-school child takes place at the expanse of high-quality organization and effective use of the playing space. It has been outlined, that high-quality organization of the playing space favors the harmonic combination of psychic, physical and spiritual development of a child. The conducted theoretical analysis allowed to separate four main components that must be taken into account in the process of organizing the high-quality playing space of (...) pre-school children, namely: content, material, organizational and personal. It has been noted, that a structural model of the qualitatively organized playing space of a pre-school child is based on acknowledgement of the child-centered orientation priority. It has been proved, that the agreed combination of four components of the playing space provides psychological safety of a pre-school child and favors the high level development of its cooperation in the process of interaction with others. It has been revealed, that the content of realized playing actions, material filling of the playing space, its dynamics and mobility, inclusion of all children in the active playing activity need essentially other approaches. There have been fixed contradictions between necessary and real ideas of teachers as to the organization quality of the playing space for pre-school children. The problem of quality organization of the playing space for pre-school children gains special importance under conditions of modern society that dictates new rules and requirements to the development of a successful person. The formation of the high level ability to understand own possibilities, to reveal initiative and comprehensively realize themselves in pre-school children provides the presence and interconnection of all structural components of the playing space. (shrink)
On the base of material "Kiev case" in the periodical press about corruption of the Ukrainian police at the mid 1920's the author shows the possibilities of critical discourse-analysіs in the interpretation and reconstruction the social structure and social practices thru text-message.
In today's context, it is considered that with the reduction of the risk of military intervention, military security has come to the forefront and economic security has become a priority for the national interests of the country. As regional forces seek to expand markets, provide access to finance and the latest technologies, economic security has become a necessary component of regional forces' ability to spread their influence. The article is devoted to the study of national security and its relation to (...) the functioning and formation of the geo-economic strategy in the conditions of globalization of the world, taking into account the national interests of countries. Each stage of the realization of the national interests of the country has its own assessment of its geopolitical, geostrategic and geoeconomic status, security threats and main carriers of these threats, mechanism of realization of national interests, resources, used for the purposes of such realization. Each of the stages provide its own assessment of the main definitions and categories of security, the main directions of geo-economic policy. The complex of current global mechanisms, aimed at ensuring the economic security of states from external threats, is investigated. The importance of forming the protective instruments of Ukraine's foreign economic policy is considered. The emphasis is placed on economic security, which is the foundation and material foundation of national security. The special place of economic security in the structure of national security is due to the fact that almost no type of security can be sufficiently implemented without economic security. (shrink)
The article by Oksana Horkusha “Interconfessional dialogue in modern Ukraine: impulses, conditions, purpose, subjects, levels of understanding” analyzes the motives, conditions, goals, subjects and levels of understanding of the interconfessional dialogue in contemporary Ukraine. Interconfessional dialogue cannot have a purpose in itself. Different confessions reach agreement only in the process of such dialogue, which are carried out by mutually viable actors who have a common goal, are in the same cultural-historical context, a definite problem, for the solution of which (...) is used by adequate dialogue platforms, methods and instruments. (shrink)
