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  1. Corporate philanthropic disaster response and ownership type: Evidence from chinese firms' response to the sichuan earthquake. [REVIEW]Ran Zhang, Zabihollah Rezaee & Jigao Zhu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):51 - 63.
    This article examines whether the charitable giving amount and likelihood of firm response to catastrophic events relate to firms' ownership type using a unique dataset of listed firms in China, where state ownership is still prevalent. Based on the data of Chinese firms' response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that the extent of corporate contributions for state-owned firms following this disaster is less than that for private firms. State-owned firms are also less likely to respond in this disaster (...)
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  • Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response and Ownership Type: Evidence from Chinese Firms’ Response to the Sichuan Earthquake.Ran Zhang, Zabihollah Rezaee & Jigao Zhu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):51-63.
    This article examines whether the charitable giving amount and likelihood of firm response to catastrophic events relate to firms’ ownership type using a unique dataset of listed firms in China, where state ownership is still prevalent. Based on the data of Chinese firms’ response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that the extent of corporate contributions for state-owned firms following this disaster is less than that for private firms. State-owned firms are also less likely to respond in␣this disaster compared (...)
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  • Can an Industry Be Socially Responsible If Its Products Harm Consumers? The Case of Online Gambling.Mirella Yani-de-Soriano, Uzma Javed & Shumaila Yousafzai - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (4):481-497.
    Online gambling companies claim that they are ethical providers. They seem committed to corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices that are aimed at preventing or minimising the harm associated with their activities. Our empirical research employed a sample of 209 university student online gamblers, who took part in an online survey. Our findings suggest that the extent of online problem gambling is substantial and that it adversely impacts on the gambler's mental and physical health, social relationships and academic performance. Online problem (...)
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  • Female Presence on Corporate Boards: A Multi-Country Study of Environmental Context.Siri Terjesen & Val Singh - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1):55-63.
    A growing body of ethics research investigates gender diversity and governance on corporate boards, at individual and firm levels, in single country studies. In this study, we explore the environmental context of female representation on corporate boards of directors, using data from 43 countries. We suggest that women's representation on corporate boards may be shaped by the larger environment, including the social, political and economic structures of individual countries. We use logit regression to conduct our analysis. Our results indicate that (...)
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  • Are women more ethical than men?Andrew Sikula & Adelmiro D. Costa - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (11):859 - 871.
  • The relationship of board member diversity to organizational performance.Julie I. Siciliano - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (12):1313 - 1320.
    Wider diversity in board member characteristics has been advocated as a means of improving organizational performance by providing boards with new insights and perspectives. With data from 240 YMCA organizations, a board diversity index was constructed and compared to multiple measures of board member diversity. Results revealed higher levels of social performance and fundraising results when board members had greater occupational diversity. Gender diversity compared favorably to the organization's level of social performance but a negative association surfaced for level of (...)
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  • Multinational Corporations and the Competition for Media Influence in Developing Countries.Mike Sibley & Gina Nadas - 2006 - Business and Society Review 111 (1):55-66.
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  • Do Environmental CSR Initiatives Serve Organizations' Legitimacy in the Oil Industry? Exploring Employees' Reactions Through Organizational Identification Theory.Kenneth Roeck & Nathalie Delobbe - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (4):397-412.
    Little is known about employees' responses to their organizations' initiatives in corporate social responsibility (CSR). Academics have already identified a few outcomes regarding CSR's impact on employees' attitudes and behaviours; however, studies explaining the underlying mechanisms that drive employees' favourable responses to CSR remain largely unexplored. Based on organizational identification (OI) theory, this study surveyed 155 employees of a petrochemical organization to better elucidate why, how and under which circumstances employees might positively respond to organizations' CSR initiatives in the controversial (...)
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  • Corporate Responses to Shareholder Activists: Considering the Dialogue Alternative.Kathleen Rehbein, Jeanne M. Logsdon & Harry J. Van Buren - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):137-154.
    This empirical study examines corporate responses to activist shareholder groups filing social-policy shareholder resolutions. Using resource dependency theory as our conceptual framing, we identify some of the drivers of corporate responses to shareholder activists. This study departs from previous studies by including a fourth possible corporate response, engaging in dialogue. Dialogue, an alternative to shareholder resolutions filed by activists, is a process in which corporations and activist shareholder groups mutually agree to engage in ongoing negotiations to deal with social issues. (...)
