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  1. Entropy and sign conventions.G. M. Anderson - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-7.
    It is a fundamental cornerstone of thermodynamics that entropy ( $$S_{U,V}$$ ) increases in spontaneous processes in isolated systems (often called closed or thermally closed systems when the transfer of energy as work is considered to be negligible) and achieves a maximum when the system reaches equilibrium. But with a different sign convention entropy could just as well be said to decrease to a minimum in spontaneous constant U, V processes. It would then change in the same direction as the (...)
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  2. Natural kinds, chemical practice, and interpretive communities.Clevis Headley - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-21.
    Many philosophers attribute extraordinary importance to the idea of natural kinds seemingly intimating that the very possibility of certain kinds of activity are ontologically beholden to the existence of kinds. Specifically, regarding chemistry, Brian Ellis intimated that the success of any plausible metaphysical essentialism depends upon its “reliance on examples from chemistry.” Ellis’s view is representative of a tradition in analytic philosophy that has utilized chemical examples as paradigmatic natural kinds. In this regard, Kripke and Putnam emerge as the architects (...)
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  3. Predicting unknown binary compounds from the view of complex network.Guoyong Mao, Runzhan Liu & Ning Zhang - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-8.
    Consider chemical elements as a system, we create an undirected chemical network with 99 elements and 1916 edges from _Chemspider_, a website that provide search engines to collect compounds. Using this network and the network that we used in our previous work with 97 elements and 2198 edges, we found that _RootedPageRank_, a link prediction tool in complex network, can be used to predict potential binary compounds, because the changing trend of _PageRank_ probability of each element in these networks all (...)
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  4. Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements: part 2—turbulent nineteenth century.Paweł Miśkowiec - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-20.
    The second article of the “Naming game…” series provides detailed information on the discovery and naming of elements in the nineteenth century. Outlines of discoveries of 46 elements were presented, with particular emphasis on publications in which the name appeared for the first time. In the article the short historical information about every element naming is presented. The process of naming each chemical element was analyzed, with particular emphasis on the first publication with a given name.
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  5. Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements—part 3—rivalry of scientists in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.Paweł Miśkowiec - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-17.
    The third article of the “Naming game…” series presents the issues of naming elements discovered and synthesized in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Based on the source data, the publication time of the names of the last 35 chemical elements was identified. In the case of discoveries from the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century, the principle was adopted of the priority of information about the synthesis of a new chemical element in scientific journals (...)
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  6. A commentary on Weisberg’s critique of the ‘structural conception’ of chemical bonding.Eric R. Scerri - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-12.
    Robin Hendry has presented an account of two equally valid ways of understanding the nature of chemical bonding, consisting of what the terms the structural and the energetic views respectively. In response, Weisberg has issued a “challenge to the structural view”, thus implying that the energetic view is the more correct of the two conceptions. In doing so Weisberg identifies the delocalization of electrons as the one robust feature that underlies the increasingly accurate quantum mechanical calculations starting with the Heitler-London (...)
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  7. Interview with Olimpia Lombardi.Eric R. Scerri - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-17.
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  8. From complexity to systems.Hrvoj Vančik - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-14.
    The interrelation between two theories, theory of complexity and theory of systems, is analyzed by using the chemical graph-theoretical concept. The idea of complexity is systemized through three components: diachronic, synchronic, and combinatorial complexity. The relationships between entropy and complexity, as well as the problem of function are also discussed.
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  9. Correction to: A process ontology approach in biochemistry: the case of GPCRs and biosignaling.Fiorela Alassia - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-18.
    According to process ontology in the philosophy of biology, the living world is better understood as processes rather than as substantial individuals. Within this perspective, an organism does not consist of a hierarchy of structures like a machine, but rather a dynamic hierarchy of processes, dynamically maintained and stabilized at different time scales. With this respect, two processual approaches on enzymes by Stein (Hyle Int J Philos Chem 10(4):5–22, 2004, Process Stud 34:62–80, 2005, Found Chem 8:3–29, 2006) and by Guttinger (...)
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  10. Correction to: Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements—part 1—from antiquity till the end of 18th century. [REVIEW]Paweł Miśkowiec - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-3.
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  11. Correction: Book review of Paul Sen’s, “Einstein’s Fridge. How the difference between hot and cold explains the universe” ISBN: 978-1-5011-8130-6. [REVIEW]Robert T. Hanlon - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-1.
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  12. Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements—part 1—from antiquity till the end of 18th century.Paweł Miśkowiec - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-23.