For understanding Y. Pluzhnyk’s poetry in the context of modern discourse, it is valuable to study the content of his lyrics in light of intertextual connections, which are presented in the article at the formal and semantic levels. It was determined that different intertextual forms reveal a functional dependence on the purpose underlying their introduction into the text by Y. Pluzhnyk. The active use of various folkloric, mythological, artistic, and philosophical reminiscences transmits a distinctive repulsion from a known pattern for (...) the sake of a new creative result. The presence of different intertextual types is a unique marker for the semantics embedded within Pluzhnyk’s text, which forms a circle that intertwines moods, worldview, and the author’s philosophy. (shrink)
У статті розглядаються процеси самоактуалізації особистості у сфері фізичного виховання і спорту, формування принципів етики відповідальності у спортивному процесі, виокремлюються первинні та вторинні соціальні цінності у сфері фізичної культури і спорту. Відзначається, що у життєвому світі спортсмена, насамперед під час спортивних змагань, відбувається розвиток цінностей і принципів олімпізму та справедливої гри та процес формотворення етики нових сучасних норм комунікації. Наголошується, що у спорті, як ніде інше, особистісний фактор постає на першому плані, саме у спортивному процесі відбувається особливе сприйняття індивідом моральних (...) установ, творення самовідповідальності окремо взятої спортивної особистості, яка, втілюючись у соціопростір, створює основу для можливості самоактуалізації інших особистостей. Стверджується, що етика комунікативного дискурсу у сфері спорту твориться шляхом поєднання індивідуальних етичних властивостей окремих спортсменів, зливаючи їх у єдиний потік особистих самоактуалізацій на засадах етики відповідальності. Спорт як надінституція створює нові форми та феномени спортивного життєсвіту, що впливають і поширюються на все суспільство, збагачуючи його глобальний Життєсвіт та формуючи новий горизонт цілей. Аксіологія майбутнього стає гарантією збереження та вдосконалення системи, її структурної цілісності. Спортивний життєсвіт взаємодіє з життєсвітом універсальним, створюючи в єднанні органічні способи комунікаційного розвитку, нову цілісність, яка прямує до відкритих форм соціальної комунікації, сприяючи створенню нових можливостей саморозвитку соціальної системи. (shrink)
Different types of social behavior are characterized by different behavioral reactions. Characteristics of selfish and altruistic social behavior are not clearly confirmed by the data of psychophysiological studies. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to identify the peculiarities of behavioral reactions of individuals with more expressed egoistic and altruistic social behavior, which are based on data of electroencephalographic research. 120 individuals took part in the study. As a result of complex psychological testing all subjects were divided into two groups (...) - altruistic and egoistic. Registration of electrical activity was carried out in a model of collective interaction using the Stag Hunt Game and a specially developed model of social behavior Mini-Basketball. The number of elections for egoistic and altruistic stimulus and the reaction time to them were observed in the study. The stimulus "Rabbit" and "Throw" were considered as egoistic; “Stag" and "Pass" - as altruistic in accordance with the test methods. As a result, the frequency of choosing the type of stimuli corresponds to the social orientation of the individuals. The reaction time increases with the choice of the type of stimulus, which does not coincide with the type of social orientation of the subject. (shrink)
Одним з найважливіших напрямів реформування сучасної української освіти є всебічне наскрізне впровадження та застосування компетентнісного підходу в навчанні, вихованні, практичній підготовці школярів. Традиційна знаннєво-інформаційна парадигма навчання виявилася неконкурентоспроможною: учні могли мати обширні знання, однак не могли їх реалізувати на практиці. Як засвідчують дослідження, «стара» школа була переобтяжена формальними знаннями, які відсторонювали дитину від реальності. Практика доводить, що освітяни мають шукати нові, інноваційні, особистісно- і практично-орієнтовані методології навчання і виховання. Переорієнтація освіти на компетентнісну парадигму потребує додаткових досліджень. Дану статтю присвячено визначенню (...) сутності компетентнісного підходу та можливості втілення теоретичних знань про нього в освітній практиці України. (shrink)
Source: Author: Oksana Gorbanyova The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of using interactive technologies in the process of teaching a foreign language at a higher educational institution. The principal result of our research is the analysis of the influence of using interactive techniques on acquiring communicative competence and personal development. The major conclusions estimate the significance of applying interactive technologies in learning process. ]]>.