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  • Legitimacy-Seeking Organizational Strategies in Controversial Industries: A Case Study Analysis and a Bidimensional Model.Jon Reast, François Maon, Adam Lindgreen & Joëlle Vanhamme - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (1):139-153.
    Controversial industry sectors, such as alcohol, gambling, and tobacco, though long-established, suffer organizational legitimacy problems. The authors consider various strategies used to seek organizational legitimacy in the U.K. casino gambling market. The findings are based on a detailed, multistakeholder case study pertaining to a failed bid for a regional supercasino. They suggest four generic strategies for seeking organizational legitimacy in this highly complex context: construing, earning, bargaining, and capturing, as well as pathways that combine these strategies. The case analysis and (...)
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  • Can Sinful Firms Benefit from Advertising Their CSR Efforts? Adverse Effect of Advertising Sinful Firms’ CSR Engagements on Firm Performance.Sang-Joon Kim, John Bae & Hannah Oh - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (4):643-663.
    This study investigates corporate social responsibility of sinful firms, which refer to ones that are operating in controversial industries, including the production and distribution of alcohol, tobacco, gambling, adult entertainment, firearm, military, and nuclear power. We attempt to answer two questions in this study: Do these sinful firms actively advertise their CSR engagements compared to non-sinful firms? And do their advertising efforts really yield increased financial performance? Positing that advertising not only can make sinful firms’ good deeds visible, but also (...)
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  • Beyond Legitimacy: A Case Study in BP’s “Green Lashing”.Sabine Matejek & Tobias Gössling - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (4):571-584.
    This paper discusses the issue of legitimacy and, in particular the processes of building, losing, and repairing environmental legitimacy in the context of the Deepwater Horizon case. Following the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe in 2010, BP plc. was accused of having set new records in the degree of divergence between its actual operations and what it had been communicating with regard to corporate responsibility. Its legitimacy crisis is here to be appraised as a case study in the discrepancy between symbolic and (...)
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  • Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Controversial Industry Sectors: The Social Value of Harm Minimisation. [REVIEW]Margaret Lindorff, Elizabeth Prior Jonson & Linda McGuire - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (4):457-467.
    This paper examines how it is possible for firms in controversial sectors, which are often marked by social taboos and moral debates, to act in socially responsible ways, and whether a firm can be socially responsible if it produces products harmful to society or individuals. It contends that a utilitarian justification can be used to support the legal and regulated provision of goods and services in these areas, and the regulated and legal provision of these areas produces less harm than (...)
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  • The Corporate Board Glass Ceiling: The Role of Empowerment and Culture in Shaping Board Gender Diversity.Krista B. Lewellyn & Maureen I. Muller-Kahle - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 165 (2):329-346.
    In this study, we use a mixed methods research design to investigate how national cultural forces may impede or enhance the positive impact of females’ economic and political empowerment on increasing gender diversity of corporate boards. Using both a longitudinal correlation-based methodology and a configurational approach with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we integrate theoretical mechanisms from gender schema and institutional theories to develop a mid-range theory about how female empowerment and national culture shape gender diversity on corporate boards around the (...)
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  • Contesting a Place in the Sun: On Ideologies in Foreign Markets and Liabilities of Origin.Ans Kolk & Louise Curran - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (4):697-717.
    This paper explores the role of ideology in attempts to influence public policy and in business representation in the EU–China solar panel anti-dumping dispute. It exposes the dynamics of international activity by emerging-economy multinationals, in this case from China, and their interactions in a developed-country context. Theoretically, the study also sheds light on the recent notion of ‘liability of origin’, in addition to the traditional concept of ‘liability of foreignness’ explored in international business research, in relation to firms’ market and (...)
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  • Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Performance: What Exactly Constitutes a “Critical Mass?”.Jasmin Joecks, Kerstin Pull & Karin Vetter - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (1):61-72.
    The under-representation of women on boards is a heavily discussed topic—not only in Germany. Based on critical mass theory and with the help of a hand-collected panel dataset of 151 listed German firms for the years 2000–2005, we explore whether the link between gender diversity and firm performance follows a U-shape. Controlling for reversed causality, we find evidence for gender diversity to at first negatively affect firm performance and—only after a “critical mass” of about 30 % women has been reached—to (...)
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  • Does CSR Reduce Firm Risk? Evidence from Controversial Industry Sectors.Hoje Jo & Haejung Na - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (4):441-456.