    The aim of the series of the three articles entitled “Name game…” is to present the historical information about nomenclature history of every known chemical element. The process of naming each chemical element is analyzed, with particular emphasis on the first publication with a given name. It turned out that in many cases this information is not obvious and unambiguous, and the published data are even contradictory. In a few cases, the names of the elements were changed even several times. (...)
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  13. A case for the engagement between the sciences and the humanities. Jay A. Labinger’s: Connecting Literature and Science. New York: Routledge, 2022. [REVIEW]Jeffrey I. Seeman - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (3):363-373.
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  14. A process ontology approach in biochemistry: the case of GPCRs and biosignaling.Fiorela Alassia - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (3):405-422.
    According to process ontology in the philosophy of biology, the living world is better understood as processes rather than as substantial individuals. Within this perspective, an organism does not consist of a hierarchy of structures like a machine, but rather a dynamic hierarchy of processes, dynamically maintained and stabilized at different time scales. With this respect, two processual approaches on enzymes by Stein (Hyle Int J Philos Chem 10(4):5–22, 2004, Process Stud 34:62–80, 2005, Found Chem 8:3–29, 2006) and by Guttinger (...)
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  15. Prospective sustainable agriculture principles inspired by green chemistry.Praveen Kumar Sharma - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (3):359-362.
    In present day’s sustainable agriculture is relatively a new area which required more attention by scientist/researchers and this one treated as basic need of human survival. In past decades, sustainable agriculture meets environmental and economic goals simultaneously, that’s why this field has received widespread interest. Green Chemistry is described as the ‘‘design of chemical products and processes to eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry mainly based on 12 principles and plays a very important role (...)
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  16. Robert Boyle and the relational and dispositional nature of chemical properties.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (3):423-431.
    This paper establishes that Robert Boyle’s complex chemical ontology implies a non-reductionistic conception of chemical qualities and, more specifically, a conception of chemical qualities as being dispositional and relational. Though Peter Anstey has already shown that that Boyle considered sensible qualities to be dispositional and relational, this moves beyond Anstey’s work by extending his arguments to chemical properties. These arguments are, however, merely a first step in establishing a non-reductionistic interpretation of Boyle’s chemical ontology. A further argument will show that (...)
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  17. Hints for a formal language inspired by Lewis structures.Savino Longo - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (3):315-330.
    Summary In this work we elaborate on the idea of a formal theory for a limited but important part of structural chemistry, that described by Lewis’ methods and VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion). For this purpose, recursive functions and propositional functions are defined, that apply to formal expressions of the structure, based on a finite set of symbols. This approach allows for the expression of numerous questions of chemical interest. The formalization of basic structural chemistry based on Lewis/VSEPR method (...)
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  18. Chemical reactivity: cause-effect or interaction?Alfio Zambon - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (3):375-387.
    From the perspective of successive events, chemical reactions are expressed or thought about, in terms of the cause-effect category. In this work, I will firstly discuss some aspects of causation and interaction in chemistry, argue for the interaction, and propose an alternative or complementary representation scheme called “interaction diagram”, that allows representing chemical reactions through a geometric diagram. The understanding of this diagram facilitates the analysis of reactions in terms of the interaction, or reciprocal action, among the participating entities. Secondly, (...)
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  19. Electronegativity provides the relationship between formal charge, oxidation state, and actual charge.Balakrishnan Viswanathan & M. Shajahan Gulam Razul - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-24.
    Formal charge and oxidation state are two means of estimating the charge of an atom in a molecule. Though these concepts have very different origins—formal charge is derived from the ball-and-hook model of bonding and oxidation state is based on the ionic approximation of molecules—they are used to predict reactivity and other molecular properties through their properties as charges. In this submission, it is shown that formal charge and oxidation state are two extreme descriptions of bonding: formal charge represents zero (...)
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  20. Foundations of chemistry book review – Dr. Robert T. Hanlon.Robert T. Hanlon - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-2.
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  21. Models, languages and representations: philosophical reflections driven from a research on teaching and learning about cellular respiration.Martín Pérgola & Lydia Galagovsky - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-16.
    Mental model construction is supposed to be a useful cognitive devise for learning. Beyond human capacity of constructing mental models, scientists construct complex explanations about phenomena, named scientific or theoretical models. In this work we revisit three vissions: the first one concern about the polisemic term “model”. Our proposal is to discriminate between “mental models” and “explicit models”, being the former those “imaginistic” ideas constructed in scientists’—o teachers—minds, and the latter those teaching devices expressed in different languages that tend to (...)