Introduction. During each historical period, the issue of health preservation acquires new essence characteristics which are determined by the transformations of social systems. Under the modern overconsumption society circumstances, put on the current socio-economic and political situation in Ukraine, the problem of internal nature and systemic inter-influences of such phenomenon as health preservation becomes extremely stressed and urgent. Purpose: to analyze the semantic features of the dialectical categories of essence and phenomenon in the context of the personal health-preserving activity of (...) the individual in today’s over-consumption society. Methods. Studying such phenomena as health and consumer society is interdisciplinary. Pluralism of approaches allows us to develop an effective theoretical and methodological basis in order to form alternative socio-philosophical views in the context of consumer risk reduction. The methodological basis of this article is a comparative approach which made it possible to match individual phenomena in health preservation in today’s consumption society. Results. Health preservation is often equated with caring for one’s physical and mental health, with healthy eating habits and sports. It is clear that for regular caregiving, the person must be motivated and characterized by willpower, self-discipline, and awareness of a healthy lifestyle. In other words, health preservation, as a process and as a phenomenon as a whole is extremely positive and beneficial in its essence. However, this positive characteristic of health preservation as a phenomenon would be real only if the person were not involved in other processes and phenomena that fundamentally change its positive nature. In the socio-cultural space of a consumer society, we have the opportunity to observe the distortion of the productive nature of health preservation, which is outlined not only by people’s desire to be healthy, and careful treatment of themselves but also by the artificially created motives and externally stimulated needs of their health-preserving activity. Conclusion. In a society of consumption, people’s health-preserving activity is in the space of increasing risks that are not being considered to be a threat because they are perceived as the satisfaction of needs and realization of desires. As a result, the substitution of concepts in the phenomenon of health preservation and distortion of its positive essence is taking place. (shrink)
This article concerns the evolution of philosopher and lawyer Yevhen Spektorskyi’s views on social science in the context of social thought of that time. At the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century in Russian philosophy appeared a strong need for a search for an alternative to positivism and Marxism interpretation of sociology, which would enable it to deal with pressing social and ethical issues. Neo-Kantian philosophy became one of those alternatives, and it had a profound influence (...) on Spektorskyi at the beginning of his academic career when he justified the importance of social sciences on the basis of the human ability to set goals. Having been disappointed in a study of oughtness, Spektorskyi turned on genealogical research into social science whose key phenomenon he believed to be the social physics of the 17th century. Spektorskyi reached a conclusion that a mechanical view on the individual and society, which was typical for the modern era thought, could not grasp all the aspects of both a person and a society, therefore, oriented towards natural sciences, social physics had failed. In his own philosophical research, Spektorskyi struggled to cohere the ideal of rational science and a possibility to examine the human as a moral being by developing his classification of sciences and critically rethinking the very basis of the social science. Spektorskyi’s works written in emigration were focused on cultural and religious issues that offered a fresh perspective on social science. He considered Christian philosophy to be an idealistic one and used it as a basis for his own version of Christian sociology that understood society in regard to the Christian ideal of an individual and community.Manuscript received 04.09.2020. (shrink)
The article deals with the study of specific aspects of daily life of management and ordinary workers of the Ukrainian police at the mid 1920's based on the much-discussed in the press "Kievcase". This case was about systematic bribery in Ukrainian police (in modern language - about corruption). In this way we have detected the conditions, causes and mechanisms of the corruption that matter for the modern study of this phenomenon.
Oksana Horkusha’s article «The World Outlook function of religion and church identity: challenges in the contempopary coordinates of Ukrainian reality» analyzes the world outlook functioning of churches in the events of modern Ukraine. The rhetoric and the activity of church institutions are explored, on the basis of which the 3 levels of perception of reality are distinguished: 1) global 2) "Russko-mirovsky" 3) Ukrainian. Given the characteristic of each of them.
У статті розглядається перша магістерська дисертація М. І. Костомарова "Про причини і характер унії в Західній Росії" як унікальний твір, у якому вперше центральною проблемою для автора стала народна історія. Проаналізовано дійсні причини ліквідації дисертації і її наукове значення. Переглянуто зміст твору й основні проблеми, котрі не досліджувалися науковцями раніше.
The Church as a religious institution has various forms of manifestation of its presence in society and ways of realizing its main vocation-preaching the Gospel. Among the various forms and methods of communication of faith, the urgency of which today is actualized by a number of objective reasons, special attention should be paid to the so-called "evangelism to charity". In particular, the "Decree on Missionary Activity of the Church" states that "missionaries can and must patiently, prudently and with great confidence (...) to give Christ's testimony an expression of love and charity, and only to prepare the way for the Lord..." '. That is, the testimony of a word requires compulsory confirmation by acts of mercy. "Good news", as remarked by Roman Catholic priests, can not be preached to the hungry. The duty of the preacher is to feed first, and then talk about the kingdom of God; While preaching the gospel, we should not forget about the daily, terrestrial things, about the urgent needs of people. without this the Gospel is dead. ". (shrink)
The article describes the features of the relationship between Soviet power and engineering specialists, who was working in senior positions in factories and mines of theDonbasin the early 1920's. Interaction between professionals and the new government in that time was inconsistent and compromised. On the one hand, technical specialist received significant preferences and opportunities, regardless of their relationship to the Soviet authorities. This decision was based on the rational considerations about the impossibility of restoring the destroyed industry ofDonbasonly by party (...) instructions, without relying on a professional understanding of the fundamental aspects of the industry. On the other hand, the local party members, their leaders and the working class began pressure on the specialist, because they not understood the rationalist motivation of power and evaluated this policy as a betrayal of conquests of the revolution. The article presents a previously unknown secret document, which demonstrates that in the early 1920's the Soviet authorities in their policy in theDonbasmade a bid for the segmentation of the group of engineering specialists. "Sovietization" of professionals should be the result of internal contradictions and competition in mid group. In the same document founded the practice of detailed surveillance specialists. Later this information about specialists was used as the base for charges during the "spetseedovskie" processes at the late 1920's -1930's. (shrink)
У статті на основі аналізу фрагментів з листів червоноармійців, зроблених співробітниками Державного політичного управління (ДПУ) в рамках практики перлюстрації, реконструйовані окремі аспекти сприйняття червоноармійцями навколишньої дійсності, політики та ідеології нової влади, свого місця в новому суспільстві і його соціальній структурі. Зокрема простежуються результати активної антирелігійної кампанії, прагнення більшовиків у процесі ідеологічного впливу на червоноармійців зв'язати в їх свідомості релігію з пригніченням, владою буржуазних класів. Зафіксована і зворотна реакція самих червоноармійців: від високого рівня засвоєння ідеологем, до сумнівів і неприйняття їх.