    In this paper, we examine the relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm risk in controversial industry sectors. We develop and test two competing hypotheses of risk reduction and window dressing. Employing an extensive U.S. sample during the 1991-2010 period from controversial industry firms, such as alcohol, tobacco, gambling, and others, we find that CSR engagement inversely affects firm risk after controlling for various firm characteristics. To deal with endogeneity issue, we adopt a system equation approach and difference regressions (...)
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  • Managers' Attitudes Toward Codes of Ethics: Are There Gender Differences?Nabil Ibrahim, John Angelidis & Igor M. Tomic - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S3):343 - 353.
    This article extends previous research by investigating the basis for attitudes toward codes of ethics. Specifically, its purposes are threefold. First, to examine business managers' attitudes toward codes of ethics. Second, to ascertain whether gender differences do exist with respect to these attitudes. Third, to provide a benchmark for future studies of attitudes toward codes of ethics. A survey of 286 managers revealed significant differences between the female and male managers with respect to six of the eight variables studied.
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  • Managers’ Attitudes Toward Codes of Ethics: Are There Gender Differences?Nabil Ibrahim, John Angelidis & Igor M. Tomic - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S3):343-353.
    This article extends previous research by investigating the basis for attitudes toward codes of ethics. Specifically, its purposes are threefold. First, to examine business managers' attitudes toward codes of ethics. Second, to ascertain whether gender differences do exist with respect to these attitudes. Third, to provide a benchmark for future studies of attitudes toward codes of ethics. A survey of 286 managers revealed significant differences between the female and male managers with respect to six of the eight variables studied.
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  • The Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility: Techniques of Neutralization, Stakeholder Management and Political CSR. [REVIEW]Gary Fooks, Anna Gilmore, Jeff Collin, Chris Holden & Kelley Lee - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (2):283-299.
    Since scholarly interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has primarily focused on the synergies between social and economic performance, our understanding of how (and the conditions under which) companies use CSR to produce policy outcomes that work against public welfare has remained comparatively underdeveloped. In particular, little is known about how corporate decision-makers privately reconcile the conflicts between public and private interests, even though this is likely to be relevant to understanding the limitations of CSR as a means of aligning (...)
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  • Do environmental CSR initiatives serve organizations' legitimacy in the oil industry? Exploring employees' reactions through organizational identification theory.Kenneth De Roeck & Nathalie Delobbe - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (4):397-412.
    Little is known about employees’ responses to their organizations’ initiatives in corporate social responsibility (CSR). Academics have already identified a few outcomes regarding CSR’s impact on employees’ attitudes and behaviours; however, studies explaining the underlying mechanisms that drive employees’ favourable responses to CSR remain largely unexplored. Based on organizational identification (OI) theory, this study surveyed 155 employees of a petrochemical organization to better elucidate why, how and under which circumstances employees might positively respond to organizations’ CSR initiatives in the controversial (...)
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  • The Normativity and Legitimacy of CSR Disclosure: Evidence from France.Jean-Noël Chauvey, Sophie Giordano-Spring, Charles H. Cho & Dennis M. Patten - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (4):789-803.
    In 2001, France became one of the few countries to require corporate social responsibility reporting through its Nouvelles Régulations Économiques #2001-420. However, initial compliance with the statute was low, a factor implying the law lacked normativity. In this exploratory study, we attempt to determine whether there is movement toward normativity by examining the change in CSR disclosure from 2004 in comparison to 2010 for a sample of 81 publicly traded French firms. We measure both the space and the quality of (...)
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  • Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Financial Performance.Kevin Campbell & Antonio Mínguez-Vera - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):435-451.
    The monitoring role performed by the board of directors is an important corporate governance control mechanism, especially in countries where external mechanisms are less well developed. The gender composition of the board can affect the quality of this monitoring role and thus the financial performance of the firm. This is part of the “business case” for female participation on boards, though arguments may also be framed in terms of ethical considerations. While the issue of board gender diversity has attracted growing (...)
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  • Doing Well While Doing Bad? CSR in Controversial Industry Sectors.Ye Cai, Hoje Jo & Carrie Pan - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):467 - 480.
    In this article, we examine the empirical association between firm value and CSR engagement for firms in sinful industries, such as tobacco, gambling, and alcohol, as well as industries involved with emerging environmental, social, or ethical issues, i.e., weapon, oil, cement, and biotech. We develop and test three hypotheses, the window-dressing hypothesis, the value-enhancement hypothesis, and the value-irrelevance hypothesis. Using an extesive US sample from 1995 to 2009, we find that CSR engagement of firms in controversial industries positively affects firm (...)