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  22. Periodic tables for cations + 1, + 2, + 3 and anions − 1. Quantitative characteristics for manifestations of internal periodicity and kainosymmetry. [REVIEW]Naum S. Imyanitov - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):189-219.
    This paper describes the construction of the Periodic Tables for cations of all elements with charges + 1, + 2, + 3 and anions with charge − 1. The Table for cations+1 differs significantly from other newly constructed Tables and from known Tables, as the d- and f-blocks are inserted into s-block and split it up for two parts. Importantly, a new type of 3d- and 4f-shell contractions has been discovered. The manifestations of secondary periodicity in case of anions is (...)
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  23. Disparities and conceptual connections regarding the concept of substance in general chemistry textbook glossaries.Larissa Moreira Ferreira, Jean Pscheidt Weiss & Marcelo Lambach - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):171-187.
    The concept of substance is considered fundamental in order to understand chemistry and other related concepts, but many problems have been reported about its learning process. Considering the importance of textbooks in the training of chemistry teachers, this study aimed to identify the concepts of substance in general chemistry textbook glossaries. In addition, the study assessed the concepts of substance in relation to other chemical concepts and, when available, compared them with the concepts established by the IUPAC. The methodology employed (...)
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  24. The case of Zinjafr in the medical and mineralogical texts of medieval Persia: a puzzle created in the absence of the concept of chemical elements.Nazila Farmani Anooshe & Aliyar Mousavi - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):277-284.
    An examination of some of the writings in the medical and mineralogical texts of Persia in the Middle Ages, written in the Arabic language during the caliphate period, revealed an inconsistency concerning the modern chemical identity of the substance called zinjafr, which was recognized as a medication for wounds, burns, mange, and cavities. Although some of the literature identified it as the important ore cinnabar sulfide), some questioned that identification or even ambiguously described it as a substance produced from lead. (...)
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  25. Improving student success in chemistry through cognitive science.JudithAnn R. Hartman, Eric A. Nelson & Paul A. Kirschner - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):239-261.
    Chemistry educator Alex H. Johnstone is perhaps best known for his insight that chemistry is best explained using macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic perspectives. But in his writings, he stressed a broader thesis, namely that teaching should be guided by scientific research on how the brain learns: cognitive science. Since Johnstone’s retirement, science’s understanding of learning has progressed rapidly. A surprising discovery has been when solving chemistry problems of any complexity, reasoning does not work: students must apply very-well-memorized facts and algorithms. (...)
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  26. In praise of triads.Eric R. Scerri - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):285-300.
    The article begins with a response to a recent contribution by Jensen, in which he has criticized several aspects of the use of triads of elements, including Döbereiner’s original introduction of the concept and the modern use of atomic number triads by some authors including myself. Such triads are groups of three elements, one of which has approximately the average atomic weight of the other two elements, as well as having intermediate chemical reactivity. I also examine Jensen’s attempted reconstruction Mendeleev’s (...)
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  27. Plato on chemistry.Ernesto Paparazzo - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (2):221-238.
    It is a notion commonly acknowledged that in his work Timaeus the Athenian philosopher Plato (_c_. 429–347 BC) laid down an early chemical theory of the creation, structure and phenomena of the universe. There is much truth in this acknowledgement because Plato’s “chemistry” gives a description of the material world in mathematical terms, an approach that marks an outstanding advancement over cosmologic doctrines put forward by his predecessors, and which was very influential on western culture for many centuries. In the (...)
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  28. Philosophical grounds for designing invisible molecules.Hirofumi Ochiai - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-9.
    ‘Structure’ is the term whose proper use is exemplified by an expression like ‘the structure of a diesel-engine,’ in which what is referred to is accessible to immediate observation. It is also used figuratively like ‘social structure.’ While unobservable, what is referred to is empirically accessible. By contrast, molecules are neither observable nor empirically accessible. What philosophical grounds enable us to design invisible structure of molecules? Our cognition of objects becomes realized as phenomena when objects are given to our phenomenal (...)
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  29. On the nature of quantum-chemical entities: the case of electron density.Jesus Alberto Jaimes Arriaga - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-13.
    An Aristotelian philosophy of nature offers an alternative to reduction for the conception of the inter-theoretical relationships between molecular chemistry and quantum mechanics. A basic ingredient for such an approach is an ontology of fundamental causal powers, and this work aims to develop such an ontology by drawing on quantum-chemical entities, particularly, the electron density. This notion is central to the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, a theory of molecular structure developed by Richard F. W. Bader, which describes molecules (...)