An accelerating rate of systemic, structural and institutional convergences leads to the transformation of world educational space. A comparative study makes possible to analyse at a systems level both philosophy of education as systematic scientific knowledge and education as a system. Philosophy attempts not only to comprehend the existing system and to formulate values for the educational system of the future, but also to generalize and compare existing experience. But “experience” has different meanings. First, it indicates the concrete, urgent experience (...) of reality and contains the components of sensory receptions and sensations, their spiritualizing senses, an entire conceptual complex, and also accumulated habits, skills, and knowledge. From the other side, it is understood as a component of social-historical existence, including the storage, creation and transfer of cultural senses, objectified in the standards and values, in lingual and objective forms; this means that an educational experience is the axiological basis of education, its value-purposeful characteristics. Philosophy of education is an independent specific field of knowledge adequately reflecting conceptual, theoretic-methodological and practical trends of education. It has global, national and local level of its reflection. Comparative investigation in philosophy of education is a comparison of such levels and explanation of their interaction. Themain methodological question is the extent to which it is expedient to use the achievements of foreign experience in educational theory and practice in another country. Comparative study makes it possible to pass from descriptions to the answer to more fundamental questions: to explanation and development of reasons. (shrink)
State policy in the field of law enforcement during the Khrushchev's period wasn't a stabile. The first wave of changes was associated with the abolition of some legislative acts of the Stalinist period, a significant softening of punitive line, narrowing of the scope of capital punishment, empowerment convicted people etc. On the one hand, these steps are partially rehabilitating the Soviet law enforcement. On the other hand, government actions were unreasoned and populist, designed for quick political effect. The next wave (...) of change was due to the spread of the idea of the gradual withering away of the state in terms of building a communist society. As a consequence of this ideology was the reduction of employees in the field of law enforcement and attracting a variety of civic organizations, labor groups and citizens to fulfill a variety of law enforcement functions (voluntary civil police, civil judges, civil assistant investigator, civilian prosecutors, civil lawyers, etc.). And finally, the soviet leadership made steps in the field of law enforcement toward stricter penalties for serious crimes, as well as expanding the scope of the death penalty. The country's leadership was actively intervened in the work of law enforcement. Communist Party took control the law enforcement agencies due to the appointment to senior positions along party lines and managing work of party members through the party cell. One of the major controversies of the time was mixing the steps to improve of law enforcement sphere (increased attention to the frames, structural changes, strengthening analytical work in the study of crime statistics), with a desire to demonstrate the advantages of the socialist way of life (which was manifested in the silencing of certain criminal manifestations, artificially lowering their significance by reducing the liability on them, outright ignoring problems and their causes, etc.). Contradictions were observed in the conduct of state punitive line too. On the one hand, it was a significant step up from the Stalinist penal system by expanding the rights of prisoners, procedural rules, which led to a softening of the repressive pressure on the population. On the other hand, the state retained its attitude to dissent; applying the new forms social exclusion of dissidents, for example, applying to them the impact of psychiatric measures. These moments hampered consolidation of the new format of normative behavior in the minds of ordinary citizens, and gave rise to "double standards", the imbalance between what is declared and what actually happened. (shrink)