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  • Empowering Women: The Role of Emancipative Forces in Board Gender Diversity.Steven A. Brieger, Claude Francoeur, Christian Welzel & Walid Ben-Amar - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (2):495-511.
    This study investigates the effect of country-level emancipative forces on corporate gender diversity around the world. Based on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we develop an emancipatory framework of board gender diversity that explains how action resources, emancipative values and civic entitlements enable, motivate and encourage women to take leadership roles on corporate boards. Using a sample of 6390 firms operating in 30 countries around the world, our results show positive single and combined effects of the framework components on board gender (...)
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  • Hidden Connections: The Link Between Board Gender Diversity and Corporate Social Performance. [REVIEW]Ioanna Boulouta - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):185-197.
    This study examines whether and how female board directors may affect corporate social performance (CSP) by drawing on social role theory and feminist ethics literature. The empirical analysis, based on a sample of 126 firms drawn from the S&P500 group of companies over a 5-year period, suggests that board gender diversity (BGD) significantly affects CSP. However, this impact depends on the social performance metric under investigation. In particular, more gender diverse boards exert stronger influence on CSP metrics focusing on ‘negative’ (...)
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  • Using Discourse to Restore Organisational Legitimacy: 'CEO-speak' After an Incident in a German Nuclear Power Plant. [REVIEW]Annika Beelitz & Doris M. Merkl-Davies - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (1):101-120.
    We analyse managerial discourse in corporate communication (‘CEO-speak’) during a 6-month period following a legitimacy-threatening event in the form of an incident in a German nuclear power plant. As discourses express specific stances expressed by a group of people who share particular beliefs and values, they constitute an important means of restoring organisational legitimacy when social rules and norms have been violated. Using an analytical framework based on legitimacy as a process of reciprocal sense-making and consisting of three levels of (...)
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  • Seeking Legitimacy Through CSR: Institutional Pressures and Corporate Responses of Multinationals in Sri Lanka.Eshani Beddewela & Jenny Fairbrass - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (3):503-522.
    Arguably, the corporate social responsibility practices of multinational enterprises are influenced by a wide range of both internal and external factors. Perhaps, most critical among the exogenous forces operating on MNEs are those exerted by state and other key institutional actors in host countries. Crucially, academic research conducted to date offers little data about how MNEs use their CSR activities to strategically manage their relationship with those actors in order to gain legitimisation advantages in host countries. This paper addresses that (...)
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  • Explicating Ethical Corporate Marketing. Insights from the BP Deepwater Horizon Catastrophe: The Ethical Brand that Exploded and then Imploded. [REVIEW]John M. T. Balmer, Shaun M. Powell & Stephen A. Greyser - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):1-14.
    Ethical corporate marketing—as an organisational-wide philosophy—transcends the domains of corporate social responsibility, business ethics, stakeholder theory and corporate marketing. This being said, ethical corporate marketing represents a logical development vis-a-vis the nascent domain of corporate marketing has an explicit ethical/CSR dimension and extends stakeholder theory by taking account of an institution’s past, present and (prospective) future stakeholders. In our article, we discuss, scrutinise and elaborate the notion of ethical corporate marketing. We argue that an ethical corporate marketing positioning is a (...)
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  • Be bad but look good: Can controversial industries enhance corporate reputation through CSR initiatives?Claudio Aqueveque, Pablo Rodrigo & Ignacio J. Duran - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (3):222-237.
    Even though the link between perceived corporate social responsibility fit and corporate reputation has received much attention from scholars, this tradition has ignored that the underpinnings of this association vary depending on the particular characteristics of each industry under study. To delve into this matter, we investigate in the increasingly relevant context of controversial industries how PCSR-fit could enhance corporate reputation and which are the mediating mechanisms of this association. Our academic contribution is twofold. First, we find that controversial sectors (...)
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  • Are Women More Ethical than Men?Sr Andrew Sikula & Adelmiro D. Costa - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (11):859-871.
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  • Citizenship: Feminist Perspectives.Ruth Lister - 2003 - Red Globe Press.
    The second edition of this classic text substantially revises and extends the original, so as to take account of theoretical and policy developments and to enhance its international scope. Drawing on a range of disciplines and literatures, the book provides an unusually broad account of citizenship. It recasts traditional thinking about the concept so as to pinpoint important theoretical issues and their political and policy implications for women in their diversity. Themes of inclusion and exclusion (at national and international level), (...)
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