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  30. Knowledge building in chemistry education.Margaret A. L. Blackie - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):97-111.
    Teaching chemistry remains a profoundly challenging activity. This paper arises from reflection on the challenges of creating meaningful assessments. Herein a simple framework to assist in making more visible the different kinds of knowledge required for mastery of chemistry is described. Building from a realist foundation the purpose of this paper is to lay the intellectual scaffolding for the framework. By situating the framework theoretically, it is intended to highlight the value of engaging with philosophy for the project of knowledge (...)
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  31. Ogawa’s nipponium and its re-assignment to rhenium.Yoji Hisamatsu, Kazuhiro Egashira & Yoshiteru Maeno - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):15-57.
    We re-examine the history of the element “nipponium” discovered by a Japanese chemist Masataka Ogawa in 1908. Since 1996 H.K. Yoshihara has made extensive research into Ogawa’s work and revealed evidence that nipponium proposed for the place of the atomic number of 43 was actually rhenium. In this paper, we provide critical re-interpretations of the existing information and confirmed that Ogawa left indisputable evidence that nipponium was in fact rhenium. We further discuss the reasons for the existing doubts and criticism (...)
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  32. Density functional theory, chemical reactivity, and the Fukui functions.R. Pucci & G. G. N. Angilella - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):59-71.
    We review the early works which were precursors of the Conceptual Density Functional Theory. Starting from Thomas–Fermi approximation and from the exact formulation of Density Functional Theory by Hohenberg and Kohn’s theorem, we will introduce electronegativity and the theory of hard and soft acids and bases. We will also present a general introduction to the Fukui functions, and their relation with nucleophilicity and electrophilicity, with an emphasis towards the importance of these concepts for chemical reactivity.
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  33. Special theory of relativity in chemistry.Nenad Raos - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):87-95.
    Application of Einstein special theory of relativity in chemistry seems to be superfluous; energies are too low. The average velocity of electron in hydrogen atom is 1/135 c, making its actual mass only 26,6 ppm bigger than the rest mass. However, for heavier elements relativistic effects have to be taken into account and, more, many phenomena cannot be explained without ascribing new mass to electrons, in accordance with Einstein theory. In this paper such phenomena are described: color of metallic gold (...)
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  34. Interview with Eric Scerri.Edit Talpsepp - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):143-153.
    Eric Scerri is the world-leading expert on Periodic Table and was quite recently named the second-most influential academic in the field of chemistry over the last decade by Academic Influence. In this interview we discuss his main questions of interest in the philosophy of chemistry—the question of reduction of chemistry to physics and the dual sense of chemical element—in the context of his main study object, the periodic table of elements. Among other things, we touch upon the more specific issues (...)
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  35. Brick by brick: The historical and theoretical foundations of thermodynamics Robert T. Hanlon Oxford University Press, Oxford 2020 pp xx + 646.Peter Atkins - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):155-157.
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  36. Chemistry: progress since 1860—reflections on chemistry and chemistry education triggered by reading Muspratt’s Chemistry.Alan Goodwin - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):121-142.
    This paper was inspired by the author’s fortunate acquisition of a copy of an original copy of “Muspratt’s Chemistry” that was published in 1860. This raised, for the author, interesting and significant issues regarding the chemistry content and its presentation in the context of chemistry and education today. The paper is presented in two parts: Part 1 explores the content, structure and gives reactions to and insights into the original publication, whereas Part 2 provides a focus on the developments in (...)
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  37. Orthogonality properties of states, configurations, and orbitals.Balakrishnan Viswanathan & Mohamed Shajahan Gulam Razul - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):73-86.
    This manuscript explores the orthogonality constraints on configurations and orbitals subject to the property that states are mutually orthogonal. The orthogonality constraints lead to properties that affect the description of chemical systems. When states are described as linear combinations of configurations, the coefficient matrix diagonalises S−1H. Therefore, single-configuration states are only possible in one-electron systems: non-orthogonal configurations yield single-configuration states only if S−1H is diagonal, but this would violate the orthonormalisation constraint. Further, the coefficient matrix is not constrained to be (...)
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  38. Editorial 70.Eric Scerri - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):1-2.
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  39. Understanding entropy.Peter G. Nelson - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 24 (1):3-13.
    A new way of understanding entropy as a macroscopic property is presented. This is based on the fact that heat flows from a hot body to a cold one even when the hot one is smaller and has less energy. A quantity that determines the direction of flow is shown to be the increment of heat gained divided by the absolute temperature. The same quantity is shown to determine the direction of other processes taking place in isolated systems provided that (...)
