Journal of Business Ethics 179 (3):711-731 (2022)

Abstract
Firms in controversial industries such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, weapon, and nuclear power suffer organizational legitimacy problems. These firms, therefore, adopt various strategies to acquire legitimacy. Drawing on institutional theory, we conceptualize the top management team gender diversity as a legitimacy-seeking strategy and examines how a firm’s belonging to a controversial sector affects TMT gender diversity. Based on a cross-country sample of 1542 firms operating in controversial industries from 34 countries and control sample with another set of 1542 similar-sized firms from non-controversial industries, the empirical evidence shows that belonging to a controversial industry exerts a positive impact on TMT gender diversity. The effect of industry belonging on TMT gender diversity is positively moderated by institutional gender parity and a low level of corruption. It indicates that institutional factors act as emancipative forces that foster women's empowerment. Taken together, our results for moderating variables highlight the role of institutional characteristics in supporting women empowerment initiatives.
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DOI 10.1007/s10551-021-04849-6
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Doing Well While Doing Bad? CSR in Controversial Industry Sectors.Ye Cai, Hoje Jo & Carrie Pan - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):467 - 480.

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Doing Well While Doing Bad? CSR in Controversial Industry Sectors.Ye Cai, Hoje Jo & Carrie Pan - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):467 - 480.
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