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  40. Faith, War, and Violence: Religion & Public Life.Gabriel R. Ricci - 2014 - Routledge.
    Faith, War, and Violence analyzes the age-old links between religion and violence perpetrated in the name of God, and the role religion performs in politically infusing the state with romantic spiritualism. The volume examines instances of this phenomenon from ancient Rome to the modern day; it finds that religion-inspired violence is not restricted to Abrahamic faiths or to one geographic region. The fact that symbolically charged religious violence has destructive consequences is not lost on contributors to Faith, War, and Violence. (...)
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  41. The Logic of Life.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2008 - Science and Scientist.
    Modern science generally assumes that the same laws of logic apply to mechanical, chemical and biological entities alike because they are all ultimately material objects. This may seem to be so obvious that there would be no need to validate it -- experimentally or logically. In this article we would like to critically examine this assumption and show that from an experiential/observational level, as well as from a rational/logical level, it is not valid. This becomes apparent, for instance, when we (...)
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  42. Scerri and Fisher's Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry. [REVIEW]Julia Bursten - 2017 - BJPS Review of Books.
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  43. Fondation et explication : la chimie à l'épreuve des lois métaphysiques.Gabriel Veilleux - 2021 - Ithaque 28:81-95.
    Dans son article The Ground between the Gaps, Jonathan Shaffer développe une conception de l'explication métaphysique impliquant les notions de fondation et de loi métaphysique. Je soutiens ici qu'une telle conception se révèle inadéquate pour saisir les explications métaphysiques courantes des sciences empiriques. Ma démarche consiste à appliquer le cadre théorique de Schaffer à certains types d'explication de la chimie. Bien qu'il soit possible de dégager des lois métaphysiques en chimie, une codification de celles-ci se révèle toutefois impossible. Il y (...)
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  44. Conceptual polymorphism of entropy into the history: extensions of the second law of thermodynamics towards statistical physics and chemistry during nineteenth–twentieth centuries.Raffaele Pisano, Emilio Marco Pellegrino, Abdelkader Anakkar & Maxime Nagels - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):337-378.
    After the birth of thermodynamics’ second principle—outlined in Carnot's Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu —several studies provided new arguments in the field. Mainly, they concerned the thermodynamics’ first principle—including energy conceptualisation—, the analytical aspects of the heat propagation, the statistical aspects of the mechanical theory of heat. In other words, the second half of nineteenth century was marked by an intense interdisciplinary research activity between physics and chemistry: new disciplines applied to the heat developed in the form of (...)
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  45. Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi, eds: What is an element? A collection of essays by chemists, philosophers, historians, and educators : Oxford University Press, 2020, $99.Peter J. Ramberg - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):465-473.
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  46. Making sense of a pedagogic text: Review of Reid, N., & Ali, A. A. (2020). Making Sense of Learning: A research based approach. Evidence to guide policy and practice, with an emphasis on secondary stages. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Softcover, ISBN 978-3-030-53676-3, £74.99. 1st ed. 2020, XXI, 496 p.Keith S. Taber - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):433-457.
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  47. Is the problem of molecular structure just the quantum measurement problem?Sebastian Fortin & Olimpia Lombardi - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):379-395.
    In a recent article entitled “The problem of molecular structure just is the measurement problem”, Alexander Franklin and Vanessa Seifert argue that insofar as the quantum measurement problem is solved, the problems of molecular structure are resolved as well. The purpose of the present article is to show that such a claim is too optimistic. Although the solution of the quantum measurement problem is relevant to how the problem of molecular structure is faced, such a solution is not sufficient to (...)
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  48. What is an organic substance?Lee J. Silverberg - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):329-336.
    No exact definition of an “organic” substance has been agreed upon by the chemical community and textbook definitions vary substantially. The question of what exactly constitutes an “organic” substance is explored in this paper. Various carbon-containing substances that have been by some considered to be “inorganic” are examined in an attempt to ascertain whether carbon in these compounds display different chemical behavior than what is expected of carbon in an “organic” substance. Types of substances considered are carbon allotropes, carbides, carbonates (...)
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  49. A simple treatment of chemical equilibrium.Peter G. Nelson - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):397-405.
    A simple treatment of chemical equilibrium is given, based on Boltzmann’s distribution law. The results are compared with those obtained by using thermodynamics.
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  50. A brief comment on ‘Mendeleyev Revisited’ by Marks & Marks.Vladimir M. Petruševski - 2021 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (3):431-432.
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